Article

Procrastination and the Priority of Short-Term Mood Regulation: Consequences for Future Self

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Procrastination is a common and pervasive problem associated with a range of negative outcomes across a variety of life domains that often occurs when people are faced with tasks that are seen as aversive. In this paper, we argue that as a form of self-regulation failure, procrastination has a great deal to do with short-term mood repair and emotion regulation. Moreover, we contend that a temporal understanding of self and the mood-regulating processes involved in goal pursuit is particularly important in understanding procrastination, because the consequences of procrastination are typically borne by the future self. After summarizing the research on the priority of short-term mood regulation in procrastination, we then draw the connection between the focus on short-term mood repair and the temporal disjunction between present and future selves. We present research that exemplifies these intra-personal processes in understanding temporal notions of self characterized by procrastination, and then link these processes to the negative consequences of procrastination for health and well-being. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for future research to provide further insights into how temporal views of the self are linked to the dynamics of mood regulation over time in the context of procrastination.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... It is common for individuals to postpone their work in some periods of their lives thinking that they can be done later. Procrastination can lead to suspend or completely stop a task (Milgram, Mey-Tal & Levison, 1998;Pychyl, Morin & Salmon, 2000;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Regardless of age, procrastination of a task can negatively affect belief in starting a new task. ...
... It is inevitable to experience health problems due to variables that negatively affect wellbeing such as stress and anxiety created by the accumulated tasks and responsibilities as a result of procrastination behaviors (Ellis and Knaus, 1977;Ferrari and Beck, 1998;Solomon and Rothblum, 1984;Tice and Baumeister, 1997). According to Sirois and Pychyl (2013), individuals with higher rates of procrastination habits had lower rates of health and well-being. Therefore, it can be argued that academic procrastination has a negative impact not only on students' academic performance but also on their health. ...
... Many studies were carried out for years to find answers to these questions (Aitken, 1982;Balkıs, 2006;Balkıs, Duru, Buluş & Duru, 2006;Day et al., 2000;Hill et al., 1978;Milgram et al., 1998;Senecal et al., 1995;Solomon and Rothblum, 1984) Based on the findings of these studies, test of integrative models explaining underlying factors of academic procrastination can provide valuable insights into academic procrastination behaviors. Academic procrastination is not only slowing down a task or postponing it to a later date, it also depends on the existence of variables that cause the procrastination (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Urban, 2013). In this regard, the authors believe that the identification of the reasons for college students' academic procrastination behaviors and variables predicting procrastination behaviors can make significant contributions to the literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at determining the mediating effect of academic intrinsic motivation on the relationship between both students' academic self-efficacy and dispositional hope levels to their academic procrastination habits. The data were collected from a sample of 252 college students, 69 males (27.4%) and 183 females (72.6%), aged between 18 and 33 (X = 20.55; Sd =1.52) studying at a state university located in the Central Black Sea region of Turkey using a correlational survey model. Academic Self Efficacy Scale, Dispositional Hope Scale, Academic Intrinsic Motivation Scale, and Aitken Academic Procrastination Scale were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics of the socio-demographic characteristics were presented, and Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to determine the correlations between variables by using SPSS statistical package programme. The hypothesis measurement model and the mediating effect were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) by using LISREL statistical software. The obtained results showed that significant (low and moderate) relationships exist between variables and the model tested in the study yielded acceptable and good fit index values. A complete mediating effect of academic intrinsic motivation on the relationship between both academic self-efficacy and dispositional hope with academic procrastination was determined. The findings were discussed, and some recommendations were made.
... Accordingly, procrastination behavior has been suggested to represent an impulsive avoidance response to (affectively) negative experiences that occur when task demands appear to exceed individuals' resources, capacities, or abilities Flett et al., 1995;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Tice et al., 2001). Research to support this premise would need to extend existing findings on trait-based individual differences in procrastination tendencies to identify complementary task-or context-specific constraints on individuals' self-regulatory capacities that may contribute to the actual occurrence of procrastination behavior. ...
... Self-regulation theories (e.g., Boekaerts, 1999;Pintrich, 2004;Winne & Hadwin, 1998;Zimmerman, 2002) generally agree that individuals' goal-directed behavior (or performance) is controlled by complex cognitive-affective processes that mediate between individual dispositions (e.g., personal characteristics, knowledge, or skills) and situational influences (e.g., current demands or available resources). Accordingly, procrastination behavior has been proposed to reflect an impulsive avoidance response to the (affectively) negative experience that the demands of a task seem to exceed one's resources, capacities, or abilities Flett et al., 1995;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Tice et al., 2001). This proposition was partially supported by empirical evidence for an association between students' procrastination tendency and their experience of negative emotions, or their inability to regulate these emotions properly (Eckert et al., 2016;Lay, 1992;McCown et al., 2012;Pollack & Herres, 2020;Rebetez et al., 2015). ...
... The present study was guided by the premise that the actual occurrence of procrastination behavior should depend on both persistent individual characteristics at the trait-level and more momentary task-or context-specific influences (cf. Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Tice et al., 2001;van Eerde, 2003). We aimed to extend previous research in three ways. ...
Article
Procrastination is thought to be affected by trait-based and by situational, or task-specific determinants. Situational and task-specific influences on students' procrastination behavior have rarely been studied. Most research has examined trait-based individual differences in students' general procrastination tendencies. This study used an adaptive experience sampling approach to assess students' (N = 88) task-related perceptions of ambiguity and their situation-specific procrastination behavior during exam preparation six times a day for seven days (n = 3581 measurements). Results revealed that 30% of all intended study sessions were procrastinated. The risk that study sessions were procrastinated increased with students' task-related ambiguity perceptions. Individuals' average risk of procrastinating study sessions was further predicted by their procrastination tendency and conscientiousness assessed at baseline. The findings suggest interventions that promote students’ ability to self-regulate but also modify tasks and instructions. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Estimates show that 80-95% of students engage in occasional procrastination (Steel, 2007), and approximately 50% suffer from chronic, detrimental procrastination behavior (Day et al., 2000;He, 2017). Although some researchers argue that procrastination does not only comprise negative effects (Chu and Choi, 2005), most research has put forward that procrastination highly impedes indicators of success and performance (Steel, 2007;Gareau et al., 2018), individuals' mental (Strongman and Burt, 2000;van Eerde, 2003;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013) and even physical health (Sirois, 2015). With regard to these figures, procrastination remains a well-discussed topic in psychological research and must be targeted in order to enhance individuals' and especially students' performance, health and overall well-being. ...
... The term procrastination originates from the Latin words pro, meaning "in favor of or forward, " and crastinus, meaning "of tomorrow" (Steel, 2007, p. 66). Procrastination encompasses a voluntary and irrational delay of an intended action (Ellis and Knaus, 1977;Burka and Yuen, 1983;Akerlof, 1991;Steel, 2007;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013), despite the awareness that one will not maximize one's gains (e.g., personal interests, preferences, material, and psychological goals; Steel, 2007), instead harm one's future-self by this course of action (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). By procrastinating, we expect "that tomorrow will be different [. . ...
... The term procrastination originates from the Latin words pro, meaning "in favor of or forward, " and crastinus, meaning "of tomorrow" (Steel, 2007, p. 66). Procrastination encompasses a voluntary and irrational delay of an intended action (Ellis and Knaus, 1977;Burka and Yuen, 1983;Akerlof, 1991;Steel, 2007;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013), despite the awareness that one will not maximize one's gains (e.g., personal interests, preferences, material, and psychological goals; Steel, 2007), instead harm one's future-self by this course of action (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). By procrastinating, we expect "that tomorrow will be different [. . ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination remains an omnipresent phenomenon impeding especially students' academic performance and well-being. Preliminary findings suggest that procrastination emerges due to dysfunctional emotion regulation efforts to regulate aversive emotions. This study's objective was to clarify whether the enhancement of general adaptive emotion regulation skills reduces subsequent procrastination. For the purpose of this study, data from a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with (N = 148) university students, comprising an active intervention (IG) and a passive wait-list control (WLC) group, was collected. Participants of the intervention group were provided with an online emotion regulation training over a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that the enhancement of general emotion regulation skills significantly reduced subsequent procrastination behavior within the IG as compared to the untreated WLC. Moreover, subsequent mediation analyses revealed that the reduction of procrastination was significantly mediated by the increase in general ER skills. The present results suggest that trainings which enhance general ER skills are an appropriate measure to reduce procrastination behavior among university students. The practical value of ER training interventions, particularly for student populations, is discussed.
... Extracting from authoritative procrastination scales, Diaz-Morales et al. (2006) proposed a four-factor model of procrastination: dilatory behaviors, indecision, lack of punctuality, and lack of planning. Procrastination is commonly considered to be a pattern of self-regulation failure or self-defeating behavior (Tice and Baumeister, 1997;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). The most popular classification is the trinity of procrastination: decisional, arousal, and avoidant procrastination (Ferrari, 1992). ...
... However, time management is an obstacle to procrastinators. From the temporal disjunction between present and future selves, Sirois and Pychyl (2013) pointed out that procrastinators tended to give priority to short-term mood repair in the present, even though their future self would pay for the inaction. Similarly, in a longitudinal study Tice and Baumeister (1997) pointed out that maladjustment about benefits-costs in participants' timeframe shaped their procrastination. ...
... Klingsieck (2013) investigated systematic characteristics of procrastination research and concluded that theoretical perspectives to explain the phenomenon, whereas Steel and Ferrari (2013) portrayed the "typical procrastinator" using the variables of sex, age, marital status, education, community location, and nationality. Looking beyond the use of time control or time perception to define procrastination, Sirois and Pychyl (2013) compared the current self and the future self, then proposed that procrastination results from short-term mood repair and emotion regulation with the consequences being borne by the future self. In line with the part of introduction, in the last 10 years, research on procrastination has flourished and knowledge about this complex phenomenon has been emerging and expanding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is generally perceived as a common behavioral tendency, and there are a growing number of literatures to discuss this complex phenomenon. To elucidate the overall perspective and keep abreast of emerging trends in procrastination research, this article presents a bibliometric analysis that investigates the panorama of overviews and intellectual structures of related research on procrastination. Using the Web of Science Database, we collected 1,635 articles published between 1990 and 2020 with a topic search on "procrastination" and created diverse research maps using CiteSpace and VOS viewer. Bibliometric analysis in our research consists of category distribution, keyword co-occurrence networks, main cluster analysis, betweenness centrality analysis, burst detection analysis, and structure variation analysis. We find that most research has focused on students' samples and has discussed the definition, classification, antecedents, consequences and interventions to procrastination, whereas procrastination in diverse contexts and groups remains to be investigated. Regarding the antecedents and consequences, research has mainly been about the relationship between procrastination and personality differences, such as the five-factor model, temperament, character, emotional intelligence, and impulsivity, but functions of external factors such as task characteristics and environmental conditions to procrastination have drawn scant attention. To identify the nature and characteristics of this behavior, randomized controlled trials are usually adopted in designing empirical research. However, the predominant use of self-reported data collection and for a certain point in time rather than longitudinal designs has limited the validation of some conclusions. Notably, there have been novel findings through burst detection analysis and structure variation analysis. Certain research themes have gained extraordinary attention in a short time period, have evolved progressively during the time span from 1990 to 2020, and involve the antecedents of procrastination in a temporal context, theoretical perspectives, research methods, and typical images of procrastinators. And emerging research themes that have been investigated include bedtime procrastination, failure of social media self-control, and clinical interventions. To our knowledge, this is almost the first time to conduct systematically bibliometric analysis on the topic of procrastination and findings can provide an in-depth view of the patterns and trends in procrastination research.
... Third, as potential negative consequences of putting off may be temporally distant, they tend to have little weight in cost-benefit considerations for action here and now (e.g., Temporal Motivation Theory, TMT; Steel and König, 2006;Gröpel and Steel, 2008). This is the case particularly for procrastinators, who are impulsive and presentoriented (e.g., Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Fourth, the fact that decisions to put off are made intuitively, embedded in the flow of action and in the presence of temptations and distractions (e.g., Steel et al., 2018) pinpoints procrastination as a breakdown in self-regulation (Steel, 2007) rather than an outcome of a costbenefit analysis. ...
... Furthermore, a retrospective criterion with a focus on the discomfort and negative feelings associated with unnecessary delay is consistent with a self-regulation perspective on procrastination (e.g., Tice and Bratslavsky, 2000). Procrastination is assumed to be a breakdown in self-regulation (Steel, 2007), and attempts to exercise self-control is associated with negative emotions, as is failure to self-regulate itself (Tice and Bratslavsky, 2000;Tice et al., 2001;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Thus, unnecessary delays related to self-regulation failure should be characterized by discomfort and subjective negative feelings (Krause and Freund, 2014). ...
... Importantly, some negative consequences are embedded in short-term positive consequences. Procrastination is regarded as a self-regulation failure with short-term mood repair and emotion regulation as important ingredients (e.g., Tice and Bratslavsky, 2000;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013;Bytamar et al., 2020). Short-term mood repair and emotion regulation imply that negative emotions and cognitions are important antecedents for procrastinatory episodes and that procrastination works to alleviate these negative emotions/thoughts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Standard definitions of procrastination underscore the irrational nature of this habit, a critical criterion being that the procrastinating individual delays despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. However, an examination of more than 175 items in 18 procrastination scales reveals that they do not address such a forward-looking criterion. Consequently, scales run the risk of not separating maladaptive and irrational delays from other forms of delay. We propose that forward-looking considerations may not be the best way of operationalizing the irrationality involved in procrastination and argue that scales should instead focus on past negative consequences of unnecessary delay. We suggest a new scale to measure such procrastination-related negative consequences and demonstrate that this scale, used separately or combined with established procrastination scales, performs better in predicting negative states and correlates to procrastination than established scales. The new scale seems to be helpful in separating trivial forms of unnecessary delay from maladaptive forms and hence represents a potentially valuable tool in research and clinical/applied efforts.
... Moreover, the self-regulation problems of procrastinators have been considered from the perspective of their emotion regulation strategies: procrastinators prioritize the management of immediate mood over long-term goal pursuit (e.g., voluntary delay of an intended task viewed as aversive to repair the negative mood surrounding the task) due to a disconnection between present and future self (Blouin-Hudon & Pychyl, 2015;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Other data underline the role of self-related factors in procrastination such as selfefficacy (e.g., Haycock, McCarthy, & Skay, 1998) and selfesteem (e.g., Ferrari, 1994). ...
... The descriptions of procrastination episodes reported by different participants in various situations yielded a category system containing a broad range of causes (individual and situational) of procrastination. Many of them have been extensively discussed in the literature, even if they sometimes led to contrasting interpretations, such as themes relating to motivation (Chu & Choi, 2005;Ferrari, 1992;Lee, 2005), emotion/mood (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013), thoughts/beliefs (Haycock et al., 1998;Pychyl & Flett, 2012;Steel, 2007), skills/knowledge (Choi & Moran;Harriott et al., 1996;Steel, 2007), and task characteristics . The descriptions further yielded another category system containing negative and neutral/positive consequences of procrastination, most of which have also been discussed in previous studies (Chu & Choi, 2005;Schraw et al., 2007;Sirois & Pychyl 2013). ...
... Many of them have been extensively discussed in the literature, even if they sometimes led to contrasting interpretations, such as themes relating to motivation (Chu & Choi, 2005;Ferrari, 1992;Lee, 2005), emotion/mood (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013), thoughts/beliefs (Haycock et al., 1998;Pychyl & Flett, 2012;Steel, 2007), skills/knowledge (Choi & Moran;Harriott et al., 1996;Steel, 2007), and task characteristics . The descriptions further yielded another category system containing negative and neutral/positive consequences of procrastination, most of which have also been discussed in previous studies (Chu & Choi, 2005;Schraw et al., 2007;Sirois & Pychyl 2013). Interestingly, however, participants' descriptions also point to additional causes and consequences that have not gained much attention in previous research, in particular the context of procrastination (e.g., fatigue or bad weather) and conditions hindering/slowing down the course of action (e.g., other obligations/ unforeseen events, little time available). ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon that has been extensively studied but about which a clear and integrated picture is still lacking, as reflected in the multiplicity and diversity of its definitions, causes and consequences. In addition, its examination in everyday life has been somewhat overlooked. The aim of this paper is to further the understanding of procrastination, first by providing an overview of its various definitions, causes, and consequences. Using a qualitative approach, we then provide an in-depth descriptive account of procrastination episodes retrospectively reported by six participants from the general population in diverse situations of their daily life, focusing in particular on the definitions, causes, and consequences of procrastination behaviours. Finally, this descriptive account of procrastination is discussed in terms of a dimensional, multifactorial, and integrative approach.
... Despite the fact that high school students are considered by experts as the most vulnerable group during the pandemic, experts pointed out that learning losses did not systematically increase, for example, with individual disease or as consequence of other health or economic impacts of COVID-19, but were, in fact, the outcome of remote learning [21][22][23][24][25]. In short, the shutting of education systems worldwide severed students from more than just classrooms, friends, and extracurricular activities, but also cut off the young generation from school staff members whose help and compassionate advice helped them build their self-esteem or navigate the pressures of adolescence. ...
... Therefore, not only during the corona crisis, youth education, in which social media is involved and used, must respond effectively to the amount of online content that carries real and truthful, but also seemingly true, misleading, or even false, content [33][34][35][36]40,87,88]. The situation is not helped by the risk factors present (social anxiety, loneliness, procrastination, presence of psychotic symptoms, etc.) or unfavorable social circumstances [20] (home isolation, domestic violence, psychosomatic difficulties), which cause mental difficulties, discomfort, and failure to manage school duties among today's young people [1][2][3]11,12]. At the same time, young people are exposed to these negatives to a much greater extent during a pandemic [8,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... Moreover, as recent research suggests that young adolescents are the most vulnerable group in the pandemic [1][2][3][4][11][12][13][21][22][23][24][25], specific "toxic stressors" (such as family financial instability or disconnection from friends) should also be taken into account; these "stressors" [24][25][26] should be taken as other suggestions for future research that certainly affect the younger generation and its health. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of considerations on the potential attenuation of the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic with the use of credible social media in online education during a pandemic, the subject of our own research was the fulfillment of two goals. The main research goals were to identify, categorize, and evaluate the possibilities of using social media in online education during the pandemic from the perspective of selected teachers and students from secondary schools in Slovakia. The research methods of the first phase (qualitative) of the research involved brainstorming among nine secondary school teachers. The second research phase (quantitative) used a questionnaire, which was completed by 102 high school students from all over Slovakia. The collection of both quantitative and qualitative data was used in this research. The research results revealed the most representative opinions of teachers on the current and real possibilities of engaging credible social media in online education and the views of high school students on their desired use and involvement of social media in online education. The intersection of the two findings presents a picture of the possibilities of using credible social media in online education, which can help maintain students' interest in online education during a pandemic. Based on these findings, it can be stated that the opinions identified in the research group of teachers correspond to a large extent with the desired use of social media in education from the perspective of students. In addition, however, students would welcome more opportunities to use and engage social media in today's online education. The result of this research is an analysis of social media patterns applied to online education, which are of greater interest to students and could act as elements for reducing the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e., six forms of online education and 24 educational activities that could contribute, inter alia, to mitigating the different negative effects of the pandemic among youth generation. The findings also benefit from the presentation of many specific options and recommendations for the use of social media in online education during a pandemic.
... A common feature of procrastination is the emphasis on repairing negative emotions at the expense of pursuing other important selfcontrol goals (Solomon and Rothblum, 1984;Ferrari et al., 1995). Sirois and Pychyl argue that as a form of self-regulation failure, procrastination has a great deal to do with short-term emotion repair and emotion regulation (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). During the COVID-19 pandemic, levels of procrastination can mediate the link between academic anxiety and self-manipulation in part (Jia et al., 2021). ...
... First, the findings are consistent with H1 and the existing literature, revealing that academic procrastination is positively associated with negative emotions. Sirois and Pychyl (2013) argued that procrastination may be best understood as a Boot CI, Boot confidence interval. Lower limit and upper limit = The lower limit and upper limit of 95% Boot confidence interval. ...
... Procrastinators are unable to control their behavior and prefer to surrender important goals in favor of pleasurable short-term activities (Ferrari et al., 1995). Sirois and Pychyl argues that procrastination is strongly associated with short-term emotional repair and emotion regulation (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Aversive tasks can lead to anxiety, and avoiding them is a way to escape this negative emotion (Tice and Bratslavsky, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2019 has had a significant impact on people’s learning and their lives, including a significant increase in the incidence of academic procrastination and negative emotions. The topic of how negative emotions influences academic procrastination has been long debated, and previous research has revealed a significant relationship between the two. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the mediating and buffering effects of online-shopping addiction on academic procrastination and negative emotions. Methods The researchers conducted a correlation analysis followed by a mediation analysis and developed a mediation model. The study used stratified sampling and an online questionnaire as the data collection method. In this study, first, five freshmen students at vocational and technical colleges in Guangdong Province, China, were called to distribute the questionnaire. Second, after communicating with them individually, first-year students of Guangdong origin were selected as participants. Finally, 423 freshman students participated by completing the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: demographic information, an online-shopping-addiction scale, an academic-procrastination scale and a negative-emotions scale. A total of 423 students, 118 males (27.9%) and 305 females (72.1%) from 10 vocational and technical colleges in Guangdong were surveyed. SPSS 25.0 was used to process and analyze the data. The data collected were self-reported. Results The results showed that: first, academic procrastination was significantly and positively associated with online-shopping addiction ( r = 0.176, p < 0.01). Second, academic procrastination was significantly and positively associated with negative emotions ( r = 0.250, p < 0.01). Third, online-shopping addiction was significantly and positively associated with negative emotions ( r = 0.358, p < 0.01). In addition, academic procrastination had a significant positive predictive effect on online-shopping addiction (β = 0.1955, t = 3.6622, p < 0.001). Online-shopping addiction had a significant positive predictive effect on negative emotions (β = 0.4324, t = 7.1437, p < 0.001). Conclusion This study explored the relationship between students’ academic procrastination, negative emotions, and online-shopping addiction during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that students’ level of academic procrastination positively influenced their level of online-shopping addiction and negative emotions, and their level of online-shopping addiction increased their negative emotions. In addition, there was a mediating effect between the degree of participants’ online-shopping addiction and their degree of academic procrastination and negative emotions during the pandemic. In other words, with the mediating effect of online-shopping addiction, the higher the level of a participant’s academic procrastination, the more likely that the participant would have a high score for negative emotions.
... Academic procrastination or intentional delaying behavior regarding homework or school activities is a widespread phenomenon in educational environments, which represents a serious threat to students because such procrastination can negatively affect learning, performance, academic self-efficacy and quality of life [1][2][3]. Procrastination, often established as a stable personality-like trait, refers to voluntarily delaying an important activity despite receiving negative results; for this reason, in recent decades, attempts have been made to understand the factors that generate and maintain this type of problematic behavior [4][5][6][7]. ...
... Further, the general term of 'executive functions' is an applied to those skills that involve cognitive control and self-regulation [16]. Since academic procrastination is characterized by the intention to undertake a task and a lack of diligence to begin, develop or finish that task, the results of some studies indicate that people who undertake postponement usually experience problems regarding self-control, implying failures in self-regulation, which is a component of executive functioning [3][4][5][17][18][19]. ...
... With the background that is described in the above, the following hypothesis was generated for the present study: Procrastination is related to the inadequate study habits of the student with respect to fulfilling his or her academic activities on time and in turn those study habits are dependent on the cognitive processes that make it possible for such habits to be effected. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to 1) determine whether academic procrastination is related to study habits and 2) determine whether academic procrastination is in turn related to the executive functions that high school students possess, in addition to 3) providing data that can be complementary to an analysis of anxiety levels that could be associated with academic procrastination. No specific hypothesis was generated about the relationship between procrastination and gender or age, given the size of the sample. ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon in educational settings. This study aimed to determine the relationship between academic procrastination regarding study habits and self-reported executive functions in high school students. In a sample of 52 students, the following instruments were applied: Academic Procrastination Scale (APS), Study Habits Inventory (SHI), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF®) and as a control variable, anxiety was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The results indicated that high school students had moderate procrastination scores that were negatively correlated with the SHI scores. A significant correlation was also found between the APS and the scales associated with the Metacognition Index (MI) as measured by BRIEF®. It is concluded that students who procrastinate have difficulty organizing, planning and assimilating school content. The implementation of strategies for study habits in high school students is suggested, which would result in an impact on their metacognition.
... Demnach sind Personen unterschiedlich empfänglich für diesen zeitkritischen Faktor, was eine Betrachtung interindividueller Unterschiede nahelegt. Gemäß der Temporal Mood-Repair Theory Sirois & Pychyl, 2013) Nach der Temporal Mood-Repair Theory ist akademische Prokrastination mitunter darauf zurückzuführen, dass diese kurzfristig Vorteile zu bringen scheint. Beispielsweise kann akademische Prokrastination zu einer kurzfristigen Stimmungsverbesserung genutzt werden, wenn aversive Aufgaben, die einen negativen Affekt hervorrufen, aufgeschoben werden und stattdessen einer als positiv empfundenen Tätigkeit nachgegangen wird Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). ...
... Gemäß der Temporal Mood-Repair Theory Sirois & Pychyl, 2013) Nach der Temporal Mood-Repair Theory ist akademische Prokrastination mitunter darauf zurückzuführen, dass diese kurzfristig Vorteile zu bringen scheint. Beispielsweise kann akademische Prokrastination zu einer kurzfristigen Stimmungsverbesserung genutzt werden, wenn aversive Aufgaben, die einen negativen Affekt hervorrufen, aufgeschoben werden und stattdessen einer als positiv empfundenen Tätigkeit nachgegangen wird Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Langfristig sind allerdings erhebliche negative Konsequenzen durch den Aufschub der geplanten Tätigkeit zu erwartenunabhängig davon, ob eine Deadline vorhanden ist (Tice & Baumeister, 1997): Sofern eine Deadline vorliegt (z.B. beim Lernen auf eine Prüfung), kann Zeitdruck entstehen, der zu einer oberflächlichen oder unzureichenden Bearbeitung der Aufgabe führen und in schlechteren Leistungen resultieren kann (Wäschle et al., 2014). ...
... Handlungsempfehlungen ableiten zu können, ist eine umfassende Betrachtung von akademischer Prokrastination essentiell. Sowohl die Temporal Motivation Theory (Steel & König, 2006) als auch die Temporal Mood-Repair Theory (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013) verweisen auf eine Zeit-und Situationsspezifität von akademischer Prokrastination, auf die in der vorliegenden Dissertation theoretisch und empirisch fokussiert wird. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Bei akademischer Prokrastination handelt es sich um einen freiwilligen Handlungsaufschub einer geplanten studienbezogenen Tätigkeit, trotz Antizipation negativer Konsequenzen (Steel & Klingsieck, 2016). Theoretisch kann Prokrastination als Resultat einer misslingenden Motivationsregulation konzeptualisiert werden (Wolters, 2003) und steht in engem Zusammenhang mit Gewissenhaftigkeit (negativ) und Neurotizismus (positiv; Steel, 2007). Wenngleich bereits relativ viel zu den Determinanten von Prokrastination bekannt ist, ist bislang unklar, wie Prokrastination im Studium zustande kommt: Inwiefern ist Motivationsregulation für akademische Prokrastination bedeutsam – prokrastinieren Studierende, weil sie eine zu geringe Nutzung von Strategien zur Motivationsregulation aufweisen oder weil die Passung der Strategien zu der motivationalen Problemsituation nicht gegeben ist? Stellt Motivationsregulation einen erklärenden Mechanismus der Zusammenhänge zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit bzw. Neurotizismus und akademischer Prokrastination dar? Neben diesen individuellen Faktoren ist eine Berücksichtigung der Lernsituation – sowohl auf Prozessebene als auch hinsichtlich universitärer Kursmerkmale – essentiell, um der Frage nachzugehen, ob das Auftreten akademischer Prokrastination generalisierbar oder auf situationsspezifische Aspekte zurückzuführen ist (van Eerde, 2000). Bisher ist allerdings nicht hinreichend geklärt, inwiefern Merkmale universitärer Kurse für akademische Prokrastination relevant sind (Pychyl et al., 2000). Um die Forschungslücken zu adressieren, wurden in dieser publikationsorientierten Dissertation als Ausgangspunkt (Fachartikel I) die Zusammenhänge zwischen konditionalem Strategiewissen zur Motivationsregulation (Strategiepassung), Effektivität der Regulation, akademischer Prokrastination und Studienabbruchsintentionen von 515 Studierenden untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Studierende mit hohem konditionalem Strategie-wissen zur Motivationsregulation auch eine bessere Regulationseffektivität aufwiesen, weniger prokrastinierten sowie geringere Studienabbruchsintentionen äußerten. Weiterhin deuten Mediationsanalysen auf kaskadierende intrapsychische Prozesse. Um diese detailliert zu untersuchen, wurde in zwei Folgestudien (Fachartikel II) der Fokus auf die Prozesse in konkreten Lernsituationen gelegt. In zwei Tagebuchstudien wurden 3 121 Einzelmessungen von 128 Studierenden und 1 450 Einzelmessungen von 218 Studierenden erfasst. Die Analysen zeigten, dass akademisches Prokrastinationsverhalten zwischen Studierenden variiert, während der Prüfungsphase abnimmt und insbesondere durch eine Strategiepassung reduziert werden kann. In Fachartikel III wurde mittels einer Sekundäranalyse untersucht, ob Motivationsregulation einen erklärenden Mechanismus für die Zusammenhänge zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit bzw. Neurotizismus und akademischem Prokrastinationsverhalten darstellt. In der Tat konnte der Effekt zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit und Prokrastinationsverhalten durch Motivationsregulation erklärt werden. Schließlich fokussierte Fachartikel IV die Bedeutung spezifischer Kursmerkmale universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen für akademische Prokrastination. Die Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen mit 1 809 Studierenden aus 90 Kursen zeigten, dass akademische Prokrastination in beachtlichem Maße mit Kursmerkmalen assoziiert war und insbesondere negativ mit wahrgenommener Autonomie, sozialer Eingebundenheit und Kompetenzerfahrungen sowie Klarheit der Instruktion und positiv mit wahrgenommener Aufgabenschwierigkeit zusammenhing. Zusammenfassend liefert die Arbeit eine umfassende Betrachtung akademischer Prokrastination im Hinblick auf die individuellen Faktoren der Motivationsregulation, der Gewissenhaftigkeit und des Neurotizismus sowie auf die situativen Faktoren bezüglich Kursmerkmalen universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen. Korrespondierend zu bisherigen Erkenntnissen zeigte sich, dass Prokrastinationsverhalten zeit- und situationsspezifisch variiert (vgl. Wieland et al., 2018) sowie im Verlauf der Prüfungsphase abnimmt (vgl. Wäschle et al., 2014). Darüber hinaus veranschaulicht die vorliegende Dissertation, dass neben einer reinen Strategienutzung (vgl. Schwinger et al., 2012) insbesondere eine Strategiepassung (vgl. Steuer et al., 2019) hilfreich zur Überwindung akademischer Prokrastination ist und Motivationsregulation den Zusammenhang zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit und akademischer Prokrastination erklären kann (vgl. Ljubin-Golub et al, 2019). Zudem ergab eine umfassende Betrachtung verschiedener Merkmale universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen belastbare Hinweise darauf, dass Kursmerkmale eng im Zusammenhang mit akademischer Prokrastination stehen (vgl. Svartdal et al., 2020). Theoretisch tragen die vorliegenden Befunde zu einem besseren Verständnis der Aktualgenese akademischer Prokrastination bei. Praktisch implizieren die Ergebnisse, dass in Interventionen zur Verringerung akademischen Prokrastinationsverhaltens auf Möglichkeiten zur Motivationsregulation eingegangen und Wissen über die Eignung von Motivationsregulationsstrategien zur Überwindung spezifischer motivationaler Probleme beim Lernen vermittelt werden sollte. Weiterhin können Interventionen auf einer instruktionalen Ebene zusätzlich zu bisherigen Trainingsansätzen (vgl. Grunschel et al., 2018) ein vielversprechender Ansatz zur Verringerung akademischer Prokrastination sein.
... When students procrastinate, they might experience temporary relief by avoiding an academic task that is considered aversive. However, procrastination tends to increase self-generated stress and students often end up feeling worse after they procrastinate (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). A smallscale meta-analysis with samples of community participants and students revealed that procrastination was significantly negatively associated with positive affect (r = −0.29) ...
... However, the procrastination episodes could have occurred at the same time and even after their reported affect. For example, an academic task that was perceived as being unclear and uninteresting could have increased the negative affect of a student (e.g., unhappy and frustrated) and, in turn, that student would have been more likely to procrastinate (see Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Although future studies are needed, untangling the complex bidirectional relations between procrastination and affect may prove to be especially difficult because students experience many fluctuations in procrastination and affect within a short time span (see Pychyl et al., 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Much is known about the antecedents and outcomes of procrastination when comparing students to one another (i.e., between-person level). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of procrastination when comparing the courses taken by the students during a semester (i.e., within-person level). In this study, we proposed that examining procrastination at both levels of analysis should improve our understanding of the academic experience of students. At both levels, we examined the mediating role of procrastination in the associations between two dimensions of motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled) and indicators of academic achievement (i.e., grades) and well-being (i.e., positive and negative affect). A sample of 359 university students completed questionnaires measuring their motivation, procrastination, and affect in each of their courses. The official final course grades were obtained at the end of the semester. Multilevel mediation analyses with structural equation modeling were conducted to test our hypotheses. At the between-person level, the indirect effects revealed that higher controlled motivation was significantly associated with worse outcomes (i.e., worse grades and higher negative affect) via higher levels of procrastination. At the within-person level, the indirect effects revealed that lower autonomous motivation was significantly associated with worse outcomes (i.e., worse grades, lower positive affect, and higher negative affect) via higher levels of procrastination. Overall, this study shows that different pathways at each level of analysis may explain how procrastination can be detrimental for the success and well-being of university students.
... The relationship between negative emotions and poor well-being can also be explained by the procrastinators' negative self-assessments (Sirois, Molnar, & Hirsch, 2015). Other studies also indicated that failing to regulate negative emotions is a major factor in understanding procrastination (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Sirois, 2014). Briefly, the failure to regulate emotions explains the states of negative emotions that are related to the poor emotional wellbeing associated with procrastination. ...
... The results of the pathway analysis also provide support for the hypothesis that procrastination increases negative emotions (especially depressive stress), which in turn reduces well-being levels. These results are constant with previous studies which reported that confronting procrastination is by mood regulation (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Hence, the current results suggest counseling programs for procrastinator students to improve their emotions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of the current study was the examines the relationship between procrastination, Negative Emotions, and mental well-being. Participants from Saudi Arabia (n = 886; females 344, 38.8% and 542 males, 61.2%; Mage = 24.33, SD = 5.68). Participants completed online questionnaires on the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). As hypothesized, males procrastinated more than females. Furthermore, single ones procrastinated more than married ones. Depending on the study assumption that procrastination and negative emotional symptoms are related to poorer mental well-being, procrastination is related to higher levels of DASS-21 and decreased well-being. These findings suggest that age, gender, depression, stress, anxiety, and Well-being were predictive of procrastination. Findings add to the psychological literature and improve a better comprehension of the complicated associations between Procrastination, Negative Emotions, and Well-Being. El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue examinar la relación entre la procrastinación, las emociones negativas y el bienestar mental. Participantes de Arabia Saudita (n = 886; mujeres 344, 38.8% y 542 hombres, 61.2%; Medad = 24.33, SD = 5.68). Los participantes completaron cuestionarios en línea sobre la Escala de procrastinación irracional (IPS), las Escalas de estrés por depresión, ansiedad (DASS-21) y el Formulario corto continuo de salud mental (MHC-SF). Según la hipótesis, los hombres postergaron las cosas más que las mujeres. Además, los solteros postergaban más que los casados. Dependiendo de la hipótesis del estudio de que la procrastinación y los síntomas emocionales negativos están relacionados con un peor bienestar mental, la procrastinación está relacionada con niveles más altos de DASS-21 y una disminución del bienestar. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la edad, el género, la depresión, el estrés, la ansiedad y el bienestar eran factores predictivos de la procrastinación. Los hallazgos se suman a la literatura psicológica y mejoran una mejor comprensión de las complicadas asociaciones entre la procastinación, las emociones negativas y el bienestar.
... High procrastination has a negative correlation with academic motivation and postponing activities for a longer time period. The time aspects of procrastination are more obvious for tasks with evaluation that is distant in time which are also complicated and challenging and cause negative emotions (Sirois and Pychyl 2013), whereas emotional restraint in strenuous conditions can lead to exhaustion of mental resources and the necessity to use defense mechanisms (Dombrovskis et al. 2019). Such a form of self-regulation can become a standard reaction to difficult tasks or tasks without immediate evaluation, which can lead to the formation of a relatively stable behavior trend with features of procrastination. ...
... Consequently, students may assume that their efforts are not related to their academic achievement and postpone tasks, which can lead to a decrease in academic success (Jackson et al. 2003). These assumptions are supported by the results of Sirois and Pychyl (2013), who show that hesitation is observed for tasks with delayed rewards and advantages or for those which are unpleasant, difficult, and cause negative emotions in the present. ...
Article
In distance learning, the negative effect of procrastination on the academic activity and results of students calls for more attention to the study of predictors of this phenomenon. This study was carried out to explore the role of academic motivation and time perspective in predicting procrastination in students during distance learning. Two-hundred thirty students from different higher education institutions in Latvia were randomly selected for the study. The Tuckman Procrastination Scale, the Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were used. The data were analyzed using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient, multiple regression, and factor analysis. The results have shown a positive correlation between procrastination and authority expectations, fear of failure, and present hedonism, as well as a negative correlation with peer acceptance and the future perspective. When the procrastination score is lower, a positive correlation with power motivations and a negative correlation with mastery goals appears. When the procrastination score is higher, a correlation with present hedonism and present fatalism manifests as acceptance of the imminence of the situation and of the high expectations of authority figures. Moreover, regression analysis has shown that fear of failure and expectations predetermine procrastination, whereas peer support and acceptance can help decrease procrastination in academic activity. As a result, common latent factors show a relationship between procrastination and future perspective, as well as with hedonistic motives, which can reduce the postponing of academic tasks by eliminating the students’ fear of uncertainty in the distance learning process and by improving internal control.
... Many people delay, wait, or postpone the start or completion of a particular task, yet some people engage in a delayed tendency of most tasks across contexts and on a regular basis in all domains of their life. The main construct of procrastination is defined in the current review as the "voluntary delay of important, necessary, and intended action despite knowing there will be negative consequences for this delay" (Sirois & Giguère, 2018, p. 404;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). The prevalence of situational procrastination, such as academic behaviors, is reported as high as 75% in college students (Day et al., 2000;Ferrari et al., 2007). ...
... Some theories of procrastination model this behavior as a way to manage one's emotions (e.g., anxiety) by engaging in tasks that are pleasurable at the moment rather than tackling the task they have been dreading (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Tice & Bratslavsky, 2000). Emotion regulation research has looked at ways individuals use different tactics (e.g., cognitive reappraisal) to manage the emotions they feel and manifest (Gross, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between different emotions with situational (e.g., academic) and dispositional (chronic) procrastination was examined extensively in the literature since the early days of procrastination research. A review of empirical studies over the past 40 years might shed light on the role of emotions in procrastination in different contexts with different populations. The current paper reviewed 83 studies (from 1977 to 2021) exploring the relationship between 9 different emotions and situational and dispositional procrastination. The emotions examined, listed in the order of the extent of focus of scholarly research are: anxiety, fear, shame, guilt, regret, boredom, frustration, anger, and revenge. Findings highlight the important role of emotions as motives, antecedents, correlates, or consequences of situational and dispositional procrastination. Based on the findings, a lack of a comprehensive theory summarizing dispositional and situational procrastination is pointed out and avenues for future research are outlined and recommended.
... On the other hand, Sirois and Pychyl (2013) noted that procrastination affects health and wellbeing, leading to mental health problems, anxiety, depression and as a consequence of stress. In addition, they antagonically mentioned that dilation is related to the promotion of well-being, for example, exercising and eating healthy. ...
... Such inventory consists of three factors or dimensions: (a) stressors of the academic environment, which are situations perceived as stressful, defined as actions or eventualities that particularly cause imbalance in the individual; (b) psychosomatic manifestations are reactions to stressor stimulus, understood as physical and behavioral symptomatic manifestation in the face of academic and stress; (c) coping strategies, the frequency of use of which is understood as the measured use of strategies used by an individual to cope with the stressful situation. (Barraza 2007) Regarding the causes of academic stress, Stora (1991) constantly have problems at the economic, labor, sentimental and health level (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Any event that produces an emotional response can trigger stress, even if it doesn't necessarily have to be negative, such as the birth of a child or a marriage. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study is to establish correspondence between procrastination and academic stress in students of the School of Electronic Engineering of a public university in the Callao Region. The research was developed under the positivist approach, quantitative methodology, and basic type, non-experimental and transversal design. The sample consisted of 205 students calculated by simple random probabilistic sampling. Two questionnaire s were applied to evaluate procrastination and stress which were validated by Cronbach alpha with values of .853 and .943 respectively. The results confirm the correspondence between procrastination and academic stress in students (Spearman's Rho,841). The work concludes that greater dilatory behavior, indecisions, lack of punctuality and lack of planning will tend to increase levels of academic stress.
... In the academic community, there is a widespread tendency to regard students' procrastination and avoidance as illogical behavior to be lamented, shrugged off, or perhaps abated by means of scaffolding and inspiring pedagogy. Assertions such as "as a form of self-regulation failure, procrastination has a great deal to do with short-term mood repair and emotion regulation" [26] suggest that students with properly functioning self-regulation and generally good moods don't procrastinate, but low engagement is sufficiently common that regarding such behavior as a bug, rather than a feature, is problematic. ...
Article
Student engagement in learning a prescribed body of knowledge can be modeled using optimal control theory, with a scalar state variable representing mastery, or self-perceived mastery, of the material and control representing the instantaneous cognitive effort devoted to the learning task. The relevant costs include emotional and external penalties for incomplete mastery, reduced availability of cognitive resources for other activities, and psychological stresses related to engagement with the learning task. Application of Pontryagin's maximum principle to some simple models of engagement yields solutions of the synthesis problem mimicking familiar behaviors including avoidance, procrastination, and increasing commitment in response to increasing mastery.
... Hence, it is substantial to explore the mechanism behind procrastination. Sirois and Pychyl (2013) suggested that selecting to intentionally delay despite intention indicates a fundamental breakdown in self-control/regulation. This breakdown happens more often, when individuals confront with an undesired task (i.e., stressful, boring, missing sense and/or structure), resulting in negative emotions or a low mood. ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-control is always crucial in many areas of life. Therefore, self-control failure is the source of many of the difficulties people face in their lives and also at the center of several problems, especially among adolescents. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to examine the mediating role of multi-screen addiction (MSA) in the relationship between self-control and procrastination among adolescents by using structural equation modeling (SEM). A cross-sectional design and an online questionnaire was used in this study. The study group composed of 390 adolescents studying at various high schools in Turkey. The results of correlation analysis showed that self-control was negatively correlated with MSA and procrastination. MSA also positively correlated with procrastination. Furthermore, the findings showed that MSA mediated the relationship between self-control and procrastination. The fit index of the SEM was found to be satisfactory. The results of the study were addressed in the context of the existing literature, and then suggestions were presented. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02472-2.
... Of these former scales, both the GPS and the PASS were designed with either dated definitions of Procrastination in mind or with scales that did not exclusively assess procrastinatory behaviors (McCloskey, 2011). Thus, the TPS stands out as one of the most utilized procrastination scales within the academic domain whose designing definition of the construct converges with recent literature delineations (Kim & Seo, 2015;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Steel, 2010). Tuckman (1991) devised and designed the TPS as a measure of the "tendency to delay or put off doing things" (Tuckman, 1991, p.475) due to a failure of self-regulation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is a deleterious and increasingly pervasive phenomenon within the higher-academic domain, and the progressive refinement of its measurement tools proves vital to shed light and undertake this behavior. Thus, the present study examines renewed psychometric quality features of the Tuckman Procrastination Scale within an Argentinian sample. The sample was composed of 923 undergraduates from Buenos Aires City and its environs (80.7% female; 18.7% male; 0.5% non-binary; Mage = 26.60; SDage = 8.25). The Cordoban-Argentinian adaptation of the Tuckman Procrastination Scale was employed. Content validity analysis of the scale's items was carried out upon consideration of expert judgments. Face validity of the instrument was analyzed via a pilot study with a subsample of undergraduates. Subsequently, a confirmatory factor analysis of the Tuckman Procrastination Scale structure was conducted, and the internal consistency of the resulting factor was examined. Finally, correlations with the Academic Motivation Scale were analyzed to provide evidence of convergent validity. Results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported an adequate fit of the Tuckman Procrastination Scale's structure in its Cordoban-version 15 items, while internal consistency was acceptable-to-excellent. Finally, convergent validity evidence mostly exhibited positive associations between Procrastination and both Amotivation and less self-determined motivational subscales of the Academic Motivation Scale, while negative associations were observed with regards to Intrinsic Motivation subscales.
... Studies have shown that procrastination in everyday life affect 20-25% of men and women in everyday events (e.g., paying bills and taxes, undergoing medical examinations), which highlights that procrastination is characteristic of modern societies (Rosá rio et al., 2009;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Procrastination is often related to reduced insight into the consequences of current behaviour, short-term mood repair, and problems with emotion regulation (Sirious, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic procrastination is one of the main problems in the private higher education sector associated with a high rate of abandonment of higher education and delays in fulfilling student obligations. In an effort to detect some of the personal predictors of this phenomenon, we examined associations between personality traits, psychological distress, academic procrastination, and academic achievement among students in private higher education. A sample of 369 participants (145 men, 224 women, 23 years on average) was taken. Participants self-reported their academic achievement and anonymously completed several questionnaires: The Studying Procrastination Scale, The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales – 21, the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised - 60. In line with prediction, the HEXACO dimensions explained an additional 24% of the variance in academic procrastination after controlling for psychological distress. In addition, Conscientiousness and psychological distress predicted academic procrastination, and Conscientiousness uniquely significantly predicted academic performance. Our results suggest that academic procrastination and academic performance are influenced by personality. Also, this study indicated that the impact of psychological distress on academic outcomes depends on the constellation of personality traits. Current findings could help to better understand personal factors associated with negative academic outcomes and prevent negative emotional states associated with student procrastination and poor academic performance.
... However, the individual may not always do all of these tasks or may postpone some of them. Procrastination is a common self-regulatory problem that involves delaying or failing to complete crucial tasks, despite the fact that knowing it has negative consequences (Lay, 1986;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Procrastination can occur only in certain contexts such as academic life, or it can be a relatively permanent personality trait that manifests itself in various aspects of life (Sirois, 2016a). ...
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between perfectionism and academic procrastination in teacher candidates. Structural equation modeling, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the study. The participants of the study consisted of a total of 478 teacher candidates, 328 female and 150 male, between the ages of 18-41. Personal Information Form, Aitken Procrastination Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Self-Compassion Scale were used as data collection tools in the research. According to the findings, perfectionism has a negative relationship with self-compassion, perfectionism has a positive relationship with academic procrastination, and self-compassion has a negative relationship with academic procrastination. As a result of the Bootstrap analysis for the significance of indirect effects, it was found that self-compassion had a partial mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic procrastination.
... Consequently, we gave in to feel good when we prioritized short-term mood repair in the fashion of procrastination (Tice & Baumeister, 1997). As was reviewed by Sirois and Pychyl (2013a), procrastination tended to occur for tasks with distal rewards or that were unpleasant, challenging, or humdrum and therefore eliciting negative emotions. To repair the current mood, people would exhibit the avoidance of the present task and replaced it with more pleasurable and enjoyable one. ...
... Importantly, following temporal decision model, to procrastinate or not relies on weighing between task aversiveness and incentive outcomes (S. , which may be modulated by self-control, a capacity to allocate resources for supporting the pursuit of long-term goals (Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007). In line with this connotation, procrastination is the consequence of failure of top-down control over task aversiveness (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Steel, 2007). However, options with greater delayed rewards will be preferred when the prefrontal self-control is exerted (Ballard et al., 2017;Figner et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination, which is defined as delaying an intended course of action despite negative outcomes, is demonstrated to have a deal with negative emotion including trait anxiety. Although highly anxious individuals showed impoverished control ability, no studies have indicated the role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and procrastination, and its neural correlates. To this end, we used the sliding window method to calculate the temporal deviation of dynamic functional connectivity (FC) in 312 healthy participants who underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. In line with our hypothesis, higher trait anxiety is linked to more procrastination via poorer self-control. Besides, the dynamic FC analyses showed that trait anxiety was positively correlated with dynamic FC variability in hippocampus–prefrontal cortex (HPC–PFC) pathways, including left rostral hippocampus–left superior frontal gyrus (left rHPC–left SFG), and left rHPC–right middle frontal gyrus (left rHPC–-MFG). Furthermore, the structural equation modeling (SEM) uncovered a mediated role of self-control in the association between the anxiety-specific brain connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggest that the HPC–PFC pathways may reflect impoverished regulatory ability over the negative thoughts for anxious individuals, and thereby incurs more procrastination, which enhances our understanding of how trait anxiety links to procrastination.
... Finally, we expect PWD to diverge from constructs reflective of the prevention-motivational system focused on avoiding losses such as procrastination and cynicism. The tendency to procrastinate refers to the propensity to put off work and avoid an activity under one's control (Tuckman, 1991), which reflects avoidance of negative emotions (Sirois and Pychyl, 2013). Cynicism refers to a negative, callous, and cynical attitude toward one's job characterized by distancing oneself from work . ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on the play and work design literatures, we conceptualize and validate an instrument to measure playful work design (PWD) – the proactive cognitive-behavioral orientation that employees engage in to incorporate play into their work activities to promote fun and challenge. Across three studies (N=1006), we developed a reliable scale with a two-dimensional factor structure. In Study 1, we utilized expert-ratings and iterative exploratory factor analyses to develop an instrument that measures (1) designing fun and (2) designing competition. Additionally, Study 1 evidences the divergent and convergent validity of the subscales as well as their distinctiveness. Specifically, PWD was indicative of proactivity as well as play, and designing fun especially correlated with ludic traits (i.e., traits focused on deriving fun; e.g., humor), whereas designing competition particularly correlated with agonistic traits (i.e., traits focused on deriving challenge; e.g., competitiveness). Study 2 cross-validated the two-factor structure, further investigated the nomological net of PWD, and revealed that PWD is distinct from job crafting. Finally, Study 3 examined the predictive and incremental validity of the PWD instrument with self- and colleague-ratings two weeks apart. Taken together, the results suggest that the instrument may advance our understanding of play initiated by employees during work.
... Trait procrastination is strongly related to impulsivity on behavioral, (see meta-analysis by Steel, 2007), genetic (Gustavson et al., 2014(Gustavson et al., , 2015Loehlin & Martin, 2014), and neuroanatomical (Liu & Feng, 2017) levels. Moreover, procrastination has been shown to be related to difficulties in emotion regulation (reviews in Pychyl & Sirois, 2016;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Procrastination was also found to be related to executive dysfunctions, both self-reported (L. A. Rabin et al., 2011) and task-measured, in the domain of inhibition (Gustavson et al., 2015;Rebetez et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is a self-regulation failure in which people irrationally delay intended actions which leads to lower performance, satisfaction from achievements, and quality of life. Trait procrastination is estimated to affect 15% to 20% of the total population, and previous studies have shown procrastination to be related to impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and executive dysfunctions, making it a good nonclinical example of a self-regulation disorder. Our previous fMRI results revealed impaired error processing (lower error-related activity of the anterior cingulate cortex) and lack of ability to intensify executive-control during the punishment context (no increase in activity in prefrontal regions) in procrastinators. This led us to the question of whether procrastination is related to impaired learning on errors and punishments. Low (LP) and high (HP) procrastinating students took part in a modified monetary probabilistic reversal learning task with separated reward and punishment conditions. Half of the participants started with reward and half with the punishment condition. Several learning models and model-free measures were applied to the collected behavioral data. Results suggest lower flexibility in the learning task in HP subjects, which can further decrease during the punishment condition. Moreover, HP subjects who began with the punishment condition tended to be less flexible throughout the rest of the task. These results suggest that impaired learning from errors and punishments may prevent highly procrastinating subjects from correcting their behaviors and add to the persistence of procrastination. We also conclude that impaired learning on errors and punishments might be a more general mechanism underpinning other self-regulation disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Emotions are evoked within a situation and are fluid and volatile, arising from an individual's subjective response to the situation (Fredrickson & Cohn, 2008). MacCann et al. (2011) found emotion management to be positively correlated with academic achievement, while Sirois and Pychyl (2013) found it to be negatively correlated with procrastination. Emotions were identified by Kahu and Nelson (2018) as one of their four "mediating mechanisms", while Kahu et al. (2015) found that "life-integrated learning" (which they define as material which intersects with students' interests/experiences) provoked positive emotions related to those topics. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper, while conceptual in nature, is informed by both research and practice. Exploring the “engagement interface” as the site for student engagement (SE), we offer a conceptual contribution in engaging with the Kahu and Nelson (2018) model by bringing in a fuller understanding of SE grounded in the higher education context rather than being uncritically transplanted from a compulsory education context. This involves consideration of the multiple facets of SE as well as the dynamic, shifting and multilocal nature of the construct. The paper then proceeds to enhance the details of the model, grounding them in a finer-grained reading of the literature and relating educational constructs to the model’s proposed “mechanisms” in a conceptually substantiated way. This further extends Kahu and Nelson’s aim of illuminating the “black box” of SE. Our third contribution is to practice by proposing tactics: informed by the literature, we invite practitioners to consider ways in which they can increase the likelihood of facilitating engagement with, and by, students more constructively.
... Finally, though this study used the self-regulatory perspective to interpret the influences of social media use at work, the current study did not measure the resource depletion process empirically, an omission that could be problematic. For example, Sirois and Pychyl (2013) argued that short-term procrastination may help repair emotional resources, which, in turn, enhances subsequent work engagement. Thus, future studies should capture the changes in such resources instead of only capturing the outcomes of resource depletion such as work engagement. ...
Article
Despite the wide use of social media in the workplace, only limited research has addressed how social media use at work would influence employees’ work and affective outcomes. Building upon the self-regulatory perspective, the current study proposes that social media use at work will induce interruptions and procrastination, which in turn will reduce employees’ work engagement; individuals then will show the feeling of guilt because of decreased work engagement. This study examines the proposed theoretical model with an experience sample methodology (ESM), moving beyond predominant between-person designs in the social media use literature. 155 full-time employees were recruited and asked to report their daily experiences for ten consecutive workdays, finally resulting in 1165 data points at the within-person level. Results showed that daily social media use at work exerted a negative indirect effect on work engagement via procrastination, and it also had a positive indirect effect on guilt via interruption and procrastination. This study helps to elucidate the underlying mechanisms between social media use at work and employee outcomes, as well as enriching the literature by examining guilt as the psychological cost of using social media in the workplace.
... The behavioral and emotional results may have additional consequences as well. Procrastination is known to result in stress and other health problems (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). In a 2014 study with 96 undergraduate students, participants were offered assistance (as an intervention) to help plan goals and decompose a large task. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many students do not set goals or plan their time weekly (due to lack of ability, perceived difficulty, and other reasons) resulting in procrastination, stress, and lower academic performance. This paper presents the design methodology and considerations for a human assistive AI agent that helps students review and plan for study goals, reducing a large abstract problem into a set of simpler review tasks. J.A.R.E.T. (Just A Recommender Engine for Time) uses key principles from Self-Regulated Learning and Cognitive Load Theory in an interactive system that guides students through focused goal review and planning tasks, then uses a constraint satisfaction AI agent to assemble a proposed calendar schedule designed to help achieve the student’s goals. The AI agent uses hard and soft constraints with a value function designed and searches for a best fit that follows constraints while trying to also fit student preferences. Results show that the design is able to reliably build recommended solutions when constraints and preferences are reasonable and not overly restrictive.
... Further, results showed no differences between conditions regarding overall positive or negative affect, although item-level analysis of negative affect revealed higher scores for guilt and shame in the group condition. This finding regarding guilt and shame may seem surprising, because previous studies have found an association between negative affect and greater, rather than less, procrastination (e.g., Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). Rather than offering an interpretation of this result, the study highlights the need for a more thorough facet-level analysis of the relationship between group work and positive and negative affect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current research has paid little attention to contextual or social factors that may contribute to procrastination. One social factor, which may influence procrastination, is group work among students. Compared to individual work, group work can enhance individual effort and performance when the individual's contribution is indispensable for group success. In a field experiment, students with high levels of trait procrastination completed a typical academic assignment (i.e., compiling a bibliography), either in group work with an indispensable contribution or in individual work. Lower procrastination and higher performance were found in group work with an indispensable contribution as compared to individual work. Exploration of positive and negative task-related affect revealed no differences between conditions. Results add to the current theoretical understanding of procrastination and might inspire a new approach, which aims at preventing procrastination by changes in the learning environment.
... As aforementioned in the introduction section, potential hypercoupling of emotional regulation and episodic future thinking could be recognized as crucial cognitive pathway for procrastinators (Zhang et al. 2019a, b). In other words, the frequent negativeoriented thoughts might pose individuals to the failure of mood-repair regulation, thus resulting in critically problematic procrastination (Sirois and Pychyl 2013;Eckert et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2019a, b). Notably, the present study provided the first direct evidence that the multimodalities neuro-networks supporting emotion regulation and episodic prospection might be the hallmarks of trait procrastination, in accordance with our theoretical framework. ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination behavior is quite ubiquitous, and should warrant cautions to us owing to its significant influences in poor mental health, low subjective well-beings and bad academic performance. However, how to identify this behavioral problem have not yet to be fully elucidated. 1132 participants were recruited as distribution of benchmark. 81 high trait procrastinators (HP) and matched low trait procrastinators (LP) were screened. To address this issue, we have built upon the hybrid brain model by using hierarchical machine learning techniques to classify HP and LP with multi-modalities neuroimaging data (i.e., grey matter volume, fractional anisotropy, static/dynamic amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and static/dynamic degree centrality). Further, we capitalized on the multiple Canonical Correlation Analysis (mCCA) and joint Independent Component Analysis algorithm (mCCA + jICA) to clarify its fusion neural components as well. The hybrid brain model showed high accuracy to discriminate HP and LP (accuracy rate = 87.04%, sensitivity rate = 86.42%, specificity rate = 85.19%). Moreover, results of mCCA + jICA model revealed several joint-discriminative neural independent components (ICs) of this classification, showing wider co-variants of frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus networks. In addition, this study demonstrated three modal-specific discriminative ICs for classification, highlighting the temporal variants of brain local and global natures in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and PHC in HP. To sum-up, this research developed a hybrid brain model to identify trait procrastination with high accuracy, and further revealed the neural hallmarks of this trait by integrating neuroimaging fusion data.
... Además de su elevada frecuencia, la procrastinación en el ámbito académico se asocia con consecuencias negativas tan importantes como el bajo rendimiento académico (Hidalgo-Fuentes, Martínez-Álvarez & Sospedra-Baeza 2021), aumento de comportamientos académicos deshonestos (Clariana, Gotzens, del Mar Badia & Cladellas, 2012), disminución del compromiso académico (Aspée et al., 2021), estrategias de aprendizaje desadaptativas (Sirois & Kitner, 2015) o mayor probabilidad de abandonar los estudios (Bäulke, Eckerlein & Dresel, 2018). Además de con características personales, la procrastinación se ha relacionado con tareas difíciles, aburridas o estresantes (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013); mientras que Internet se considera generalmente una fuente de entretenimiento que proporciona experiencias agradables (Novak, Hoffman & Duhachek, 2003), por lo que esta tecnología se ha considerado de manera natural como un facilitador de la procrastinación en estudiantes (Davis, Flett & Besser, 2002). Así mismo, diversos estudios han encontrado una asociación entre el UPI y la procrastinación en el ámbito educativo (Kandemir, 2014;Uzun, Unal & Tokel, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
El uso problemático de Internet y la procrastinación son dos fenómenos ampliamente extendidos tanto entre la población general como especialmente entre los estudiantes adolescentes y jóvenes. Ambos fenómenos están asociados a numerosas consecuencias negativas en el ámbito educativo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es examinar mediante técnicas meta-analíticas la relación entre el uso problemático de Internet y la procrastinación en estudiantes. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PsycInfo, Scopus, PubMed y Web of Science, recuperando un total de 17 tamaños del efecto independientes pertenecientes a 16 artículos. La muestra total estaba compuesta por 8,421 estudiantes. Los resultados revelan una relación moderada entre el uso problemático de Internet y la procrastinación (r = .40), por lo que aquellos estudiantes que muestran mayores niveles de uso problemático de Internet presentan mayores puntuaciones de procrastinación. La variabilidad de los estudios incluidos es alta (I2 = 93,94 %) y no se aprecia la presencia de sesgo de publicación. Se discuten las implicaciones y las limitaciones del trabajo. Se apunta la necesidad de continuar investigando la relación entre las dos variables, especialmente mediante estudios de tipo longitudinal.
... Besides, modern theories have reported that deficiency of the ability to follow healthy methods of regulating negative emotions, is the main key in understanding procrastination (F. Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Tice & Bratslavsky, 2000). Individuals under stress tend to evaluate themselves in more negative emotions and try to control their self-image due to fear of failing to complete tasks on time, so their motivation to procrastinate in sleep increases and their mental health decreases more than the stressed individuals (Ko & Chang, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore the relationship between bedtime procrastination, stress, and well-being among undergraduates (N=536; 324 males, 60.4%; 212 females, 39.6%; M age = 24.27, SD = 5.62). Participants completed online questionnaires on the Bedtime Procrastination Scale, Stress Scale, and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. Results showed that the Non-stressed were higher well-being more than the Stressed group. Furthermore, bedtime procrastination was correlated positively with stress, negatively with mental well-being, and males were higher bedtime procrastination than females. Students who live alone are more bedtime procrastinating than ones who live with their family. These results suggest that bedtime delay is an important variable related to stress and defecting in well-being. Procrastinators have risk-taking behaviors that can be included psychological problems.
... While it may decrease discomfort temporarily (cf. Sirois and Pychyl, 2013), the activity being postponed still has to be performed on a later occasion, causing more stress overall (Tice and Baumeister, 1997). Sickness Nausea, dizziness, and shudders "Dizziness, inertia, and brain fog." ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination refers to voluntarily postponing an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for this delay, and students are considered to be especially negatively affected. According to estimates in the literature, at least half of the students believe procrastination impacts their academic achievements and well-being. As of yet, evidence-based ideas on how to differentiate severe from less severe cases of procrastination in this population do not exist, but are important in order to identify those students in need of support. The current study recruited participants from different universities in Sweden to participate in an anonymous online survey investigating self-rated levels of procrastination, impulsivity, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, stress, and quality of life. Furthermore, diagnostic criteria for pathological delay (PDC) as well as self-report items and open-ended questions were used to determine the severity of their procrastination and its associated physical and psychological issues. In total, 732 participants completed the survey. A median-split on the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS) and the responses to the PDC were used to differentiate two groups; “less severe procrastination” (PPS ≤ 2.99; n = 344; 67.7% female; M age = 30.03; SD age = 9.35), and “severe procrastination” (PPS ≥ 3.00; n = 388; 66.2% female; M age = 27.76; SD age = 7.08). For participants in the severe group, 96–97% considered procrastination to a problem, compared to 42–48% in the less severe group. The two groups also differed with regard to considering seeking help for procrastination, 35–38% compared to 5–7%. Participants in the severe group also reported more problems of procrastination in different life domains, greater symptoms of psychological issues, and lower quality of life. A thematic analysis of the responses on what physical issues were related to procrastination revealed that these were characterized by stress and anxiety, e.g., tension, pain, and sleep and rest, while the psychological issues were related to stress and anxiety, but also depression, e.g., self-criticism, remorse, and self-esteem. The current study recommends the PPS to be used as an initial screening tool, while the PDC can more accurately determine the severity level of procrastination for a specific individual.
... However, (Pychyl, 2013) stated that not all delay is procrastination. According to Sirois & Pychyl, (2013) in contrast to reasoned delay aimed at facilitating goal attainment in achievement settings, or external delays beyond one's control, procrastination represents a needless gap between intention and action that is indicative of selfregulation failure. (Schouwenburg, 1995) revealed that 70 percent of college students consider themselves as procrastinators. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prospective elementary teachers face and encounter academic procrastination during the entire course of study. This study determined ways to mitigate procrastination among prospective elementary teachers of the selected Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The qualitative research design using thematic analysis analyzed the activities, reasons, and challenges in procrastination. Generated responses revealed that school-related activities and home responsibilities were the activities that they frequently procrastinate. External, internal/personal, school, and family factors are reasons that triggered them to procrastinate while school and behavior-related issues are the challenges they encountered. Task and behavior management are ways to mitigate the encountered procrastination.
... Several authors posit that procrastination may be an important component of a short-term mood regulation strategy playing a significant role in mood repair (Pychyl & Sirois, 2016;Sirois & Pychyl, 2013;Wypych, Matuszewski, & Dragan, 2018;Zhang, Liu, & Feng, 2019). On the other hand, mood disorders are associated with affective temperaments that are traitrelated manifestations, stable over time (Kawamura et al., 2010) and having cultural specificities (Vázquez, Tondo, Mazzarini, & Gonda, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The study purpose was to assess the relationship between affective temperaments and procrastination and to examine the role of emotional reactivity as a mediator in this relationship. We hypothesized that depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments as well as emotional reactivity would be positively correlated with procrastination while the hyperthymic temperament would be negatively correlated, and that emotional reactivity would mediate the relationship between affective temperaments and procrastination. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 315 healthy Caucasian adults (193 women and 122 men) aged 18-69 (M = 31.64, SD = 12.14). The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-Questionnaire (TEMPS-A) was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious). The temperament traits postulated by the regulative theory of temperament were measured with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory Revised (FCB-TIR). Procrastination was evaluated via a Polish version of the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS). Results The affective temperaments positively correlated with procrastination, except for hyperthymic temperament (negative correlation). Emotional reactivity and perseveration had a positive relationship with procrastination, while briskness, endurance and rhythmicity had a negative correlation. Cyclothymic temperament and emotional reactivity were found to be significant predictors of procrastination; hyperthymic temperament, endurance and rhythmicity may provide buffers against procrastination. Conclusions Cyclothymic temperament is an important predictor of procrastination. Emotional reactivity significantly mediated between cyclothymic temperament and procrastination. Hyperthymic temperament, endurance and rhythmicity may provide a buffer against procrastination.
... Si bien la mayoría de las mismas comparten la idea de que se trata de la dilación de diferentes tareas que estaban previstas, incluso cuando es conocido que por ello se actúa en contra de los intereses de uno mismo (Rebetez et al., 2016;Steel, 2011), este acuerdo no es tan claro en cuanto a las causas de este proceso y la relación que presenta con otros factores personales. Cada vez hay un mayor interés por este asunto, tal y como ponen de manifiesto los trabajos que se están realizando, dado que la procrastinación es una problemática muy extendida en la sociedad actual, en diversas culturas y en los diferentes ámbitos de la vida de la persona, considerándose como una conducta inadecuada y aversiva que dificulta la inserción efectiva de la persona en su cultura (Sirois y Pychyl, 2013). Si comprendemos los motivos por los que las personas procrastinan, podremos intervenir para reducir dicho comportamiento y mejorar, por tanto, la vida en sociedad. ...
Article
Full-text available
La procrastinación es un comportamiento común en el ámbito académico asociado a diversas consecuencias negativas. La autoestima, entendida como una actitud global hacia uno mismo, es una de las variables que se ha asociado con la procrastinación académica. El objetivo del presente trabajo es examinar mediante técnicas meta-analíticas la relación entre la autoestima y la procrastinación en estudiantes. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PsycInfo, Scopus y PubMed de la investigación sobre las variables de interés publicada desde el año 2000. Se analizaron un total de 35 estudios independientes pertenecientes a 33 artículos que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. La muestra total estaba compuesta por 13,233 participantes. Los resultados muestran una relación negativa de intensidad media entre la autoestima y la procrastinación en estudiantes, por lo que aquellos estudiantes que muestran una menor autoestima presentan una mayor procrastinación. Los análisis de meta-regresión mostraron que la edad media y el sexo no son variables moderadoras estadísticamente significativas; mientras que el análisis de subgrupos tampoco muestra que el nivel educativo modere el tamaño del efecto. No se aprecia la presencia de sesgo de publicación. Se comentan las implicaciones y las limitaciones del trabajo. Se señala la pertenencia de implementar programas para aumentar la autoestima de los estudiantes.
Article
Procrastination refers to an irrationally delay for intended courses of action despite of anticipating a negative consequence due to this delay. Previous studies tried to reveal the neural substrates of procrastination in terms of connectome-based biomarkers. Based on this, we proposed a unified triple brain network model for procrastination and pinpointed out what challenges we are facing in understanding neural mechanism of procrastination. Specifically, based on neuroanatomical features, the unified triple brain network model proposed that connectome-based underpinning of procrastination could be ascribed to the abnormalities of self-control network (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), emotion-regulation network (i.e., orbital frontal cortex, OFC), and episodic prospection network (i.e., para-hippocampus cortex, PHC). Moreover, based on the brain functional features, procrastination had been attributed to disruptive neural circuits on FPN (frontoparietal network)-SCN (subcortical network) and FPN-SAN (salience network), which led us to hypothesize the crucial roles of interplay between these networks on procrastination in unified triple brain network model. Despite of these findings, poor interpretability and computational model limited further understanding for procrastination from theoretical and neural perspectives. On balance, the current study provided an overview to show current progress on the connectome-based biomarkers for procrastination, and proposed the integrative neurocognitive model of procrastination.
Article
Procrastination is generally recognized as a problematic behavior and the consequences of which spread to various aspects of an individual’s life such as academic performance, social accomplishment, well-being, and health. Previous studies have indicated that neuroticism is positively correlated with procrastination; however, little is known about the neural substrates underlying the link between neuroticism and procrastination. To address this issue, we employed voxel‐based morphometry (VBM) and resting‐state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods to investigate the neural underpinning for their relationship in the present study (N = 153). Consistent with our hypothesis, the behavior results verified a positive correlation between neuroticism and procrastination (r = 0.47). The VBM analysis revealed that the gray matter (GM) volumes in the right middle temporal gyrus (RMTG) were positively correlated with neuroticism. Moreover, results from RSFC analysis suggested that the functional connectivity between RMTG and the right superior frontal gyrus (RSFG) was positively associated with neuroticism. More importantly, a mediation analysis demonstrated that neuroticism played a full mediating role in the impact of RMTG-RSFG functional connectivity on procrastination. Overall, the present study offered new insights into the relation between neuroticism and procrastination from a neural basis perspective, which also suggested the importance of emotional regulation with regard to the link between such an association.
Article
Objective: To explore the relation between procrastination and physical activity in college students and test whether grit mediated, age and gender moderated the process. Participants: 610 college students (aged 20.07 ± 1.53; 45.2% males) in Shanghai. Methods: Procrastination, grit and physical activity were tested respectively by International Procrastination Scale, Grit-S scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Correlation analysis showed that procrastination, grit and physical activity were related in pairs. Procrastination was negatively correlated with physical activity. Grit mediated between procrastination and physical activity. Females showed stronger moderation effect from grit to physical activity than males, while the effect between procrastination and grit was more significant for the younger. Conclusion: The moderated mediating model provided a new strategy of improving personality traits which contributed to lack of physical activity. More psychologically relevant measures should be taken in reducing procrastination to improve physical activity via improving grit.
Article
Online learning has recently replaced traditional offline learning as the mainstream learning model for Chinese college students owing to the COVID‐19 pandemic. This study examined the relationship between online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination among 1149 Chinese undergraduates who participated in online learning. The effects of online self‐regulated learning on academic procrastination and whether it was mediated by attention control and moderated by peer support were investigated. Mediation analyses revealed that attention control partially mediates online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination. Peer support moderated the direct effect of online self‐regulated learning and the mediating effect of attention control on academic procrastination. Our findings provide important ways to reduce academic procrastination and mitigate the adverse impacts of online learning. Low online self‐regulated learning predicts higher academic procrastination. Attention control mediates the relationship between online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination. The direct effect of online self‐regulated learning and the mediating effect of attention control on academic procrastination is moderated by peer support. Low online self‐regulated learning predicts higher academic procrastination. Attention control mediates the relationship between online self‐regulated learning and academic procrastination. The direct effect of online self‐regulated learning and the mediating effect of attention control on academic procrastination is moderated by peer support.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of this study is to determine the impact of health consciousness on organic food purchasing intentions in addition to determine whether there is a difference between elite athletes competing in team and individual sports in terms of organic food purchasing intention. For this purpose, we have conducted one on one surveys with elite athletes from Yozgat, Sivas, Amasya, Kırıkkale and Tokat provinces in Turkey. Data gathered was analyzed using SPSS 16 software package. As a result of this study, we found that there are no significant differences between elite athletes from team and individual sports in terms of organic food purchasing intention and that health consciousness has a positive and significant impact on an individual's organic food purchasing intention.
Article
Background: Bedtime procrastination (BP), a special type of health behavior procrastination, is considered to be a failure of self-control. Notably, self-control may mediate the effect of trait anxiety on general procrastination. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and BP. Moreover, the association between BP and trait anxiety has not yet been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the direct relationship between them as well as the mediating role of self-control in this relationship. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 718 college students enrolled in Chinese universities between October 2018 and January 2020. The Chinese versions of the Bedtime Procrastination Scale, the Self-Control Scale, and the Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate BP, self-control, and trait anxiety, respectively. Results: Multiple linear regression analysis revealed trait anxiety independently predicted BP while controlling for demographic characteristics. Correlation analyses showed that BP was positively correlated with trait anxiety, but negatively related to self-control. Structural equation modeling further revealed a mediating role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and BP. Conclusions: Trait anxiety is a significant independent predictor of BP and may induce BP directly or indirectly through the effect of self-control. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between trait anxiety and BP and the underlying mechanism by exploring the mediating effect of self-control. As such, trait anxiety and self-control should be included in prevention and intervention strategies to address BP behavior in college students.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of young athletes’ social appearance anxiety and social health consciousness on organic food beliefs and beliefs on intention to purchase organic food. For this purpose, face-to-face surveys were applied to sportsmen in Çorum. According to the results, it is determined that social appearance anxiety is negative effective and social health consciousness is positive effective on organic food beliefs. Also, it is results of the study that awareness of organic food is effective on intentionsto buy organic food.
Article
Procrastination can lead to a variety of negative consequences, including poorer health conditions and more financial issues. Previous researches highlight that procrastination is a result of the failure of emotion-regulation. Although substantial studies have shown that emotion regulation plays an essential role in procrastination, little is known about the neural basis of the relationship between expressive suppression and procrastination. To address this question, we employed the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method to investigate the neural basis underlying how expressive suppression links to procrastination across two independent samples (sample1, N = 98). Expressive suppression was significantly negatively associated with procrastination. Furthermore, VBM results indicated that expressive suppression was positively correlated with gray matter (GM) volumes of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). More importantly, the GM volumes in dlPFC mediated the relationship between expressive suppression and procrastination, which was further replicated in an independent sample (sample 2, N = 110). These findings suggest that dlPFC, which plays a crucial role in inhibitory control, may be the key brain region mediating the relation between expressive suppression and procrastination. The current work provides a new perspective to understand how emotion regulation in terms of expressive suppression plays a role in procrastination.
Article
Full-text available
H ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα φαίνεται ότι επηρεάζεται και από μη γνωστικούς παράγοντες, όπως οι συναισθηματικές ικανότητες και τα κίνητρα μάθησης. Σκοπός της μελέτης ήταν η διερεύνηση της σχέσης ανάμεσα στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα, στη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη και στην ακαδημαϊκή κινητοποίηση. Οι συμμετέχοντες ήταν 108 προπτυχιακοί φοιτητές του τμήματος Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας. Συμπλήρωσαν ερωτηματολόγιο με τις κλίμακες Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale και Academic Motivation Scale. Τα αποτελέσματα ανέδειξαν αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα σε όλες τις ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και επιπλέον αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα στην αυτόνομη κινητοποίηση και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα. Ειδικότερα, η κατανόηση των συναισθημάτων του εαυτού, η χρήση των συναισθημάτων για ενίσχυση της επίδοσης και η εσωτερική ρύθμιση προβλέπουν χαμηλότερα επίπεδα ακαδημαϊκής αναβλητικότητας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας υποστηρίζουν τις ευεργετικές επιδράσεις της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και της αυτόνομης κινητοποίησης στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και θα μπορούσαν να συμβάλουν στον τρόπο με τον οποίο τα πανεπιστημιακά τμήματα οργανώνουν το πρόγραμμα σπουδών τους αλλά και στην ανάδειξη του αντικειμένου σπουδών από τους ίδιους τους πανεπιστημιακούς δασκάλους, ώστε να ενισχυθούν οι ακαδημαϊκές επιδόσεις των φοιτητών.
Article
The current research examined individuals’ perceptions of difficulty regarding goal striving in the near and distant future. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that predictions decrease over increasing temporal distance. Participants forecasted how difficult several goal-related tasks would be at varying points in the future. Our hypothesis was mostly supported. Results from hierarchical linear modeling showed many statistically significant linear and quadratic effects of temporal distance on predictions within and across goal tasks. Moreover, all future time points were rated as easier compared to now, with medium to large differences in difficulty. In Study 2, participants forecasted the difficulty of pursuing a goal-related task two days away, and we followed up to assess actual difficulty. Participants’ predictions were generally accurate. Goal commitment moderated accuracy, as individuals low (vs. high) in goal commitment underestimated (overestimated) difficulty. Overall, our results suggest that cognitions about future goal striving may affect momentary motivation and self-regulation.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine whether work-related emotional intelligence (W-EI) benefits job performance among knowledge-intensive workers. Design/methodology/approach Postdoctoral researchers (Study 1) and industry researchers (Study 2) were recruited (total N = 304). These knowledge workers completed an ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) test and characterized their work-related performance. Potential moderators were also assessed. Findings There were positive relations between W-EI scores and both task performance and creative performance. In addition, these relationships were stronger in the context of higher levels of job negative affect and/or role overload. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, these findings are among the first to demonstrate the value of the EI construct within a knowledge-intensive workforce.
Article
Although academic procrastination is prevalent, few interventions targeting it have been rigorously tested. We propose a novel approach to developing effective classroom interventions for academic procrastination, based on the ideas that changing complex behaviors requires a holistic, multipronged approach and that intervention research must embrace objective measures of procrastination behavior. We illustrate what such intervention efforts may look like by deriving some easily implementable techniques from a simple process model of self-control, which characterizes procrastination as a goal-management failure resulting from a need to repair negative emotion triggered by impending academic tasks.
Article
This present investigation used a person-centered approach to identifying student profiles based on homework time, time management, and procrastination. Using the data from 541 eighth-grade students, latent profile analysis yielded four distinct profiles: Inefficient Learners, Moderate Learners, Efficient Learners, and Minimalists. In addition, findings indicated that gender predicted profile membership; girls were more likely than boys to be in the Efficient Learners and Moderate Learners than in the Inefficient Learners. The Efficient Learners completed the most homework and attained the highest scores on mathematics achievement. The Minimalists completed the least amount of homework, and the Minimalist and the Inefficient Learners scored the lowest on mathematics achievement. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed in light of these results.
Article
Full-text available
In Sample 1, 46 procrastinators compared with 52 nonprocrastinators claimed lower self-esteem, greater public self-consciousness and social anxiety, and a stronger tendency toward self-handicapping. In Sample 2, 48 procrastinators compared with 54 nonprocrastinators reported a weaker tendency toward seeking self-identity information but a stronger tendency toward a diffuse-identity style, yet there were no significant differences in verbal and abstract thinking abilities. Further research must provide evidence for persistent procrastination as a personality disorder that includes anxiety, avoidance, and a fear of evaluation of ability.
Article
Full-text available
When an attractive action opportunity has been forgone, individuals tend to decline a substantially less attractive current opportunity in the same action domain, even though, in an absolute sense, it still has positive value. The hypothesis that continued inaction (inaction inertia) occurs in the service of avoiding anticipated regret was tested. In Experiments 1 and 2, when repeated contact with the forgone opportunity (and, hence, the experience of regret) was made unavoidable the tendency toward subsequent inaction decreased. The inaction inertia effect was also reduced when avoidance costs were increased (Experiment 3) or when the initial reason for avoidance was removed (Experiment 4). Experiment 4 included a thought-listing task that provided direct evidence for the role of regret in producing inaction inertia.
Article
Full-text available
For five consecutive days, participants listed daily tasks they intended to complete. Recall of listed tasks served as the primary dependent variable. Characteristics of the task, including whether or not the task was actually completed, did not, in general, predict recall. The one exception was that the rated importance of the task to one's family did increase the likelihood of recall. Individual differences in avoidant procrastination were negatively related to the likelihood of recalling listed tasks. Avoidant procrastination also was related (positively) to false positive rates, the degree to which individuals "recalled" tasks that they had not listed the previous day. These findings suggest that procrastinators may have general cognitive processing strategies that are different from non-procrastinators. However, further research is needed to explore the information processing abilities of people who delay completing tasks.
Article
Full-text available
An 18-item Procrastinatory Cognitions Inventory was developed in Study 1 and related to trait procrastination and negative affect. The research participants were 208 university students. Procrastinatory cognitions were found to mediate trait procrastination-negative affect relations. In Study 2,66 university students completed the Procrastinatory Cognitions Inventory in terms of anticipated ruminations over the next three weeks (Time 1), and in terms of past ruminations experienced in that period, three weeks later at Time 2. The two assessments of procrastinatory cognitions demonstrated high stability. Trait procrastination was positively associated with procrastinatory cognitions at Time 1 and Time 2. Cognitions were related to self-reported dilatory behavior and to negative affect obtained at Time 2. The usefulness of the Procrastinatory Cognitions Inventory was discussed and suggestions for future research were made.
Article
Full-text available
The role of autonomous self-regulation as a predictor of academic procrastination was assessed. French-Canadian students from a junior college (N = 498) completed the Academic Motivation Scale as well as an academic procrastination scale and other measures (anxiety, self-esteem, and depression) that have been found to be related to fear of failure. Correlation results indicated that students with intrinsic reasons for pursuing academic tasks procrastinated less than those with less autonomous reasons (external regulation and amotivation). Regression results indicated that the measures of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety accounted for 14% of the variance in academic procrastination, whereas the self-regulation variables accounted for 25%. These results support the notion that procrastination is a motivational problem that involves more than poor time management skills or trait laziness.
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is variously described as harmful, innocuous, or even beneficial. Two longitudinal studies examined procrastination among students. Procrastinators reported lower stress and less illness than nonprocrastinators early in the semester, but they reported higher stress and more illness late in the term, and overall they were sicker. Procrastinators also received lower grades on all assignments. Procrastination thus appears to be a self-defeating behavior pattern marked by short-term benefits and long-term costs.
Article
Full-text available
Three studies examined the motivational implications of thinking about how things could have been worse. It was hypothesized that when these downward counterfactuals yield negative affect, through consideration of the possibility of a negative outcome, motivation to change and improve would be increased (the wake-up call). When downward counterfactuals yield positive affect, through diminishing the impact of a potentially negative outcome, motivation to change and improve should be reduced (the Pangloss effect). Results from three studies supported these hypotheses. Studies 1 and 2 showed that a manipulation of the counterfactual made about an investment influenced decisions toward that investment. Study 3 showed that students’ academic motivation was influenced by a manipulation of the type of downward counterfactual they made after an exam and that affect mediated the relationship between the counterfactual and motivation.
Article
Full-text available
Counterfactual thinking involves the imagination of non-factual alternatives to reality. We investigated the spontaneous generation of both upward counterfactuals, which improve on reality, and downward counterfactuals, which worsen reality. All subjects gained $5 playing a computer-simulated blackjack game. However, this outcome was framed to be perceived as either a win, a neutral event, or a loss. "Loss" frames produced more upward and fewer downward counterfactuals than did either "win" or "neutral" frames, but the overall prevalence of counterfactual thinking did not vary with outcome valence. In addition, subjects who expected to play the game again made more upward counterfactuals and were less satisfied with the outcome than were subjects who did not expect to play again. However, once subjects saw the cards from which they could have selected had they "hit" again (two winning cards and two losing cards), all subjects generated primarily upward counterfactuals and showed a corresponding decrease in satisfaction. These results implicate both cognitive and motivational factors in the generation of counterfactuals and tell us something about the functional value of counterfactual thinking: downward counterfactuals provide comfort; upward counterfactuals prepare one for the future.
Article
Full-text available
Because procrastination concerns a person’s ability to meet deadlines, temporal dimension is clearly important to this personality construct. In the present study, the characteristic profile of arousal and avoidant motives of procrastinators were related to past, present, and future time conceptions. Participants (140 women, 135 men; mean age=49.4, SD=5.55) completed measures of arousal and avoidance procrastination, and time orientation. Results indicated that avoidant procrastination was associated negatively with present-fatalistic time orientation, and arousal procrastination was associated positively with present-hedonist and negatively with future time orientations. The variance accounted for by time orientations was modest, yet provides further evidence that there are distinct motives for chronic procrastination.
Article
Full-text available
Although previous research has demonstrated that procrastinators experience high levels of stress, less is known about the internal sources of stress associated with this behavioural style. This study is the first to investigate low self-compassion as a source of procrastinators’ self-generated stress. Across four samples (145 undergraduates, 339, undergraduates, 190 undergraduates, and 94 community adults) trait procrastination was associated with low self-compassion and high stress. A meta-analysis of these effects revealed a moderately strong negative association of procrastination with self-compassion. In all four samples bootstrapping tests found that low self-compassion explained the stress associated with procrastination. These findings suggest that low self-compassion is a source of stress for procrastinators and interventions that promote self-compassion may be beneficial for these individuals.
Chapter
Full-text available
Research into why individuals do or do not engage in important health behaviors is often approached from the perspective of expectancy-value theories of motivation. Such theories suggest that the motivation to engage in a behavior is regulated by the outcome expectancies for the behavior and the value of the outcome. However, the relationship of expectancies and values to stable individual differences known to affect motivation are often overlooked. In this chapter the links between procrastination, a behavioral style known to be linked to poor health behaviors, and household safety behaviors were examined using an expectancy-value theory (EVT) framework. Adults (n = 254) recruited from the community and the Internet completed selfreport measures of procrastination, health self-efficacy, household safety behaviors, previous experiences with household accidents, and questions about the importance of keeping their homes free from potential accidents. Despite the fact that chronic procrastinators were more likely to have experienced a household accident that could have been prevented, procrastination was negatively related to the performance of household safety behaviors. Procrastination was also negatively related to health-self-efficacy and household safety value. Hierarchical regression testing the EVT variables found support for the predictive value of both outcome expectancies (self-efficacy) and value, but not their product, in explaining household safety behaviors after controlling for procrastination. Separate path analyses tested whether selfefficacy and valuing household safety mediated the relationship between procrastination and household safety behaviors. Safety value and self-efficacy each partially mediated the procrastination-household safety behaviour relationship after controlling for procrastination. These findings suggest that EVT may be useful for explaining motivations for household safety behaviors in general, and may also provide insight into the lack of motivation for these behaviors demonstrated by procrastinators.
Article
Full-text available
Initial investigations into the links between procrastination and health in student samples implicated stress-related and behavioural pathways. However, it is unknown if these relations are the same for com-munity-dwelling adults, or if alternative measures of procrastination and health behaviors will yield the same results. To replicate and extend previous findings 254 adults recruited from the community and the Internet completed self-report measures of procrastination, health, stress, wellness and household safety behaviours. Consistent with previous work, procrastination was associated with higher stress, more acute health problems, and the practice of fewer wellness behaviours. Procrastinators also reported fewer house-hold safety behaviours, and less frequent dental and medical check-ups. The structural equation modeling analyses revealed that stress fully mediated the procrastination–health relationship, but health behaviours did not when the combined effect with stress was considered. These findings suggest that in addition to hin-dering a variety of health-related behaviours, procrastination may confer additional risk for increased stress, and consequently more health problems.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we extend previous work documenting links between procrastination, stress, and physical health by examining the potential role of mindfulness in explaining the high stress and poor health reported by procrastina-tors. A sample of 339 students (81% female) completed an on-line survey that included measures of trait procrastination, mindfulness, perceived stress, and per-ceived health. Univariate analyses revealed that procrastination was associated with low mindfulness, high stress, and poor perceived health. Structural equation mod-elling was used to test the role of mindfulness in explaining the links between procrastination and stress, and between procrastination and perceived health. The overall measurement model indicated a good fit to the data. Tests of the nested mediation models revealed that the effects of procrastination on stress and health were mediated by mindfulness, and bootstrapping analyses confirmed the signifi-cance of these effects. Our findings are consistent with previous research and theory on the salutatory effects of mindfulness for health and well-being and indicate that for procrastinators, low mindfulness may be a risk factor for poor emotional and physical well-being. This paper is based in part on data collected for Natalia Tosti's (2010) honours thesis.
Article
Full-text available
Guided by the conceptual framework of the consumer decision-making model, the present study compared the factors associated with initial and long-term use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. A survey was completed by 239 people recruited from the offices of physicians and CAM practitioners. Conventional medicine clients (n = 54), new or infrequent clients (n = 73), and established CAM clients (n = 112) were compared to identify the decision factors for initial and long-term CAM use. Consistent with the components of this model, we found support for the roles of external influences (age, social recommendations), decision process factors (symptom severity, egalitarian provider preference), and post-decision factors (dissatisfaction with conventional care) depending on whether the pattern of CAM use was new or infrequent or established. Overall, this study provides preliminary support for the utility of the consumer decision-making model as an integrative framework for understanding the roles of correlates of CAM use.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments from the patients' perspective using a whole systems research approach as a guiding framework. We conducted five focus groups of six to eight participants each, with users of CAM recruited through experienced CAM providers and clinics. Eligible participants were aged 21 or older, had used CAM in the last 12 months, and believed the treatment to be beneficial. The focus group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through a quali-tative content analysis. Responses were inductively coded for common themes, and then placed into broader conceptual categories reflecting the CAM outcome domains suggested by Verhoef and colleagues. Participants described physical health benefits including symptom relief and improved function, and positive psychological benefits such as improved coping and resilience. Social health benefits that arose from the positive aspects of the patient-practitioner relationship were also reported, including support and advocacy. In addition, participants identified empowerment, increased hope and spiritual growth as results of receiving CAM treatments. A new behavioral health outcome domain emerged as partici-pants reported that CAM use had fostered behavioral changes such as increased exercise, smoking cessation and improv-ing their diets. These patient-reported benefits of CAM treatment are consistent with the outcome model proposed by Verhoef and col-leagues, and extend this model by identifying a new outcome domain—behavioral health outcome. The findings provide insight and direction for the development of outcome and process measures to evaluate CAM treatment effects.
Article
Full-text available
When an attractive action opportunity has been forgone, individuals tend to decline a substantially less attractive current opportunity in the same action domain, even though, in an absolute sense, it still has positive value. The hypothesis that continued inaction (inaction inertia) occurs in the service of avoiding anticipated regret was tested. In Experiments 1 and 2, when repeated contact with the forgone opportunity (and, hence, the experience of regret) was made unavoidable, the tendency toward subsequent inaction decreased. The inaction inertia effect was also reduced when avoidance costs were increased (Experiment 3) or when the initial reason for avoidance was removed (Experiment 4). Experiment 4 included a thought-listing task that provided direct evidence for the role of regret in producing inaction inertia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Introduces the concept of possible selves (PSs) to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. PSs represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming, and thus provide a conceptual link beteen cognition and motivation. PSs are the cognitive components of hopes, fears, goals, and threats; they give the specific self-relevant form, meaning, organization, and direction to these dynamics. It is suggested that PSs function as incentives for future behavior and to provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. The nature and function of PSs and their role in addressing several persistent problems (e.g., the stability and malleability of the self, the unity of the self, self-distortion, the relationship between the self-concept and behavior) are discussed. (143 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Counterfactual thoughts ("might-have-been" reconstructions of past outcomes) may serve an affective function (feeling better) and a preparative function (future improvement). Three studies showed that counterfactuals varying in their direction and structure may differentially serve these 2 functions. Direction influenced affect such that downward (vs upward) counterfactuals caused more positive affect. Direction influenced intentions such that upward (vs downward) counterfactuals heightened intentions to perform success-facilitating behaviors. Both direction and structure influenced performance on an anagram task such that upward and additive (vs downward and subtractive) counterfactuals engendered greater improvement. These findings suggest that people can strategically use downward counterfactuals to make themselves feel better and upward and additive counterfactuals to improve performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Investigated the frequency of 342 college students' procrastination on academic tasks and the reasons for procrastination behavior. A high percentage of Ss reported problems with procrastination on several specific academic tasks. Self-reported procrastination was positively correlated with the number of self-paced quizzes Ss took late in the semester and with participation in an experimental session offered late in the semester. A factor analysis of the reasons for procrastination Ss listed in a procrastination assessment scale indicated that the factors Fear of Failure and Aversiveness of the Task accounted for most of the variance. A small but very homogeneous group of Ss endorsed items on the Fear of Failure factor that correlated significantly with self-report measures of depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, delayed study behavior, anxiety, and lack of assertion. A larger and relatively heterogeneous group of Ss reported procrastinating as a result of aversiveness of the task. The Aversiveness of the Task factor correlated significantly with depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, and delayed study behavior. Results indicate that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management, but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective components. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies used the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving (K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) to examine the motivational processes by which people can increase their level of well-being during a period of time and then maintain the gain or perhaps increase it even further during the next period of time. In Study I, entering freshmen with self-concordant motivation better attained their 1st-semester goals, which in turn predicted increased adjustment and greater self-concordance for the next semester's goals. Increased self-concordance in turn predicted even better goal attainment during the 2nd semester, which led to further increases in adjustment and to higher levels of ego development by the end of the year. Study 2 replicated the basic model in a 2-week study of short-term goals set in the laboratory. Limits of the model and implications for the question of how (and whether) happiness may be increased are discussed.
Conference Paper
An 18-item Procrastinatory Cognitions Inventory was developed in Study 1 and related to trait procrastination and negative affect. The research participants were 208 university students. Procrastinatory cognitions were found to mediate trait procrastination-negative affect relations. In Study 2,66 university students completed the Procrastinatory Cognitions Inventory in terms of anticipated ruminations over the next three weeks (Time 1), and in terms of past ruminations experienced in that period, three weeks later at Time 2. The two assessments of procrastinatory cognitions demonstrated high stability. Trait procrastination was positively associated with procrastinatory cognitions at Time 1 and Time 2. Cognitions were related to self-reported dilatory behavior and to negative affect obtained at Time 2. The usefulness of the Procrastinatory Cognitions Inventory was discussed and suggestions for future research were made.
Article
Most research concerning chronic procrastination has focused on the cognitive and behavioral aspects of delay in starting or completing tasks. The primary goal of the current study was to clarify the relationship of chronic procrastination with affective experiences of shame and guilt. In the present study, 86 undergraduates (34 male, 52 female) completed two measures of chronic procrastination as well as measures of shame, guilt, perfectionism, self-esteem, fear of negative evaluation, and conscientiousness. Correlational analyses demonstrated that shame-proneness was related to procrastination tendencies, whereas guilt-proneness was not. In addition, using hierarchical regression, shame was found to be a moderator between chronic procrastination and perfectionism, particularly socially-prescribed perfectionism. Overall, the results suggest that affect plays an important role in understanding the complex dynamics of chronic procrastination.
Article
Counterfactuals are mental representations of alternatives to the past and produce consequences that are both beneficial and aversive to the individual. These apparently contradictory effects are integrated into a functionalist model of counterfactual thinking. The author reviews research in support of the assertions that (a) counterfactual thinking is activated automatically in response to negative affect, (b) the content of counterfactuals targets particularly likely causes of misfortune, (c) counterfactuals produce negative affective consequences through a contrast-effect mechanism and positive inferential consequences through a causal-inference mechanism, and (d) the net effect of counterfactual thinking is beneficial.
Article
This research evaluated assumptions of self-regulation and specious rewards explanations of procrastination which postulate that a reduced focus on the future among procrastinators is due to their increased focus on current concerns and immediate rewards. In Study 1, 147 college undergraduates completed self-report measures of procrastination and past, present and future time perspectives. Consistent with these theories, high levels of procrastination were predicted by a reduced focus on the future. However, contrary to assumptions of these models, procrastination was also predicted by high levels of fatalism, rather than hedonism, about the present and negative attitudes about the past. This pattern of findings was replicated in Study 2 (n = 160), after controlling for level of current negative affect. Low levels of structured, subjectively meaningful use of time also contributed to procrastination, beyond the impact of negative affect or perceptions of the past, present, and future. Together, findings suggest that explanations invoking failures in self-regulation or preoccupations with specious rewards to account for procrastinators' reduced focus on setting and carrying out future goals require modification. © 2003 Individual Differences Research Group. All rights reserved.
Chapter
What does the apparent lack of concern for one's future, which is involved in many cases of procrastination, entail with respect to our conception of personal identity? One claim that is prominent in the debate is that the fact that we normally have a special concern for our future selves is a problem for psychological continuity theories (such as those of Derek Parfit). On the basis of a detailed account of the various kinds of procrastination and of the ways imprudent procrastination involves harm to future selves, this chapter argues that procrastinators often impose an uncompensated burden on their future selves, something that is best explained by a lack of concern for their future selves. The lesson that follows is that the objections to psychological continuity theories based on the idea of a special concern for our future selves are in serious trouble.
Chapter
Procrastination is defined typically as an irrational tendency to delay tasks that should be completed (Lay, 1986). Procrastination is believed to be associated with several cognitive, behavioral, and affective correlates and is regarded as a “dysfunction of important human abilities” in routine tasks and critical life tasks (Milgram, Sroloff, & Rosenbaum, 1988, p. 210). The extent of the dysfunction is reflected by estimates indicating that at least 25% of students suffer from severe levels of procrastination (see Hill, Hill, Chabot, & Barrall, 1978; McCown, Johnson, & Petzel, 1989b). Given the potential importance of the procrastination construct, it is perhaps not surprising that it is a topic that has been discussed at length by clinicians and by counselors (e.g., Burka & Yuen, 1983; Ellis & Knaus, 1977; Rarer, 1983).
Book
The design and evaluation of questionnaires—and of other written and oral materials—is a challenging endeavor, fraught with potential pitfalls. Cognitive Interviewing: A Tool for Improving Questionnaire Design describes a means of systematically developing survey questions through investigations that intensively probe the thought processes of individuals who are presented with those inquiries. The work provides general guidance about questionnaire design, development, and pre-testing sequence, with an emphasis on the cognitive interview. In particular, the book gives detailed instructions about the use of verbal probing techniques, and how one can elicit additional information from subjects about their thinking and about the manner in which they react to tested questions. These tools help researchers discover how well their questions are working, where they are failing, and determine what they can do to rectify the wide variety of problems that may surface while working with questionnaires.
Chapter
It is believed that the quality of social relationships determines a person's resistance to infection - this is the hypothesis of this chapter. On the one hand, healthy interaction with others and strong ties both facilitate a drive to be concerned about oneself, tolerate effective regulation of emotional reactions, and provide back-up during difficult situations. While on the other hand, laboratory experiments and epidemiological research have discovered that stressful circumstances with significant others and unexpected transitory events inhibit the production of cellular components for immunity functions; hence, increasing the risk of acquiring upper respiratory ailments. In addition, low involvement in society or isolation accompanies a high risk of early death, which is comparable to the high mortality rate caused by persistent smoking. Although much of the literature, along with the study in this chapter, agrees on the positive effect of social relationships to susceptibility to the common cold, there are certain factors such as lifestyle and genes that can possibly account for the same outcomes.
Article
Consideration of counterfactual alternatives to negative outcomes, particularly when the counterfactuals change those outcomes, has repeatedly been shown to intensify regret and judgments of blame. Two studies examined the influence of the relevance of the counterfactual to future behavior on Ss' judgments of regret and self-blame after a negative outcome. Results indicated that a dispositional tendency to consider the future consequences of current behavior can ameliorate the negative affect caused by thinking about how a negative outcome could have been avoided. Results also suggested that this amelioration is particularly likely to occur when Ss are induced to focus on the future. These findings are discussed in terms of understanding the positive functions counterfactuals may serve, particularly with respect to the determination of future behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although relevant nomothetically-based personality literature has made great advances in recent years correlating traits to measures of procrastination, little is known about the specific irrational beliefs of procrastinators, especially when they are actively avoiding tasks or situations. Based on theories from Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), it was hypothesized that compared to non-procrastinators, college student academic procrastinators would show greater self depreciation, greater other depreciation, greater life condition depreciation, and a lower frustration tolerance. Academic procrastination was operationally defined by quartile distributions on two self- report measures and three classroom-based assignments. Procrastinators and non-procrastinating students were given instructions to write approximately 500 words about their thoughts and feelings while they were in the process of actively putting off a specific, real event. While actually procrastinating, students logged on to a web site and made text entries describing what was going through their minds. Data were analyzed with the Psychiatric Content and Diagnosis Program Version 3 (PCAD 3; Gottschalk and Bechtel in Psychiatric content and diagnosis: the PCAD 3. GB Software, Brighton, MI, 2007). Procrastinators and non-procrastinators differed on relevant PCAD scales, supporting the hypotheses derived from REBT theory. Treatment implications and directions for future research are discussed.