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Abstract

The technology Hydroponics and Aeroponics plays very crucial role in 21 st century in soilless culture in commercial food production. In this technology natural media is helpful to grow the plants. The main principle involving the use of sprayers, nebulizers, foggers to create a fine mist of solution of deliver nutrients to plants roots. Plant roots are suspended above a reservoir of nutrient solution or inside a channel connected to a reservoir. Plants will grow under optimal conditions like nutrient, temperature, aeration, and pH. In this technique oxygen is influenced into the nutrient solution, allowing the roots to absorb nutrients quicker and more easily. This facilitates stimulating the rapid growth, preventing algae formation and resulting high yields.
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
___________________________________________________________________________
© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 26
Role of Hydroponics and Aeroponics in Soilless Culture in Commercial Food
Production
Lakkireddy K. K. R.*, Kasturi K., Sambasiva Rao K. R. S.
Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur - 522 510, A.P., India
*Author for Correspondence: E-mail kiransbiotech@gmail.com
1. HYDROPONICS AND AEROPONICS
The word hydroponics has its derivation from
the combing of two Greek words, hydro
meaning water and ponos meaning labor, i.e,
water work”. The word first appeared in a
scientific magazine article (Science, Feb
178:1) Gericke and Setchell, 1937.
Hydroponics is a method of growing plants
using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil.
Similarly related hydroponic terms are
aqua(water) culture”, “hydro culture”,
“nutriculture”, “soilless culture”, “soilless
agriculture”, “tank farming” or “chemical
culture”. A hydroponicist is defined as one,
who practices hydroponics, and hydroponicum
defined as a building or garden in which
hydroponics is practiced [1].
Hydroponics is a technology for growing
plants in nutrient solutions (water containing
fertilizers) with or without the use of an
artificial medium (sand, gravel, vermiculture,
rokwool, perlite, peat moss, coir, or sawdust)
to provide mechanical support. Liquid
hydroponic systems have no other supporting
medium for the plant roots. Aggregate systems
have a solid medium of support. It does not
harm our environment as runoff from fertilized
soil and very little water is lost to evaporation.
It is very useful in drought stricken areas.
These hydroponic medium are designed to be
very porous for excellent retention of air and
water. Healthy plant-roots are developed by
good breathe. In this hydroponics plants will
get perfectly balanced diet [2].
Aeroponic is a form of hydroponic technique.
The word aeroponic is derived from the Latin
meaning of “aero” (air) and “ponic” (work).
Aeroponic growth refers to growth achieved in
an air culture. Such conditions occur in nature.
ABSTRACT
The technology Hydroponics and Aeroponics plays very crucial role in 21st century in soilless culture in
commercial food production. In this technology natural media is helpful to grow the plants. The main
principle involving the use of sprayers, nebulizers, foggers to create a fine mist of solution of deliver
nutrients to plants roots. Plant roots are suspended above a reservoir of nutrient solution or inside a
channel connected to a reservoir. Plants will grow under optimal conditions like nutrient, temperature,
aeration, and pH. In this technique oxygen is influenced into the nutrient solution, allowing the roots to
absorb nutrients quicker and more easily. This facilitates stimulating the rapid growth, preventing algae
formation and resulting high yields.
Keywords: Hydroponic, aeroponic, greenhouse, NASA, nutrient solution
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
___________________________________________________________________________
© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 27
For example, in tropical climates orchids
develop and grow freely in trees.
2. AEROPONIS IS AN APPLICATION
OF HYDROPONICS WITHOUT A
GROWING MEDIUM
Plant roots are suspended mid-air inside a
chamber kept at a 100% humidity level and
fed with a fine spray of nutrient solution. This
mid-air feeding allows the roots to absorb
much needed oxygen, thereby increasing
metabolism and rate of growth reportedly up
to 10 times of that in soil. And there is nearly
no water loss due to evaporation. Laboratory
research on air culture growing utilizing
vapors began in the mid 1940s. Today
aeroponics is used in agriculture around the
globe [3]. Aeroponic culture differs from both
hydroponics and in vitro (plant tissue culture)
growing. Unlike hydroponics, which uses
water as a growing medium and essential
mineral to sustain plant growth, aeroponics is
conducted without growing medium [4].
3. HISTORICAL PAST
Ancient people such as the Babylonians and
Aztecs used growing techniques where
nutrients were obtained from sources other
than soil. The mineral nutrients solutions used
today for hydroponics were not developed
until the 1800s [5].The first use of controlled-
environment agriculture (CEA) was the
growing of off-season cucumbers under
“transparent stone” (mica) for the Roman
Emperor Tiberius during the 1st century; the
technology is believed to have been used little,
at all, for the following 1500 years [6].
Greenhouses (and experimental hydroponics)
appeared in France and England during the
17th century; Woodward grew mint plants
without soil in England in the year 1699. The
basic laboratory techniques of nutrient solution
culture were developed (independently) by
Sachs and Knap in Germany [7].
Greenhouse areas began to expand
significantly in Europe and Asia during 1950s,
and large hydroponic system were developed
in the deserts of California, Arizona, Abu
Dhabi, and Iran about 1970 [6,8]. In the late
1960s researches at the Glasshouse Crops
Research Institute (GCRI) Littlehampton,
England developed the Nutrient Film
Technique (NFT) along with a number of
subsequent refinements [9]. In selecting a
greenhouse site, a grower must be aware of
several chemical properties that might cause
problems for greenhouse growers; PH
alkalinity, soluble salts etc. [10]. It was Carter
in 1942 that first researched air culture
growing and described a method of growing
plants in water vapor to facilitate examination
of roots. It was Went in 1957 who first coined
the air-growing process as “aeroponics”
growing coffee plants and tomatoes with air-
suspended roots and applying a nutrient mist
to the root selection.
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
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© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 28
4. SOILLESS CULTURE/AEROPONICS
AND HYDROPONICS
Gericke originally defined hydroponics as crop
growth in mineral nutrient solution, with no
solid medium for the roots. The distinction
between hydroponics and soil less culture of
plants has often been blurred. Soil less culture
is a broader term than hydroponics; it only
requires that no soils clay or silt is used. Note
that sand is a type of soil yet sand culture is
considered a type of soilless culture.
“Hydroponics is always soilless culture, but
not all soilless culture is hydroponics” [11].
5. METHODS
1. Solution culture
(A) Static solution culture
(B) Continuous flow solution culture
(C) Aeroponics
2. Medium culture
(A) Sub irrigation
(B) Top irrigation.
One of the most obvious decisions
hydroponicists have to make is which medium
they should use. Different media are
appropriate for different growing techniques.
Dennins, Hoagland and Daniel developed
several formulas for mineral nutrient solutions,
known as Hoagland solutions. Modified
Hoagland solutions are still used today. Knop
and other plant physiologists (a history of how
the hydroponic concept was conceived is
given by Steiner [23], showed conclusively
that K, Mg, Ca, Fe, and P along with S, C, N,
H, and O are all necessary for plant life. In
1940, Gericke wrote the book, Complete
Guide to Soil less Gardening [13].
Knop’s Nutrient Solution
Reagent (g/L)
Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 0.2
Calcium nitrate [Ca (NO3)2·4H2O] 0.8
Monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) 0.2
Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4·7H2O) 0.2
Ferric phosphate (FePO4) 0.1
Diahydro, expanded clay-under the trademarks
‘Hydroton’ or LECA (light expanded clay
aggregate), rookwool, and coco peat also
known as coir or coco, perliteis a volcanoic
rock, vermiculture, sand, gravel, brick shards,
polystyrene paking peanuts and nutrient
solutions are available as a media for plant
growth [14].
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
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Fig.1: Simple Hydroponics Wick System.
6. PRODUCTION OF PLANT ROOTS
SECONDARY METABOLITES
Plant secondary metabolites are largely used
for anticancer antiviral drugs. Hydroponics has
been used to grow entire plant in no sterile
conditions and to force root secondary
metabolite exudation in order to collect these
compounds from the nutrient solution in which
the plant has grown. The alkaloids like
hyoscyamine and scopolamine can be obtained
from living Datura innoxia mill. In the
production of plant secondary metabolites we
considered hydroponics as a system
comparable to bioreactors. It is known that
hydroponics which can lead to biomass
production and this culture method is largely
employed for legumes and flowers growth
[15].This technology has been called “Plant
Milking Technology (PMT)” because it
consists of forcing root exudation in order to
collect to liquid nutrient solution. An obvious
analogy to cow growing and milking thus
largely appear Hydroponics plants release
their compounds without loose of viability
[16].
7. HYDROPONICS IN NETHERLANDS
The Netherlands was formerly one of Europe’s
largest users of methyl bromide for soil
fumigation. Using this pesticide to control soil
borne pests on greenhouse grown crops such
as tomatoes, lettuce, strawberries, cucumbers,
sweet peppers, eggplants, as well as well as
nursery crops and cut flowers (only a small
amount was used to fumigate soils in field
crops). By using alternative cropping methods,
such as hydroponics and soil less culture on
artificial substrates, growers in the
Netherlands have successfully eliminated the
risk of infection of soil borne pests, while
increasing crop yield and quality [17].
Hydroponics and soil less on artificial
substrates as an alternative to methyl bromide
soil fumigation. This method was frequently
used in Netherlands.
Air stone Air pump
Wick
Wick
Grow tray
and
growing media
Reservoir
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
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© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 30
8. HYDROPONICS IN SPACE
Hydroponics for space, helpful of purifying
water, maintaining a balance between oxygen
(O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in space
sections and providing food for astronauts is
being intensively researched [1821].
Hydroponics growing in desert areas of the
world and in areas such as the Polar Regions
[6, 22 25].
One of the early success of hydroponics
occurred on Wake Island, a rocky atoll in the
Pacific Ocean used as a refueling stop for Pan
American Airlines. Hydroponics was used
there in the 1930s to grow vegetables for
passengers. Hydroponics was a necessity on
Wake Island because there was no soil, and it
was prohibitively expense to airlift in fresh
vegetables. In the 1960s, Allen Cooper of
England developed the Nutrient Film
Technique. The land pavilion at Walt Disney
World’s EPCOT center opened in 1982 and
prominently features a variety of hydroponic
techniques. In recent decades, NASA has done
extensive hydroponic research for their
Control Ecological Life Support System
(CELSS). Hydroponics intended to take place
on Mars are using LED lighting to grown in
different color spectrums with much less heat
[26].
9. NASA AEROPONICS
Aeroponics is defined as a system where roots
are continuously or discontinuously in an
environment saturated with fine drops (a mist
or aerosol) of nutrient solution. The method
requires no substrate and entails growing
plants with their roots periodically wetted with
a fine mist of automized nutrients. Excellent
aeration is the main advantage of aeroponics
[27]. The first commercially available
aeroponic apparatus was manufactured and
marketed by GTi in 1983. It was known then
as the “Genesis Machine”. The Genesis
machine was marketed as “Genesis rooting
system”. At the time, the achievement was
revolutionary of terns of a developing
(artificial air culture) technology. The Genesis
machine simply connected to a water faucet
and an electrical outlet Aeroponic techniques
have been given special attention from NASA
since a mist is easier to handle than a liquid in
a zero gravity environment [28].
10. SPACE PLANTS
Plants were first taken into earth’s orbit in
1960s on two separate missions, Sputnik 4 and
Discover 17. NASA life support GAP
technology has done experiments with beans,
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
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© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 31
wheat, pea, and maize in space. Plant
experiments were later performed on a variety
of Soviet, American, and joint Soviet
American missions, including Biosatellite 2,
Skylab 3, and 4, Apollo-Soyuz, Sputnik,
Vostok, and Zond. Some of the earliest
research results showed the effect of low
gravity on the orientation of roots and shoots
[29].
11. BIOCONTROLS IN SPACE
In 1996, NASA sponsored Stoner’s research
for a natural liquid biocontrol, known then as
organic disease control (ODC), that activates
plants to grow without the need for pesticides
as a means of control pathogens in a closed-
loop culture system. ODC is derived from
natural aquatic materials. In 1997, Stoner’s
biocontrol experiments were conducted by
NASA. The NASA experiments were
conducted to study only the benefits of the
biocontrol [30]. NASA low-mas inflatable
aoneroponics system (AIS) an inflatable low-
mass aeroponic system (AIS) for space and
earth for high performance food production is
a self-contained, self-supporting, inflatable
aeroponic crop production unit with integral
environmental systems for the control and
delivery of a nutrient/mist to the roots [31].
Aeroponic bio-pharming is used to grow
pharmaceutical medicine inside the plants. The
technology allows for completed containment
of allow remain inside a closed-loop facility.
As recently as 2005, GMO research at South
Dakota State University by Dr. Neil Reese
applied aeroponic to grow genetically
modified corn. Aeroponically grown
biopharma corn in 2005. Reese says
aeroponics buffer the ability to make
biopharming economically practical [32]. In
2006, the Ag University of Hanoi Vietnam in
joint effort with Stoner established the
postgraduate doctoral program in aeroponics.
Vietman joined the World Trade Organization
(WTO) in January 2007. The impact of
aeroponics in Vietman will be felt at the farm
level.
12. ADVANTAGES
Hydroponics is an indoor horticulture. It is
best to adapt hydroponics in areas where the
soil is not suitable for plant growth like
Antarctica and Space colonies. Hydroponics is
incredible amount of water; it uses as little as
1/20 the amount of as a regular farm to
produce same amount of food. Nutrient
solutions may be re-used in other areas such as
potted plants and turf management. Growing
medium can be reused and recycled. Culture
and technique requires less space. When
removing the crops, it can be packed and sold.
When alive to retain its freshness for a longer
time [33].
Due to rising awareness of chemicals and
contaminants in the food supply, people are
looking for safer alternatives. Fortunately,
Hydroponics is an exact fit for the consumer’s
new requirements. Plants will develop strong
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
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© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 32
resistance. There are also much more
consistent results when using Hydroponics,
because it is much a CEA. Because
hydroponics systems are inside greenhouses,
crops can by grown year-round, without being
effected by the weather. “Hydroponics gives
the farmer precise control of the plants and
often even the seasons” [2].
Growing smaller hydroponics gardens for
personal enjoyment and consumption is a
trend right nowdays. Home growing
Hydroponics kits are presently available that
start at about fifty dollars No soil means no
weeds or soil borne pets and disease. The root
systems stay smaller on hydroponically grown
plants, so the plant can concentrate its growth
energy on producing plant mass, rather that
roots. This can result in up to 30% faster
growth [34].
13. DISADVANTAGES
High setup costs initially, necessary skills, and
knowledge and the fact that not all plants can
be grown hydroponically. The failing of the
timers or pumps or clogging of the system can
lead to a quick death of plants. No doubt,
hydroponics is a promising technique but there
are still many problems left unresolved ,e.g.,
you can achieve great biomass increases
compared to “Normal” culture methods, but
unfortunately at the expense of concentrations
of secondary metabolites or/and resistance
against pathogens [35].
13. 21st CENTURY AEROPONICS
Aeroponics is an improvement in artificial life
support for non-damaging plant support, seed
germination, environmental control, and drip
irrigation techniques that have been used for
decades by traditional agriculturalists.
Advantages are excellent aeration is the main
advantage of Aeroponics. These techniques
have been given special attention from NASA;
since a mist is easier to handle than a liquid in
a zero gravity environment. One of the main
disadvantages was expensive [27].The
technology of Hydroponic systems is changing
rapidly with systems today producing yeilds
never before realized. The future for
hydroponics appears more positive today than
any time over the last 50 years. I sincerely
believe hydroponics will be fashionable again.
14. CONCLUSION
Hydroponics was method of growing plants
using mineral nutrients solutions instead of
soil. Aeroponic was a form of hydroponics
technique. Hydroponics and aeroponics plays
very important role for the commercial food
production. Hydroponics grown plants will get
perfectly balanced diet. In recent decades,
NASA has done extensive hydroponics
research for their Control Ecological Life
Support System (CELSS). NASA sponsored
Stoner’s research for natural liquid biocontrol,
known then as ODC, that activates plants to
grow without the need for pesticides as a
Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology
Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2012, Pages 26-35.
___________________________________________________________________________
© STM Journals 2012. All Rights Reserved Page 33
means of control pathogens in a closed-loop
culture system. Aeroponic bio-pharming is
used to grow pharmaceutical medicine of
plants. The use of CEA was the growing of
off-season cucumbers under ‘’transparent
stone’’ (mica). Greenhouses are expanding
significantly in France, England, Europe, and
Asia during 1950s, and large hydroponics
system were developed in deserts of
California, Arizona, Abu Dhabi, and Iran.
Today hydroponics and aeroponics are used in
agriculture around the globe [3].
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... Edible cacti are commonly grown in soil or pot culture. Major problems commonly encountered in growing vegetables in soil include soil-borne disease, salt accumulation, and difficulty in fertilizer management (Lakkireddy et al., 2012). Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using nutrient solution (water and fertilizer) with or without the use of an artificial medium, and it can be used for the production of several crops with added advantages. ...
... Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using nutrient solution (water and fertilizer) with or without the use of an artificial medium, and it can be used for the production of several crops with added advantages. For example, this system can avoid the costly and time-consuming task of soil sterilization to prevent soil-borne disease and enable precise fertilizer management (Wahome et al., 2011;Lakkireddy et al., 2012). In hydroponics, several methods have been established to reduce the nitrate content of vegetables (Wang et al., 2007;Stefanelli et al., 2011). ...
... Hydroponic culture is the main cultivation system used in enclosed plant factories, whereas both soil and hydroponic technologies are used in natural sunlight systems. Hydroponic culture can circumvent the expensive and time-consuming task of soil sterilization to prevent soil-borne diseases and enables precise fertilizer management (Wahome et al., 2011;Lakkireddy et al., 2012). ...
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This study investigated the effects of light of different wavelengths on the growth and quality of daughter cladodes in the edible cactus Nopalea cochenillifera. Mother cladodes were cultivated under a deep-flow hydroponic culture system and irradiated with red or blue light alone or in combination (in the ratio 1:3 or 3:1) in an enclosed-type plant factory. Daughter cladodes developed from mother cladodes in all treatments. The rate of elongation of first cladodes was lower under blue light and the combination of red and blue light (in the ratio 1:3) compared with other treatments. The number of daughter cladodes was also low under blue light. Thus, compared with red light, blue light appears to suppress daughter cladode development. However, the width of daughter cladodes was higher under blue light and the combination of red and blue light (in the ratio 1:3) compared with other treatments. Total fresh weight (FW) of daughter cladodes emerging from one mother cladode was lowest under blue light and high under combined red and blue light (1:3 and 3:1). The number of spines, an undesirable characteristic of edible cacti, was significantly higher under both combinations of red and blue light (1:3 and 3:1) compared to other treatments. On the other hand, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of extracts of the daughter cladodes was highest under blue light or under combined red and blue light (1:3). Our results show that light wavelength strongly affects daughter cladode growth and development. Thus, controlling the lighting environment is effective for improving growth and quality in edible cacti.
... Natural or artificial solid materials, such as peat moss, coconut fibers, sawdust, sand, gravel, vermiculite, mineral wool, perlite, coal, or clay granules, are used in systems designated as aggregate hydroponics. These hydroponic materials are highly porous for excellent air and water retention (Lakkireddy et al. 2012). Systems without supporting media are sometimes denoted liquid hydroponics. ...
... Unlike hydroponics, which uses water-based nutrient solution as a growth matrix, aeroponics is without matrix. In aeroponics, the roots of plants grow suspended in the air, inside closed boxes (modules), and are fed with a nutrient solution that is dispersed -turned into the fog -and then recirculated (Lakkireddy et al. 2012). The International Society of Soilless Culture defines aeroponics as "a system where roots are continuously or discontinuously exposed to an environment saturated with fine drops (a mist) of nutrient solution" (Nugaliyadde et al. 2005). ...
... One of the first examples of water gardening was the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while the Aztecs established a method of suspended (floating) gardens based on hydroponics at Lake Tenochtitlan during the 10th and 11th centuries (El-Kazzaz and El-Kazzaz 2017). According to Lakkireddy et al. (2012), experimental hydroponics started in France and England during the 17th century, parallel with the development of greenhouses. The earliest published record regarding growing terrestrial plants in "water culture" was in the book Sylva Sylvarum by Sir Francis Bacon, printed in 1627 (El-Kazzaz and El-Kazzaz 2017). ...
Chapter
Commercial production of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is based on vegetative propagation by seed tubers. High-quality seed material is obtained from potato plants grown from minitubers (pre-basic seed potatoes). Likewise, minitubers are produced by acclimation and growth on soil or solid substrate of previously in vitro-propagated, virus-free microplants or microtubers. Aeroponics is a modern, soilless technique for minitubers’ production. In the aeroponic cultivation system, foliage is grown under conventional conditions, while the underground stems and roots of potato plants are located in a dark chamber, module, suspended in the air, and supplied with water and nutrients through a nutrient solution dispersed in the form of fine mist particles. Minitubers (tubers of 5-25 mm in size) are produced on underground stems, namely stolons. Potato minituber propagation in aeroponics has significant advantages over other used systems or techniques. This system enables the production of a high number of minitubers per plant during the production cycle that can usually be repeated during the year. Besides, successive harvesting allows minitubers to reach the desired, uniform size. Tubers grown in an aeroponic system are well-protected from pests and soil-borne diseases. Due to the recirculation of nutrient solution, efficient usage of space, and minimal environmental pollution, aeroponics enables the production of minitubers in an environmentally friendly manner. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the aeroponic production of potatoes. The advantages and deficiencies of this interesting production technique are also discussed.
... The word hydroponics derives from the word "hydro" meaning water and "ponos" meaning Labor (Lakkireddy, 2012). Hydroponic agriculture is a form of vertical agriculture. ...
... At the same time, an excellent product is obtained, since there are no diseases from the soil. Since hydroponic systems are installed in a greenhouse environment, they can be produced throughout the year so that the growing demand in the market can be easily supplied (Lakkireddy, 2012). ...
... Another disadvantage is that not every plant is suitable for growing with this system. On the other hand, the vegetables will start to deteriorate very quickly if the timer and pump that is the important building block for the system deteriorate (Lakkireddy, 2012). Heating and cooling system of hydroponics requires huge amount of energy. ...
Research
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This research is about what hydroponic agriculture is and its importance.You can also find the examples of this agriculture method in other countries
... The word aeroponic comes from two Latin words, "aero" which means air and "ponic" which means work. Aeroponics refers to growth achieved in an air culture [23]. Aeroponics is the development of plants without the use of soil or water as a substrate while maintaining all of the parameters important for plant growth (temperature, pH, humidity, electrical conductivity of nutrient solution, and so on) [24]. ...
... This technique introduces oxygen into the nutrient solution, making it easier for the roots to absorb nutrients. This facilitates stimulating the rapid growth, prevent algae formation and resulting high yields [23]. ...
Article
In India, with a growing population, soil and water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, highlighting the importance of maximising their usage for crop production. Due to urbanization, climate change, natural disasters and the indiscriminate application of herbicides and pesticides, all of which are reducing land fertility, poor yield and quality are currently affecting soil-based agriculture. So, now a days Hydroponic farming is gaining popularity around the world due to its effective resource management and high-quality food production. In this review article, types of hydroponics viz. wick system, ebb and flow, drip system, Nutrient Film Technique, deep water culture system and aeroponics; operations by this technique were discussed. These techniques have several advantages, including fewer growing times of crop than traditional methods, year-round production, low disease and pest incidence, and the elimination of weeding, spraying, and watering. Hydroponics play a great role in cultivating plants especially in urban areas, where very limited space available and water scarcity area.
... Banyak senyawa kimia yang diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan tanaman yang laju penyerapan berbanding lurus dengan konsentrasi nutrisi di dekat akar dalam larutan pada tanaman hidroponik (Othman, Basirun, Yahaya, & Arof, 2001). Namun, Larutan nutrisi harus diganti seminggu sekali atau ketika konsentrasi larutan turun di bawah nilai nominal (Lakkireddy, Kondapalli, & Sambasiva Rao, 2012). Berbagai cara telah dilakukan oleh para peneliti agar proses penggantian larutan nutrisi dapat dilakukan secara otomatis dengan memasang sensor pada sistem tersebut (Charumathi et al., 2017) (Belhekar et al., 2018) (Wedashwara, Ahmadi, & Arimbawa, 2019). ...
... Aeroponik merupakan bagian dari salah penanaman hidroponik dengan memanfaatkan udara tanpa menggunakan tanah. Aeroponik berasal dari kata aero yang bermakna udara dan ponos yang artinya daya, jadi aeroponik merupakan teknik media tanaman dengan memberdayakan udara (Lakkireddy et al, 2012). Akuaponik menerapkan gabungan antara kombinasi sistem akuakultur dan hidroponik yang bersifat saling menguntungkan (simbiotik). ...
Article
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Urban farming is an activity of using unproductive land into productive land in the yard of the house. Urban farming can contribute to food security, hope food patterns, increase people's income and as a means of channeling hobbies. Urban farming is an alternative in increasing the productivity of home gardens to increase hopeful food patterns and reduce the cost of daily consumption expenditures for households. This study aims to determine the public perception of urban farming and to determine the contribution of urban farming to the decrease in daily consumption costs. This research was conducted in Margajaya Village, West Bogor District, Bogor City. Descriptive statistics are used to determine people's perceptions of urban farming while inferential statistics are used to test the hypothesis that urban farming can reduce household daily consumption costs by 5 percent. The results showed that people who understand about urban farming as much as 87.23%. The results of testing the hypothesis that the portion of daily consumption cost reduction of more than 5 percent can be accepted at the 95% confidence level. This indicates that urban farming has an important role from an economic perspective. Socialization of urban farming programs is a necessity, to increase food security, it has the potential to increase people's income and reduce poverty in urban areas
... Banyak senyawa kimia yang diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan tanaman yang laju penyerapan berbanding lurus dengan konsentrasi nutrisi di dekat akar dalam larutan pada tanaman hidroponik (Othman, Basirun, Yahaya, & Arof, 2001). Namun, Larutan nutrisi harus diganti seminggu sekali atau ketika konsentrasi larutan turun di bawah nilai nominal (Lakkireddy, Kondapalli, & Sambasiva Rao, 2012). Berbagai cara telah dilakukan oleh para peneliti agar proses penggantian larutan nutrisi dapat dilakukan secara otomatis dengan memasang sensor pada sistem tersebut (Charumathi et al., 2017) (Belhekar et al., 2018) (Wedashwara, Ahmadi, & Arimbawa, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
IoT merupakan salah satu kemajuan yang signifikan dalam bidang informasi dan teknologi dan terus dapat dikembangkan untuk kemudahan aktivitas manusia. Pada penelitian ini, Sistem pintar IoT berbasis arduino dan android untuk pengukuran keasaman dan nutrisi air pada hidroponik. Arduino digunakan sebagai prosesor data yang masuk dari sensor untuk ditampilkan pada layar dan direspon memlaui relay untuk menghidupkan pompa jika nilai TDS dibawah nilai yang ditentukan. Data dari arduino dikirim ke cloud firebase sehingga bisa diakses melalui perangkat android. Perangkat lunak prosesor Arduino menggunkan bahasa C yang diedit pada IDE arduino. Android didesain menggunakan XML dan Kotlin untuk membantu proses control aplikasi yang dibuat menggunakan aplikasi android studio. Alat ukur arduino dikalibrasi dengan menggunakan data tegangan dan data PH serta data TDS yang seharusnya pada cairan kalibrasi. Kemudian didapatkan model linier untuk PH dan model polynomial pangkat tiga untuk TDS. Model tersebut diimplementasikan pada arduino dan didapatkan nilai pengukuran mendekati nilai kalibrasi dengan kesalahan 5.86% untuk PH dan 11.1% untuk TDS. Sistem IoT diamati dengan mencoba tampilan data serta otomasi dan control manual melalui android. Hasil tampilan, otomasi dan kontrol manual bekerja secara efektif sesuai fungsi sebagai IoT.
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Article
The demand for vegetable crops is steadily increasing and meeting it necessitates the integration of technology for optimal resource utilization, resulting in better output per product of inputs and superior product quality. Precision agriculture is one of the most cutting-edge technologies for sustainable agriculture that has exploded in popularity in twenty first century. Precision farming entails the application of products and methods to control temporal and spatial variability in all aspects of gardening generation in order to improve crop performance and setting quality (Lee et al. 2010). This innovative technology necessitates efficient resource management via site-specific hi-tech interventions. A comprehensive precision agriculture strategy encompasses crop planning, tillage, planting, chemical treatments, harvesting and post-harvest processing. Precision vegetable farming is a modern approach of increasing crop output by utilizing cutting edge technologies such as cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial intelligence (AI) and ach-ine Learning (ML). The fundamental goal of precision agriculture is to boost output by optimizing supplies such as water, pesticide sprays, plant nutrition, for which, prescription maps are critical, since they allow farm owners to quantify information needed for usable plants at any stage of growth. Protected cultivation is one of the most important applications of precision farming, which has been rapidly growing with the goal of balancing maximum yields with resource efficiency optimization through close monitoring of environmental variables and improved culture techniques. Different forms of protective cultivation procedures include greenhouses/polyhouses, low tunnels and mulches. Protected agriculture makes considerable use of soilless cultivation to gain better control over the growing environment and eliminate soil water and nutrient status problems. The most prevalent soilless culture methods are hydroponics, aeroponics and aquaponics. These advanced technologies and techniques used in soilless vegetable growing are referred to as "next generation crop science" and they have the potential to pave the way for the establishment of a new civilization in space. The lack of highly sophosticated technical centers for PA, specific software for PA and the poor economic status of general Indian farmers should all be taken into account in the country's future precision agriculture adoption strategy. Precision farming adoption can be aided by influencing farmers' attitudes toward modern technology through research, development and subsequent popularization of low-cost electronic gadgets that can increase small farmers' earnings.
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An interesting component of Opuntia ficus-indica is the mucilage for its properties and industrial uses. However, the great variability of its quantity and quality caused by different growing conditions, the hydroponic system is an alternative. The objective of the present study was cultivating 4 species of Mexican Nopal in a hydroponic system, extract and characterize the mucilage. The characterization consists of pH, ºBrix, colour, proximal analysis, phenols, antioxidant activity, crystallinity, and chemical bonding constituents. ‘Copena F1’ is the best alternative for production of biomass and mucilage. ‘Villanueva’ had high levels of phenols (1,311.83 mg GAE g-1), antioxidant capacity ABTS·+ (6,301.12 mg TE g-1) and FRAP (536.26 mg GAE g-1). A large amount of lipids (1.39%), and nitrogen-free extract (49.27%). The functional groups of the mucilage were identified (-OH, -CH, -CH2, -CH3, C=C, HCH, -CHO) and gypsum, cellulose, SiO2 CaSO4, C2H2K2O5, CaCO3 and CaH2 by X-ray diffraction. The hydroponic system is a viable alternative for production of nopal and mucilage of high-quality mucilage that can be used in several sectors of the industry.
The Complete Guide To Soilless Gardening
  • W F Gericke
Gericke W.F. The Complete Guide To Soilless Gardening. 1940. Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs. N.J.