Adenovirus-mediated expression of spermidine/spermine N-1-acetyltransferase gene induces S-phase arrest in human colorectal cancer cells
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, P.R. China. Oncology Reports
(Impact Factor: 2.3).
12/2008; 20(5):1229-35. DOI: 10.3892/or_00000134
Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a key enzyme of polyamine catabolism. In a previous study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-SSAT, which can express human SSAT. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ad-SSAT on the growth and cell cycle of colorectal cancer cells. We found that Ad-SSAT increased the expression of SSAT and inhibited the growth of HT-29 and Lovo cells. The growth inhibition was caused by cell cycle arrest in the S phase. Furthermore, Ad-SSAT was shown to suppress the expression of cyclin A and nuclear factor E2F-1 in HT-29 and Lovo cells. The inhibitory effect of Ad-SSAT on cyclin A promoter activity was also observed in a reporter gene assay. Our results suggest that the expression of SSAT mediated by Ad-SSAT infection inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells and induces cell cycle arrest at the S phase, through a mechanism involving the suppression of cyclin A and E2F-1 expression.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: In addition to polyamine homoeostasis, it has become increasingly clear that polyamine catabolism can play a dominant role in drug response, apoptosis and the response to stressful stimuli, and contribute to the aetiology of several pathological states, including cancer. The highly inducible enzymes SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase) and SMO (spermine oxidase) and the generally constitutively expressed APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase) appear to play critical roles in many normal and disease processes. The dysregulation of polyamine catabolism frequently accompanies several disease states and suggests that such dysregulation may both provide useful insight into disease mechanism and provide unique druggable targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Each of these enzymes has the potential to alter polyamine homoeostasis in response to multiple cell signals and the two oxidases produce the reactive oxygen species H2O2 and aldehydes, each with the potential to produce pathological states. The activity of SSAT provides substrates for APAO or substrates for the polyamine exporter, thus reducing the intracellular polyamine concentration, the net effect of which depends on the magnitude and rate of any increase in SSAT. SSAT may also influence cellular metabolism via interaction with other proteins and by perturbing the content of acetyl-CoA and ATP. The goal of the present review is to cover those aspects of polyamine catabolism that have an impact on disease aetiology or treatment and to provide a solid background in this ever more exciting aspect of polyamine biology.
Available from: Ajeet Mandal
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ABSTRACT: The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are essential polycations, intimately involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation. Although polyamines exert dynamic effects on the conformation of nucleic acids and macromolecular synthesis in vitro, their specific functions in vivo are poorly understood. We investigated the cellular function of polyamines by overexpression of a key catabolic enzyme, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) in mammalian cells. Transient cotransfection of HeLa cells with GFP and SAT1 vectors suppressed GFP protein expression without lowering its mRNA level, an indication that the block in GFP expression was not at transcription, but at translation. Fluorescence single-cell imaging also revealed specific inhibition of endogenous protein synthesis in the SAT1 overexpressing cells, without any inhibition of synthesis of DNA or RNA. Overexpression of SAT1 using a SAT1 adenovirus led to rapid depletion of cellular spermidine and spermine, total inhibition of protein synthesis, and growth arrest within 24 h. The SAT1 effect is most likely due to depletion of spermidine and spermine, because stable polyamine analogs that are not substrates for SAT1 restored GFP and endogenous protein synthesis. Loss of polysomes with increased 80S monosomes in the polyamine-depleted cells suggests a direct role for polyamines in translation initiation. Our data provide strong evidence for a primary function of polyamines, spermidine and spermine, in translation in mammalian cells.
Available from: Gloria Ines Sanchez
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Cervical cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive microenvironment and a Th2-type cytokine profile. Expression of Arginase (ASE), the enzyme that converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is stimulated by Th2-type cytokines.
To assess the association of ASE activity and L-Arg metabolism products with cervical cancer.
Sera of 87 and 41 women with histologically confirmed by colposcopy-directed biopsy SCC and CIN3 respectively and 79 with normal cytology or Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL), were evaluated. Cytokines were measured using Milliplex Human cytokine/chemokine kit. Arginase (ASE) activity was determined using an enzymatic assay. Levels of L-Arginine, L-Ornithine, Putrescine and Spermine were determined by HPLC.
Significantly higher levels of ASE activity were observed in women with CIN3 (Age-adjusted OR: 24.3; 95%CI: 3.82-155) and SCC (AOR: 9.8; 95%CI: 2.34-40.8). As expected, possibly due to high levels of ASE activity, higher levels of L-Arg were negatively associated with CIN3 (AOR: 0.03; 95%CI: 0.004-0.19) and SSC (AOR: 0.06; 95%CI: 0.02-0.24). Consistent with the role of ASE in the conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and polyamine production therefrom, women with cervical cancer had higher levels of Spermine and Putrescine. A correlation analysis revealed a significant albeit weak relationship between high levels of IL-10 and high levels of ASE (Pearson r = 0.32, p-value = 0.003) in women with cervical cancer.
This study indicates that ASE activity and L-Arg degradation mechanisms of immunosuppression are present in cervical cancer. The results foster research in the design of possible strategies to inhibit ASE activity for therapy of cervical cancer.
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