Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The presence, distribution or abundance of many invasive alien plants is positively correlated with roads, so roads need to be taken into consideration when planning a survey in a poorly studied area. During the two field surveys organized in the framework of the 2nd Workshop on Invasive Plants in the Mediterranean Type Regions of the World,1 81 alien species were observed in the investigated area, i.e. 70 neophytes and 11 archeophytes (including 9 doubtful species), with 54 new records for the DAISIE inventory. Three of these species, Acalypha australis, Microstegium vimineum and Polygonum perfoliatum, were recorded near a tea factory, and the import of material for tea processing is expected to have been their pathway of introduction. The results of this survey in the region of Trabzon in North‐East Turkey show that roadside surveys are a useful tool for early detection efforts, in compiling and updating national or regional inventories (especially with time and budget constraints). This survey, being organized in the framework of an international workshop, enabled knowledge to be shared between experts in the field, and training of students and researchers. These survey methods could be adapted, improved, and used elsewhere by others seeking to use early detection as part of their overall weed strategy or to gather baseline data on invasive alien plants in a poorly studied area.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Nevertheless, there is not any national database for determination of invasive alien species in Turkey. Although there have been some other databases such as European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) and Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE) reported the occurrence of invasive alien plants dispersal in Turkey, there is still urgent need of a comprehensive local database [15], [16], [12]. The EPPO list is reported in Table 1 which indicates invasive alien plants recorded in Turkey [12]. ...
... The tea cultivation lands of Trabzon region in Turkey are tend to be occupied by invasive alien plants due to commodities required for tea processing imported from neighbor countries [16]. For this reason, roadside surveys were conducted in the Trabzon province and as a result, 81 invasive alien plants were observed and recorded adjacent to forested lands [16] (Table 2). ...
... The tea cultivation lands of Trabzon region in Turkey are tend to be occupied by invasive alien plants due to commodities required for tea processing imported from neighbor countries [16]. For this reason, roadside surveys were conducted in the Trabzon province and as a result, 81 invasive alien plants were observed and recorded adjacent to forested lands [16] (Table 2). Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) also reported 19 different invasive alien plants prevalent in Turkey and these species were defined as threats for environmental health of ecosystem (Table 3). ...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien species have detrimental effects on ecosystems and human health. They reduce the native vegetation and biodiversity, reduce the forest productivity, and disturb wildlife habitat. It is important to take the life history characteristics of invasive species into account in order to assess the potential extent of infestation. To determine if a region is susceptible, it is necessary to examine the number of invasive species immigrating and becoming extinct, and then determine the dispersal, establishment, and survival of the invasive plant species. In addition, to assess the occurrence of invasive alien plants dispersal in Turkey, there is still urgent need of a comprehensive local database. Therefore, this study aims at listing the occurrence and hazards of invasive alien plants of Turkey by compiling a checklist of invasive plants and their taxonomic composition. The results of this study can be used to predict the trajectory of invasive alien plants growth and cover around native ecosystems over time.
... Birçok istilacı yabancı bitkinin varlığı, dağılımı veya bolluğu, yol ağlarıyla pozitif olarak ilişkilidir [12]. Karayolları, demiryolları ve kanallar, yabancı istilacı türlerin yayılmasını kolaylaştıran potansiyel koridorları temsil etmektedirler [13,14]. Nitekim yol ağları her zaman istila koridorları olarak tanımlanmaktadır. ...
... Nitekim yol ağları her zaman istila koridorları olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Diğer taraftan ise istilacı türlerin dağılımını haritalamak ve yeni tanıtılan bitki türlerini izlemek için etkili bir yol olabilmektedirler [14]. ...
... Küresel İstilacı Türler Veri Tabanı (GISD), Türkiye'de yaygın olarak bulunan 19 farklı istilacı yabancı bitkinin rapor edildiğini ve bu türlerin ekosistemin çevre sağlığına yönelik tehditler olarak tanımlandığını bildirmiştir [29]. Anadolu'nun Kuzey-Doğu'sunda (özellikle Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinde) yapılan bazı çalışmalarda pek çok yabancı bitki türünün genellikle yol kenarlarında, orman veya çay tarlalarında yayıldığı kaydedilmiştir [10,14,30,31]. ...
... Nevertheless, there is not any national database for determination of invasive alien species in Turkey. Although there have been some other databases such as European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) and Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE) reported the occurrence of invasive alien plants dispersal in Turkey, there is still urgent need of a comprehensive local database [15], [16], [12]. The EPPO list is reported in Table 1 which indicates invasive alien plants recorded in Turkey [12]. ...
... The tea cultivation lands of Trabzon region in Turkey are tend to be occupied by invasive alien plants due to commodities required for tea processing imported from neighbor countries [16]. For this reason, roadside surveys were conducted in the Trabzon province and as a result, 81 invasive alien plants were observed and recorded adjacent to forested lands [16] (Table 2). ...
... The tea cultivation lands of Trabzon region in Turkey are tend to be occupied by invasive alien plants due to commodities required for tea processing imported from neighbor countries [16]. For this reason, roadside surveys were conducted in the Trabzon province and as a result, 81 invasive alien plants were observed and recorded adjacent to forested lands [16] (Table 2). Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) also reported 19 different invasive alien plants prevalent in Turkey and these species were defined as threats for environmental health of ecosystem (Table 3). ...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien species have detrimental effects on ecosystems and human health. They reduce the native vegetation and biodiversity, reduce the forest productivity, and disturb wildlife habitat. It is important to take the life history characteristics of invasive species into account in order to assess the potential extent of infestation. To determine if a region is susceptible, it is necessary to examine the number of invasive species immigrating and becoming extinct, and then determine the dispersal, establishment, and survival of the invasive plant species. In addition, to assess the occurrence of invasive alien plants dispersal in Turkey, there is still urgent need of a comprehensive local database. Therefore, this study aims at listing the occurrence and hazards of invasive alien plants of Turkey by compiling a checklist of invasive plants and their taxonomic composition. The results of this study can be used to predict the trajectory of invasive alien plants growth and cover around native ecosystems over time.
... Riešili sa viaceré metodické otázky ako je výskum na trvalých plochách , funkčné prístupy k analýze vegetácie , rýchly terénny prieskum zavlečených druhov v území (Brundu et al. 2011) a pod. Navrhnuté metodiky sa testovali aj na výskumnej lokalite Báb (Brundu et al. 2011. ...
... Riešili sa viaceré metodické otázky ako je výskum na trvalých plochách , funkčné prístupy k analýze vegetácie , rýchly terénny prieskum zavlečených druhov v území (Brundu et al. 2011) a pod. Navrhnuté metodiky sa testovali aj na výskumnej lokalite Báb (Brundu et al. 2011. Pripravil a publikoval sa terminologický slovník populačnej ekológie rastlín ) ako prvý zväzok terminologických slovníkov ekológie. ...
Book
Full-text available
The book deals with activities and progress of the Plant Population Biology Working Group (WG) at the Slovak Botanical Society, Slovak Academy of Science, in Bratislava, and its efects on development of the modern scientific field in Slovakia, Central Europe. The WG was established in 1989 to support new field of botany and ecology – population biology of plants. It invited Slovak and Czech botanists and ecologists to study plant populations in plant communities and landscape. The WG organized 10 plus 1 scientific meetings on plant populations in Slovakia (in Bratislava and Nitra) and published a series of proceedings „Plant Population Biology“. In the period of 1989–2014 the WG evidently helped to development of plant populations research, education of university students (Diploma and PhD. Theses) as well as publishing papers in the topic. Rare and threatened plant species of the Slovak flora as well as invasive alien plants were predominantly studied. Large list of papers published in separate Bibliography paper, list of studied plant species and other data documented well the progress in plant population biology in Slovakia. Dealing with implementation of the research results in nature / biodiversity conservation and management, we need still more data on size, structure and dynamics of natural populations and metapopulations. Demographic monitoring and field studies of plant species are necessary.
... Riešili sa viaceré metodické otázky ako je výskum na trvalých plochách (Eliáš 1990(Eliáš , 1996(Eliáš , 2000, funkčné prístupy k analýze vegetácie , rýchly terénny prieskum zavlečených druhov v území (Brundu et al. 2011) a pod. Navrhnuté metodiky sa testovali aj na výskumnej lokalite Báb (Brundu et al. 2011, Eliáš 2010a. ...
... Riešili sa viaceré metodické otázky ako je výskum na trvalých plochách (Eliáš 1990(Eliáš , 1996(Eliáš , 2000, funkčné prístupy k analýze vegetácie , rýchly terénny prieskum zavlečených druhov v území (Brundu et al. 2011) a pod. Navrhnuté metodiky sa testovali aj na výskumnej lokalite Báb (Brundu et al. 2011, Eliáš 2010a. Pripravil a publikoval sa terminologický slovník populačnej ekológie rastlín (Eliáš 1999) ako prvý zväzok terminologických slovníkov ekológie. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In 1995 the Department of Ecology was established in Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, within a Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, to cover education of ecological subjects in the Univerity. Biodiversity of agricultural landscape, from populations to ecosystems, have been studied by the teachers, research workers as well as students of the Department. Plant populations were studied in different Projects of the Funding Agencies VEGA and the Universtity, Diploma Works and Ph.D studies: populations of rare and threatened plant species (Verbascum speciosum, Orlaya grandiflora, Crambe tataria), spring geophy-tes (Allium ursinum, Galanthus nivalis and others growing in an oak-hornbeam forest at Báb) and summer herbs (Mercurialis perennis), parasitic plants (Loranthus europaeus, Viscum album, Puccinia komarovii), but mainly invading alien plants (Impatiens parviflora, Helianthus tubero-sus, Fallopia × bohemica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Asclepias syriaca) and clonal plants (Sambucus ebulus). Several theoretical questions of the plant population biology were discussed, e.g. regulation mechanisms in populations of annuals and perennials with clo-nal growth, invasive behaviour of aliens, dominance forming, role of disturbance and parasitism in dynamics of plant populations. The research was conducted in two paralele lines – in natural populations (field research on plots) and in experimental populations in the Malanta University Research Site and in Botanical garden of the University in Nitra. Results of the studies were presented at scientific meetings and published in scientific journals and in a series Plant Population Biology Vol. 4 to 10. The Department supported the activity of the Plant Population Biology Working Group of the Slovak Botanical Society in Bratislava by organizing of seven PPB conferences in Nitra, edition of PPB publications and proceedings of the conferences. Teachers of the Department helped students with consultations, adwising of Diploma and Ph.D studies/theses, held lectures for Ph.D. students on " Some chapters of plant population biology " and " Population Ecology of Plants " (both P. Eliáš sen.). Five Ph.D. students finished the studies in the Department with the theses on plant population biology (species Allium ursinum, Helianthus tuberosus, Fallopia × bohemica, Sambucus ebulus, Solidago canadensis, S. giganteum).
... Many alien plant species were reported especially from North-East of Anatolia, the East Black Sea region in particular and mostly recorded in forest or tea plantations (e.g. Terzioğlu and Ansin 1999, Coşkunçelebi et al. 2007, Karaer and Kutbay 2007, Brundu et al. 2011, Eminağaoğlu et al. 2012, Karaer and Terzioğlu 2013. Çınar et al. (2011) presented a detailed study of naturalized alien species from the coast of Turkey and Uludağ et al. (2017), in the recently published first study on the alien flora of the whole country, reported a total number of 340 alien taxa. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the impact categorizations of 51 alien plant species in Turkey, which were determined using the Generic Impact Scoring System (GISS). The evidence on environmental and socioeconomic impacts of these alien species was searched in literature. Impacts were classified into 12 categories (six for environmental and six for socioeconomic) and, within each category, the impact was assessed on a six degree scale. Environmental impacts were recorded for 80% of the species and mostly concern ecosystem processes (changes in nutrient or water availability and disturbance regimes), while socioeconomic impacts, identified for 78% of the species assessed, are typically associated with agricultural production or human health. Summed scores of individual species across categories of environmental and socioeconomic impacts were not significantly correlated. By taking into account the actual distribution of the assessed species, we evaluated the regional distribution of (potential) impacts in Turkey. The Black Sea region harbours the highest number of species with impacts (34 species, i.e. 67% of the total assessed for the whole country), 28 species were recorded in the Marmara, 21 in the Mediterranean, 17 in the Aegean and 12 in each of the South East Anatolia, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia regions. The species that have negative impact on forestry are only found in three regions. Altogether 21 species are agricultural weeds, but we only found evidence of a minor socioeconomic impact for some of them. Determining the impacts based on specific criteria (i) provides basis for objective risk assessment of plant invasions in Turkey, (ii) can be taken as early warning to combat these plants and (iii) contributes to the growing body of evidence of the impacts of alien plant species.
... Because of suitable climatic conditions, the Black Sea highway is suspected to be an introduction source of many alien plant species in the country. Moreover, the Black Sea region is the region most infested with IAPs (Brundu et al., 2011;Onen, 2015;Uludag et al., 2017) and new IAPs have repeatedly been reported in the region. ...
Article
This study reports the first record of Ipomoea coccinea L. [(Convolvulaceae), red morning glory] from Turkey. The literature review revealed that this taxon has not been recorded yet for the flora of Turkey. The species was mainly observed on the embankments along the Ardeşen‐Çamlıhemşin road during 2016. It was again recorded during 2019 with a certain extension of the invaded area and a significant increase in population density. I. coccinea was observed in disturbed areas along roads, on the edges of tea plantations, in abandoned fields and in other waste lands. The rapid spread of the species in a short period of time suggests that it could become troublesome in future, if not managed. Therefore effective management strategies must be developed to halt its further spread. Modelling and risk assessment studies are needed to predict the potential spread and possible risks of the species to different ecosystems. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ipomoea coccinea L. (Convolvulaceae): une nouvelle espèce de plante exotique introduite en Turquie fr Cette étude documente le premier signalement d'Ipomoea coccinea L. [(Convolvulaceae), ipomée à fleurs rouges] en Turquie. L’analyse de la littérature scientifique révèle que ce taxon n'a pas encore été enregistré au sein de la flore de Turquie. Cette espèce a été principalement observée sur les talus situés le long de la route allant d’Ardeşen à Çamlıhemşin en 2016. Elle a été signalée de nouveau en 2019 avec une extension de la zone d’infestation et une augmentation significative de la densité de population. I. coccinea a été observée dans les zones perturbées le long des routes, aux abords des plantations de thé, dans les champs abandonnés et dans diverses zones en friche. La dissémination rapide de l'espèce sur une courte période laisse penser qu'elle pourrait devenir à l'avenir une espèce problématique si des mesures de gestions n’étaient pas prises. C'est pourquoi des stratégies de gestion efficaces doivent être élaborées afin d’empêcher sa dissémination. Des études de modélisation et d'évaluation du risque sont nécessaires afin de prévoir sa dissémination potentielle et les risques éventuels que cette espèce présente pour les différents écosystèmes. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ipomoea coccinea L. (Convolvulaceae): нoвый интpoдyциpoвaнный чyжepoдный вид pacтeний в Typции ru B дaннoм иccлeдoвaнии пpивoдятcя пepвыe cвeдeния oб Ipomoea coccinea L. [(Convolvulaceae), red morning glory] из Typции. Oбзop литepaтypы пoкaзaл, чтo этoт вид eщё нe был зapeгиcтpиpoвaн для флopы Typции. B тeчeниe 2016 г. oн в ocнoвнoм нaблюдaлcя нa oбoчинax вдoль дopoги Apдэшeн‐Чaмлиxeмшин. Oн был внoвь зapeгиcтpиpoвaн в 2019 гoдy c нeкoтopым pacшиpeниeм oxвaчeннoй зoны и знaчитeльным yвeличeниeм плoтнocти пoпyляции. I. coccinea былa зaмeчeнa в пoвpeждённыx зoнax вдoль дopoг, пo кpaям чaйныx плaнтaций, нa зaбpoшeнныx пoляx и нa дpyгиx пycтoшax. Быcтpoe pacпpocтpaнeниe этoгo видa зa кopoткий пepиoд вpeмeни пoзвoляeт пpeдпoлoжить, чтo в бyдyщeм oн мoжeт cтaть пpoблeмным видoм, ecли eгo нe бyдyт кoнтpoлиpoвaть. Пoэтoмy, чтoбы ocтaнoвить eгo дaльнeйшee pacпpocтpaнeниe, нeoбxoдимo paзpaбoтaть эффeктивныe cтpaтeгии yпpaвлeния. Teм нe мeнee, для пpoгнoзиpoвaния пoтeнциaльнoгo pacпpocтpaнeния этoгo видa и вoзмoжныx pиcкoв для paзличныx экocиcтeм нeoбxoдимы мoдeлиpoвaниe и иccлeдoвaния пo oцeнкe pиcкoв.
... Various approaches have been applied for mapping the distribution and abundance of invasive alien plants. These range from herbarium records (Crawford & Hoagland 2009), field surveys (Brundu et al. 2011), road surveys (Mortensen et al. 2009), remote sensing approaches (Huang & Asner 2009), spatial modelling (Pearce & Boyce 2006) to citizen-science programs (Roy et al. 2015;Groom et al. 2019). These approaches differ in terms of spatial and taxonomic bias, accuracy and extent. ...
Article
Full-text available
en The largest area of intact vegetation in the Mascarene’s archipelago is found on Reunion Island, but the remaining natural areas are under threats. Biological invasions are one of the main threats to biodiversity loss on this island and globally worldwide. This study aimed to quantify invasion degree by alien plants species in Reunion Island. This work was possible thanks to a large partnership between researchers and managers. All existing spatial data on invasion pattern were combined and completed by expert knowledge to develop the first 250 x 250 m map of invasion degree at the island scale. To fill the gaps where no field survey data or expert knowledge was available, we used a Random Forest model using nine climatic, landscape and anthropogenic variables. This model also provides a preliminary assessment of drivers of invasion at Reunion Island. Results showed that 85% of the extant native vegetation was invaded in different proportions; 38% are slightly invaded, 26% moderately invaded and 22% very heavily invaded. Despite the high levels of invasion in some places, more than 50% of the extant vegetation is not invaded or slightly invaded. Most of the invaded areas are located in the lowland and in the leeward coast although alien plants invade all types of vegetation from the coast to the top of the island. These results highlight a clear increase in the distribution of alien species over time. This study constitutes a key first step for about the ongoing prioritisation of management interventions on Reunion Island. Abstract in Spanish is available with online material. Résumé fr La plus grande zone de végétation intacte de l’archipel des Mascareignes se situe sur l’île de La Réunion, mais les espaces naturels restants sont fortement menacés. Les invasions biologiques constituent l'une des principales menaces menant à la perte de biodiversité sur cette île et dans le monde entier. Cette étude vise à quantifier le degré d'invasion par les espèces végétales exotiques à La Réunion. Ce travail a été possible grâce à un large partenariat entre chercheurs et gestionnaires. Toutes les données spatiales existantes sur le degré d’invasion ont été combinées et complétées par du dire d’experts afin de développer la première carte (250 x250 m) rendant compte du degré d'invasion des habitats à l’échelle de l’île. Pour combler le manque d’informations (données terrain et/ou dire d’expert), nous avons réalisé un modèle statistique : Random Forest, utilisant neuf variables climatiques, topographiques et anthropiques. Ce modèle a également fourni une évaluation préliminaire des facteurs d'invasion à La Réunion. Les résultats ont montré que 85% de la végétation indigène existante est envahie dans des proportions différentes; 38% sont légèrement envahis, 26% modérément envahis et 22% très fortement envahis. Malgré des niveaux élevés d'invasion à certains endroits, plus de 50% de la végétation existante est faiblement à non envahie. La majorité des zones envahies sont situées à basses altitudes et sur la côte Ouest de l’île (sous le vent). Les plantes exotiques envahissent toutefois tous les types de végétation de la côte au sommet de l'île. Ces résultats mettent en évidence une nette augmentation de la distribution des espèces exotiques au fil du temps. Cette étude constitue une première étape clé pour la priorisation en cours des interventions de gestion sur l’île de La Réunion.
... For detecting alien plants and assessing their distribution, roadside surveys are regularly used, as they constitute a time and cost-effective technique (Brundu et al., 2011;Catry et al., 2015;McAvoy et al., 2012). In our study, alien species were recorded in four sampling rounds between 2020 and 2021, following species phenological phases. ...
Article
Mediterranean islands are considered especially vulnerable to biological invasions by alien plants. However, there is a lack of studies on island scale regarding the factors that determine alien plant's spatial distribution, and the way they affect invasion process. A roadside survey of alien plant species was conducted on Lesvos, the 8th largest island in Mediterranean basin. Data on species counts and explanatory variables were aggregated to a 1 sq. km vector grid and brought together into a single GIS layer. Alien species counts were modelled by using a Negative-binomial model while a Generalised Additive Model was used to examine possible non-linear relationships to the predictors by using splines. A subset of significant factors, related both to human activities and the environment, shaped the spatial distribution of aliens and influenced, in various ways, their future invasion outcome. Transformed areas with high levels of anthropogenic pressures and disturbances, including high population numbers, dense road network, ports, and intensive land use, as is the case for coastal zones, promoted the presence of alien species. Contrary, modified areas, such as grazed lands, seemed to restrict alien species occurrences, possibly due to the long grazing history these areas present, a regime in which aliens are not adapted. Alien plants presence was positively associated with high levels of NPP, diversity of geological substrates, and a west-facing aspect. Anthropogenic determinants of alien spatial patterns were primarily connected to increased propagule pressure, whereas environmental factors demonstrated the preference of alien plants for resource-rich environments. [Share link: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1dlsBB8ccr0BO]
... The first step in any management strategy to control plants invasion is the compilation of a national and regional inventory of alien plant species [51,52]. Such data compilation is of fundamental importance in the establishment of a national system of early detection and rapid response [47]. ...
Chapter
The literature on biological invasions has grown rapidly since the mid-twentieth century as scientists, managers, policy makers, and the public have become increasingly aware of the many applied issues of managing invasive species, as well as the fundamental ecological questions raised by biological invasions. Tunisia, as any other countries in the world, is home to several alien plants introductions, some of which may become invasive, which justifies the urgent need for the implementation of a national strategy to manage plant invasion. Our researches are performed to study, test and evaluate methods and tools in attempt to deal with management of invasive alien plants in Tunisian ecosystems. The objectives of our research program are: (i) assess the current state of knowledge relevant to IAP management (ii) inventor and monitor potentially invasive plants already established in the country (iii) provide methods and tools to manage Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.
... Therefore, transports by roads, railways and aerial roots in the country have been increased many folds than past. Black Sea is the most infested region of the country with exotic plants where a rapid survey study identified the prevalence of 81 alien species (Brundu et al., 2011). Black Sea highways are suspected as the source of introduction of many alien plants in the country as, it is a part of route which connects Turkey with Europe through Georgia (Onen, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive trade, transport and travel activities across different geographic regions are prime source of introduction and spread of alien plant species. The role of roadsides in the long distance transport and spread of alien plants has been well explored whereas, railways are less considered in this context. Therefore, current survey was aimed to determine the role of railways as dispersal corridors for alien plants and weeds along the railways connecting Black Sea and Inner Anatolia regions of Turkey. Surveys were accomplished by randomly stopping at every 8-10 km on the railway tracks. Fifty-eight different plant species belonging to 22 plant families were identified during the study. Majority of the identified plant species (68.9%) were native to Turkey whereas, notable numbers of alien plants which have been established in the country (17.2%) were also recorded during the survey. Moreover, 62% of the identified native plants have been regarded as invasive in number of European countries. Weed Science Society of America have listed 72.4% of the identified plants as weeds and 79.3% are accepted as alien/invasive in different European countries. Maximum number of weeds belonged to Asteraceae family among the 22 identified families. Current surveys present the first report on the presence of common ragweed along railways in Turkey. The results indicate that railways are extensively serving as corridors for introduction and dispersal of weedy and alien plants across the regions in the country. It is therefore recommended that rapid surveys should be urgently conducted along the railways network of the country to record the presence of invasive alien plants
... Various approaches have been applied for mapping the distribution and abundance of invasive alien plants. These range from herbarium records (Crawford and Hoagland, 2009), field surveys (Brundu et al., 2011), road surveys (Mortensen et al., 2009), remote sensing approaches (Huang and Asner, 2009), spatial modelling (Pearce and Boyce, 2006) to citizenscience programs (Groom et al., 2019;Roy et al., 2015). These approaches differ in terms of spatial and taxonomic bias, accuracy, and extent. ...
Thesis
Les invasions biologiques menacent la conservation de la biodiversité mondiale, notamment en milieu insulaire comme La Réunion où se trouve les plus grandes reliques de végétation naturelle de l'archipel des Mascareignes. Sous l’impulsion du département de La Réunion, un partenariat a été initié réunissant gestionnaires, décideurs et scientifiques afin de mieux coordonner la lutte contre les espèces végétales envahissantes sur le territoire. Cette thèse, qui s’inscrit dans ce partenariat, a pour objectif principal d’améliorer les connaissances quant à l’état de conservation des milieux naturels afin de prioriser spatialement les actions de lutte contre les plantes exotiques. La thèse comporte trois axes de recherche : 1) la quantification du degré d’invasion à une échelle régionale comme outil d’aide à la décision ; 2) la quantification du degré d’invasion à une échelle locale comme outil d’aide à la gestion ; et 3) la priorisation spatiale des actions de lutte à partir de critères biologiques et opérationnels. Elle se termine sur une réflexion de l’approche transdisciplinaire utilisée à l’interface entre science et gestion. Le degré d’invasion des milieux naturels a été quantifié à deux échelles différentes : régionale (La Réunion) et locale (massifs de Mare Longue et du Volcan). La quantification du degré d’invasion à l’échelle régionale a sollicité en plus des données d’inventaire obtenues grâce au large effort partenarial mis en place ; l’intervention d’experts et le recours à la modélisation. Ainsi les résultats ont montré que 85% de la végétation indigène était envahie dans des proportions différentes, notons que plus de 50% de la végétation reste tout de même peu à pas envahie. A l’échelle locale, un protocole terrain a été mis en place permettant de quantifier le degré d’invasion des trois strates structurantes de l’habitat ; à savoir les strates herbacées, arbustives et arborées. Au travers d’analyses de cluster et de krigeage, une nouvelle cartographie du degré d’invasion à une échelle plus fine (25 x 25 m) a pu être réalisée sur les massifs étudiés. Les résultats ont montré une strate herbacée particulièrement envahie. En parallèle, les enjeux de conservation en termes de biodiversité ainsi que les priorités de gestion des plantes exotiques ont pu être cartographiés à l’échelle de l’ile. Au travers d’une vingtaine d’ateliers de travail avec l’ensemble des partenaires, nous avons pu co-développer une approche partagée par tous. De par l’utilisation de Zonation, un logiciel d’aide à la décision ainsi qu’en respectant les concepts clés de la planification de la conservation, l’approche mise en place a bénéficié des apports de la science. L’inclusion de critères opérationnels, tels que l’accessibilité de la zone ou l’historique des chantiers, a constitué un important apport de la gestion. Ainsi, 60 303 ha ont été identifié comme enjeux de conservation et des priorités de gestion des plantes exotiques à l’échelle de l’île ont pu être définies, mettant en avant la gestion des fronts d’invasion.
... Si distingue da A. virginica L., specie di origine nordamericana già presente nella Svizzera italiana (Info Flora, 2015) per la forma delle brattee floreali femminili, che sono ovatocordate e intere o crenate (Banfi & Galasso, 2010) e non a ventaglio e profondamente divise in 5-9 lobi digitati come in A. virginica (Pignatti, 1982). Neofita originaria dell'Asia orientale, è stata introdotta in Australia (ALA, 2010; NGRP, 2011), negli USA (Delendick, 1990; USDA, 2012) e in alcune nazioni del continente Euroasiatico, quali Italia, Ucraina, Russia, Turchia, Tajikistan e Azerbaijan (Conti et al., 2005;Duman & Terzioglu, 2009;DAISIE, 2008;Brundu et al., 2011;Nobis & Nowak, 2011;CABI 2015;Mehtiyeva & Geltman 2015). In Italia è considerata un'esotica naturalizzata ed è presente in modo sporadico in alcune città del Nord (Conti et al. 2005;Banfi & Galasso, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the floristic notes concerning three plant species new to Switzerland: the neophytes Acalypha australis, Cyperus difformis and Ferula communis, and the rare and threatened Lythrum portula, considered regionally missing. The plants were discovered in anthropogenic and disturbed habitats in the lowlands of southern Ticino, Switzerland, in 2014 and 2015. Origin, geographic distribution, possible introduction modes, invasion potential, and, for the rare species, threat and conservation status are discussed. Cyperus difformis is considered a weed in agricultural systems and has a high propagation potential. Thus a further expansion of this species is probable. The population of Lythrum portula has a great naturalistic value, but the long term survival is low because of the uniqueness of the station.
Article
Full-text available
A flora is a very plastic component of biovariety, especially on the urbanized territories with active development of transport, trade and different communications. From literary data on territory of Ukraine only from North America for the last 25 years about 30 new species that appeared quarantine plants got with various loads. In the flora of the Dnipropetrovsk area it is counted no less than 75 adentitious species, 102 species are cultivated and have a tendency to naturalization. In connection with the high level of urbanization the amount of adentitious and synanthropic species in a region increases constantly. Appearance of new species on any territory claims attention of researchers, in fact they can appear in a prospect dangerous for agricultural lands and natural ecosystems by reason of high competitiveness in the conditions of absence of natural wreckers. A base method for the study of regional flora is taking the inventory of species, it meens making lists of plants as a result of rout geobotanical researches. For determination of new species we used "Flora of the USSR" (1949), consultations were conducted with the known florists. Family Euphorbiaceae Juss. according to a determinant "Opredelitel… " (1987) is presented in our country by 6 genuses and 62 species. By us it is first found on territory of the Dnipropetrovsk area two representatives of Euphorbiaceae – Acalypha australis L. and Euphorbia maculata L. Both species are educed within the limits of Bagleyskiy district of Dniprodzerzhynsk. Acalypha australis is an one-year plant with a thin root and direct ramified ribbed stem, a kind is widespread in Manchuria, Korea, north China, Japan, America, in the former USSR – on Caucasus and Far East. His characteristic habitats are sands on the banks of the rivers, the clay are washed off slopes, nearby building, on trashes, in sowing. In the determinants of Ukraine Acalypha australis is absent, however on literary information first found in 1981 in Crimea, later in Odesa and nearby Luhansk. The population of Acalypha australis is educed on Dnipropetrovsk region to be under a supervision from 2006. First Acalypha australis was found here on a flower-garden in a private sector, where, probably, was brought with the seed of decorative plants. The quantity of individuals did not exceed two ten that grew on an area approximately one meter square. For 9 the area of population considerably increased and now presents no less than 200 м 2 .
Article
Full-text available
The ecosystem research in the site Báb (SouthWestern Slovakia) was re-established in 2007 as continuation of research done in International Biological Programme and Programme Man and Biosphere in years 1967–1977. The inventory of shrub and trees as well as study of the herb vegetation was performed on the permanent plot of size 1 ha. Also the inventory of selected animal groups and analyses of soil and micro-biological samples were executed. The comparison of current structure of selected animal groups and vegetation with their structure in 1967–1977 showed considerable changes during studied 40 years that could be caused by the climate changes and anthropogenic disturbances. The differences in decomposition of selected native and invasive plant species were assessed. The biomonitoring of the air pollution was done using mosses as indicator organisms. The maps of historical and current landscape structure were developed for 6 time layers. Key words: ILTER site Báb, oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem, biodiversity, seasonal dynamics, spatial heterogenity, invasive species, influence of silvicultural management Výskumná lokalita Báb reprezentuje nížinné, resp. pahorkatinné dubovo-hrabové lesy v intenzívne vy-užívanej poľnohospodárskej krajine strednej Európy (obr. 1). Založená bola na účely výskumného projektu Báb v rámci Medzinárodného biologického programu (International Biological Programme, IBP) v roku 1967, čím bola úzko naviazaná na medzinárodnú spoluprá-cu v rámci programov IBP a Človek a biosféra (Man and Biosphere, MaB). V 60. a 70. rokoch 20. storočia sa výskumná lokalita ako súčasť siete výskumných plôch IBP pre lesné ekosystémy stala známou vo vedeckom svete a mala vedúce postavenie, pokiaľ ide o rozsah a kvalitu dlhodobého výskumu ekosystémov v stred-nej Európe. Jej súčasťou bola aj trvalá výskumná plo-cha (TVP) na nedeštruktívny výskum s veľkosťou 1 ha rozdelená na 100 árových štvorcov. Výskumné aktivity z rokov 1967 až 1974 sú analyzované v článku Eliáša a kol. (2016) v tomto čísle. V nasledujúcom období sa v Bábe skúmali len vybrané otázky, menovite ekofy-ziologický výskum funkčných skupín rastlín (stromy, kry, byliny; cf. Eliáš a kol., 1989; Eliáš 1997), výskum invázií introdukovaných a zavlečených druhov rastlín (Eliáš 2000b, c) a výskum chrobákov (Cunev, Šiška, 2006). Až v roku 2007 bol pracovníkmi Ústavu krajinnej ekológie SAV (ÚKE SAV) a spolupracovníkmi zo Slo-venskej poľnohospodárskej univerzity v Nitre (z Ka-tedry ekológie Fakulty európskych štúdií a regionál-neho rozvoja) a z Prírodovedeckej fakulty Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave na lokalite obnovený kom-plexnejší výskum, ktorého zameranie a hlavné výsled-ky uvádzame v tomto príspevku. Od roku 1999 je výskumná lokalita s rozlohou 66 ha zaradená do celosvetovej siete plôch Medzi-národného dlhodobého ekologického výskumu (IL-TER International Long-Term Ecological Research, http:// www.ilternet.edu; Eliáš, Oszlányi, 2000). Zároveň jej časť (30,39 ha) je od roku 1966 vedená v sieti osobitne chránených území pôvodne ako Chránená študijná plocha a v súčasnosti ako Národná prírodná rezervá-cia (NPR) Bábsky les. V novembri roku 2006 bola na lokalite Báb vyko-naná obnovná ťažba, ktorou sa vyťažila časť lesných porastov. Uvedená ťažba sa uskutočnila podľa Progra-mu starostlivosti o les aj na časti bývalej TVP (mimo NPR), ktorá bola po ukončení výskumov v 70. rokoch 20. storočia navrátená k hospodárskemu využitiu (obr. 2). Z tohto dôvodu vznikli na lokalite Báb 4 typy ekosystémov: lesy osobitného určenia v NPR Bábsky les, hospodárske lesy mimo NPR Bábsky les, rúbaniská a lesné okraje (obr. 3). Paradoxne, uvedená disturban-cia umožnila okrem sledovania zmien v dlhodobom časovom horizonte na nezmenenej časti výskumnej lokality aj sledovanie krátkodobých procesov a zmien spoločenstiev lesného podrastu v priebehu sekundár-nej sukcesie. Ide o porovnávací výskum zmien vegetá-cie (podrastu) v dôsledku odstránenia stromovej a kro-vinnej etáže, fenológie rastlinných spoločenstiev v lese a na rúbaniskách a štúdium preniku pajaseňa žliazka-tého (Ailanthus altissima) a ďalších inváznych druhov rastlín na vyťažené plochy. V poslednom desaťročí má výskum na lokalite Báb tri etapy, ktoré súvisia s realizáciou výskumných projektov. Tieto etapy na seba nadväzujú, a zároveň
Article
Full-text available
The ecosystem research in the site Báb (South-Western Slovakia) was re-established in 2007 as continuation of research done in International Biological Programme and Programme Man and Biosphere in years 1967–1977. The inventory of shrub and trees as well as study of the herb vegetation was performed on the permanent plot of size 1 ha. Also the inventory of selected animal groups and analyses of soil and micro-biological samples were executed. The comparison of current structure of selected animal groups and vegetation with their structure in 1967–1977 showed considerable changes during studied 40 years that could be caused by the climate changes and anthropogenic disturbances. The differences in decomposition of selected native and invasive plant species were assessed. The biomonitoring of the air pollution was done using mosses as indicator organisms. The maps of historical and current landscape structure were developed for 6 time layers.
Article
This datasheet on Microstegium vimineum covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
Article
Full-text available
Bibliografia obsahuje práce publikované a prezentované v rokoch 1991–2017. Bibliografia je štrukturovaná rovnako ako textová časť práce, t.j. podľa problematiky so zameraním na jednotlivé antropogénne biotopy a ich fytodiverzitu, resp. druhy rastlín a ich spoločenstvá (vegetáciu). Lists of papers on flora and vegetation of the anthropogenic habitats of Slovakia published in last 25 years (in the period 1991-2017) structured by topics and habitats. More than 830 papers. Topics: Antropogénne biotopy: kategorizácia a charakteristiky biotopov / Anthropogenic habitats: cathegorization and habitat characteristics .Terminologické otázky /Terminology. Synantropné druhy rastlín vo Flóre Slovenska / Synanthropic plant species in Flora of Slovakia. Vzácne a ohrozené druhy / Rare and endangered species. Zoznamy nepôvodných druhov rastlín Slovenska / Lists of alien plant species in Slovakia. Rozšírenie synantropných druhov na Slovensku / Distribution of synanthropic species in Slovakia. Invázne druhy rastlín / Invasive alien species of plants. Invazibilita spoločenstiev / Invasibility of plant communities. Synantropná vegetácia Slovenska / Synanthropic vegetation of Slovakia. Rastlinstvo polí v poľnohospodárskej krajine (obrábané polia, prielohy, medze) / Vegetation of fields in agriculutural landscape (arable fields, fallows, field margins). Vinohrady, ovocné sady a výsadby rýchlorastúcich („energetických“) rastlín / Vineyards, orchards and energy plants plantagies). Ľudské sídla - mestá a dediny / Human settlements – towns and villages. Cintoríny / Cemeteries. Hrady, hradné zrúcaniny a staré múry / Castles, castle ruins and old walls. Skládky odpadu (banské haldy, smetiská a skládky komunálneho odpadu) / Waste sites (heaps, waste hills). Ťažobné jamy (lomy, kameňolomy)/ Pits. Pozemné a riečne komunikácie (železnice, cesty, riečne prístavy a lodné prekladiská) / Terrestrial and river communications (railways, roads, river harbours and boat transfer sites). Antropogénne biotopy v pôvodnej lesnej krajine (rúbaniská, vývratiská, požiariská, vnadiská, krmoviská) /Anthropogenic habitats in native forest landscape (clearings, windthrows, firesites, bait sites, wild food sites ).
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides an updated checklist of the alien flora of Turkey with information on its structure. The alien flora of Turkey comprises 340 taxa, among which there are 321 angiosperms, 17 gymnosperms and two ferns. Of the total number of taxa, 228 (68%) are naturalized and 112 (32%) are casual. There are 275 neophytes (172 naturalized and 103 casual) and 61 archaeophytes (52 naturalized and 9 casual); four species could not be classified with respect to the residence time. In addition, 47 frequently planted taxa with a potential to escape are also listed. The richest families are Asteraceae (38 taxa), Poaceae (30), Fabaceae (23) and Solanaceae (22). As for the naturalized alien plants, the highest species richness is found in Asteraceae (31 taxa), Poaceae (22), Amaranthaceae (18) and Solanaceae (15). The majority of alien taxa are perennial (63.8% of the total number of taxa with this life history assigned, including those with multiple life histories), annuals contribute 33.8% and 2.4% are biennial aliens. Among perennials the most common life forms are phanerophytes, of which 20.3% are trees and 12.6% shrubs; woody vines, stem succulents, and aquatic plants are comparatively less represented. Most of the 340 alien taxa introduced to Turkey have their native ranges in Americas (44.7%) and Asia (27.6%). Of other regions, 9.1% originated in Africa, 4.4% in Eurasia, 3.8% in Australia and Oceania and 3.5% in the Mediterranean. The majority of taxa (71.9%) were introduced intentionally, whereas the remaining (28.1%) were introduced accidentally. Among the taxa introduced intentionally, the vast majority are ornamental plants (55.2%), 10.0% taxa were introduced for forestry and 6.7% as crops. Casual alien plants are most commonly found in urban and ruderal habitats (40.1%) where naturalized taxa are also often recorded (27.3%). Plants that occur as agricultural weeds are typically naturalized rather than casual (16.0% vs 7.1%, respectively). However, (semi)natural habitats in Turkey are often invaded by alien taxa, especially by those that are able to naturalize.
Article
Full-text available
Turkey is an important country in terms of plant species diversity due to its geographical location, geomorphological structure, micro-climate diversity, plant geography and its combination with three different flora regions. Habitat fragmentation and loss of habitat are the leading factors that threaten biological diversity. Habitat fragmentation may occur naturally or anthropogenic origin (wrong land use, road construction, forestry activities, etc.). This factor, which threatens biodiversity, causes alien species to settle in natural habitats. With 11,707 taxa in Turkey, there are also alien plant species that enter Turkey's flora in different ways such as introducing or naturalizing. It has been determined that there are 340 of alien plant species which are not included in the natural flora of our country. The Eastern Black Sea Region is a place where alien plant species can easily settle because of reasons such as climate characteristics and misuse of lands. In this study, field observations were made between 2015-2016 years in Espiye Forest Planning Unit. 19 invasive alien plant species were identified in the Espiye Forest Planning Unit. In addition to these invasive plants species, we have determined new spreading areas for the species; Tradescantia fluminensis and Oenothera glazioviana. Of the 19 invasive alien species identified, 6 are woody, 13 are herbaceous species. One of the invasive alien plants belongs to Pinidae sub-class and the other 18 belongs to the Magnoliidae sub-class. 12 of the plant species identified were recorded for the first time in Giresun province.
Article
This datasheet on Persicaria perfoliata covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
Article
Full-text available
The survey by foot in the field is compared to the survey from a car, the photo-interpretation of Google Street View (GSV) panoramas continuously and at intervals of 1.5 km and the photo-interpretation of Google Earth aerial images on a 10 km stretch of road in Sicily. The survey by foot was used as reference for the other methods. The interpretation of continuous GSV panoramas gave similar results as the assessment by car in terms of the number of species identified and their location, but with lower cost. The interpretation online of aerial photos allowed the identification of a limited number of taxa, but gave a good localisation for them. Interpretation of GSV panoramas, each of 1.5 km, allowed the recognition of twice as many taxa as the interpretation of aerial photos and taking half the time, but did not allow a complete localisation. None of these methods alone seems sufficient to carry out a complete survey. A mixture of different techniques, which may vary according to the available resources and the goal to be achieved, seems to be the best compromise. To further test the capabilities of the survey using the interpretation of GSV panoramas every 1.5 km along the roads, we proceeded to study the alien plants along 3500 km of the road network on the island of Sicily. This survey identified only 10% of the known species for the region, but allowed us to trace the distribution of invasive species whose distribution is currently poorly recorded.
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de kayıtlı Heracleum L. cinsine yönelik verilerin son gelişmeler ışığında güncellenmesi ile ilgili cinse ait mevcut veri boşluklarının doldurulmasına katkı sağlamak amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla Türkiye’de yayılış sergileyen Heracleum taksonlarının yerel aralıkları, etki durumları ve tehlike statüleri incelenmiştir. Bitkilerin etki durumları, isimlendirme kontrolleri ve yerel aralıklarının belirlenmesinde; ilgili cinse yönelik literatürlerden, ulusal veri bankaları (Bizim Bitkiler ve TUBİVES), Uluslararası Bitki Adı Endeksi (IPNI), Global Biyoçeşitlilik Bilgi Servisi (GBIF) ve Çevrimiçi Dünya Bitkilerinden (POWO) yararlanılmıştır. Kayıtlarda yapılan yeni eklenmeler ve son düzenlemelere göre; Türkiye’de 18 türe ait toplam 22 Heracleum taksonu mevcuttur. Yerel aralıkları belirlenen taksonların tamamı Türkiye için yerli ve hatta 10 takson endemiktir. Etki durumları incelendiğinde; tüm Heracleum taksonlarının çeşitli allelokimyasallar içerdiği, ancak 20 takson ile allelopatik yönde çalışma yapıldığı belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, 11 takson bölgelere göre değişmekle birlikte farklı yönlerde etnobotanik kullanıma ve ekonomik katkıya, iki takson ise tarım alanlarında kültür bitkileri ile rekabet ve ekonomik kayıp (herbisit kullanımı/işçilik marafları) etkilerine sahiptir. Tehdit durumları incelendiğinde; iki endemik takson (H. argaeum ve H. pastinaca) korumaya tabi, H. peshmenianum duyarlı, H. platytaenium düşük riskli ve H. sphondylium subsp. artvinense ise tehlike statüsündedir. Sonuçlar yapılacak çalışmalara farklı bakış açılarının geliştirilmesine katkı sağlamanın yanı sıra ulusal / uluslararası veri bankalarına veri sağlar. Ayrıca Heracleum taksonlarının; allelokimyasal içeriklerinin tespiti ve mekanizmalarının anlaşılması, etnobotanik kullanım konusunda farkındalığın geliştirilmesi ve ekonomik olarak incelenmesi konularında ileri çalışmalara ihtiyaç olduğunu gösterir. Son olarak belirtilmelidir ki burada bildirilen H. persicum ve H. sosnowskyi taksolarının Avrupa ve Akdeniz Bitki Koruma Örgütün (EPPO)’de A2 listesinde olması dikkate alınarak, Türkiye’de ilgili taksonların genişleme durumları bakımından takibinin yapılması ve gerekli hallerde yönetim tedbirlerinin oluşturulması yararlı olacaktır.
Article
Solaklı watershed (Trabzon) is a large one with a total of 83.000 hectares area, rising from the North to South, starting from coast to an altitude of 3.3766 m. in the Eastern Karadeniz Region. It has a North-south section feature for the flora of the region (Colchis sector). In the present paper, 141 vascular alien plant taxa distributed in the watershed were determined. Significant amount of the taxa has become invasive alien species for the watershed. As well, the remaining taxa completed their naturalization in the watershed and become a part of the flora. Invasive alien species are one of the most important factors directly or indirectly affect many ecosystem components in their newly introducing areas. They negatively affect both the native flora and whole biological diversity. They may cause deaths and/or significant yield loss in both natural and agricultural plants due to the different pressures in the natural and agricultural areas. It has been determined that all 20 plant taxa which are considered as the most remarkable invasive alien plants in Türkiye, are distributed in the watershed. In the present study, the effects of invasive alien species on plant biodiversity and the control methods that may be applied considering ecological conditions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The ecosystem research in the site Báb (SouthWestern Slovakia) was re-established in 2007 as continuation of research done in International Biological Programme and Programme Man and Biosphere in years 1967–1977. The inventory of shrub and trees as well as study of the herb vegetation was performed on the permanent plot of size 1 ha. Also the inventory of selected animal groups and analyses of soil and micro-biological samples were executed. The comparison of current structure of selected animal groups and vegetation with their structure in 1967–1977 showed considerable changes during studied 40 years that could be caused by the climate changes and anthropogenic disturbances. The differences in decomposition of selected native and invasive plant species were assessed. The biomonitoring of the air pollution was done using mosses as indicator organisms. The maps of historical and current landscape structure were developed for 6 time layers. Key words: ILTER site Báb, oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem, biodiversity, seasonal dynamics, spatial heterogenity, invasive species, influence of silvicultural management Výskumná lokalita Báb reprezentuje nížinné, resp. pahorkatinné dubovo-hrabové lesy v intenzívne vy-užívanej poľnohospodárskej krajine strednej Európy (obr. 1). Založená bola na účely výskumného projektu Báb v rámci Medzinárodného biologického programu (International Biological Programme, IBP) v roku 1967, čím bola úzko naviazaná na medzinárodnú spoluprá-cu v rámci programov IBP a Človek a biosféra (Man and Biosphere, MaB). V 60. a 70. rokoch 20. storočia sa výskumná lokalita ako súčasť siete výskumných plôch IBP pre lesné ekosystémy stala známou vo vedeckom svete a mala vedúce postavenie, pokiaľ ide o rozsah a kvalitu dlhodobého výskumu ekosystémov v stred-nej Európe. Jej súčasťou bola aj trvalá výskumná plo-cha (TVP) na nedeštruktívny výskum s veľkosťou 1 ha rozdelená na 100 árových štvorcov. Výskumné aktivity z rokov 1967 až 1974 sú analyzované v článku Eliáša a kol. (2016) v tomto čísle. V nasledujúcom období sa v Bábe skúmali len vybrané otázky, menovite ekofy-ziologický výskum funkčných skupín rastlín (stromy, kry, byliny; cf. Eliáš a kol., 1989; Eliáš 1997), výskum invázií introdukovaných a zavlečených druhov rastlín (Eliáš 2000b, c) a výskum chrobákov (Cunev, Šiška, 2006). Až v roku 2007 bol pracovníkmi Ústavu krajinnej ekológie SAV (ÚKE SAV) a spolupracovníkmi zo Slo-venskej poľnohospodárskej univerzity v Nitre (z Ka-tedry ekológie Fakulty európskych štúdií a regionál-neho rozvoja) a z Prírodovedeckej fakulty Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave na lokalite obnovený kom-plexnejší výskum, ktorého zameranie a hlavné výsled-ky uvádzame v tomto príspevku. Od roku 1999 je výskumná lokalita s rozlohou 66 ha zaradená do celosvetovej siete plôch Medzi-národného dlhodobého ekologického výskumu (IL-TER International Long-Term Ecological Research, http:// www.ilternet.edu; Eliáš, Oszlányi, 2000). Zároveň jej časť (30,39 ha) je od roku 1966 vedená v sieti osobitne chránených území pôvodne ako Chránená študijná plocha a v súčasnosti ako Národná prírodná rezervá-cia (NPR) Bábsky les. V novembri roku 2006 bola na lokalite Báb vyko-naná obnovná ťažba, ktorou sa vyťažila časť lesných porastov. Uvedená ťažba sa uskutočnila podľa Progra-mu starostlivosti o les aj na časti bývalej TVP (mimo NPR), ktorá bola po ukončení výskumov v 70. rokoch 20. storočia navrátená k hospodárskemu využitiu (obr. 2). Z tohto dôvodu vznikli na lokalite Báb 4 typy ekosystémov: lesy osobitného určenia v NPR Bábsky les, hospodárske lesy mimo NPR Bábsky les, rúbaniská a lesné okraje (obr. 3). Paradoxne, uvedená disturban-cia umožnila okrem sledovania zmien v dlhodobom časovom horizonte na nezmenenej časti výskumnej lokality aj sledovanie krátkodobých procesov a zmien spoločenstiev lesného podrastu v priebehu sekundár-nej sukcesie. Ide o porovnávací výskum zmien vegetá-cie (podrastu) v dôsledku odstránenia stromovej a kro-vinnej etáže, fenológie rastlinných spoločenstiev v lese a na rúbaniskách a štúdium preniku pajaseňa žliazka-tého (Ailanthus altissima) a ďalších inváznych druhov rastlín na vyťažené plochy. V poslednom desaťročí má výskum na lokalite Báb tri etapy, ktoré súvisia s realizáciou výskumných projektov. Tieto etapy na seba nadväzujú, a zároveň
Article
Full-text available
Microstegium vimineum, an Asian annual C4 grass that is very shadetolerant, has invaded floodplains, streambanks and adjacent mesic slopes in the North Carolina Piedmont during the past 30 years. A 3-year study of its invasive characteristics revealed that M. vimineum is slow to invade undisturbed vegetation, but rapidly fills disturbed, mesic, shaded areas, such as streamsides where floods scour existing vegetation or sewer-line rights-of-way which are mown once a year. Its seeds remain viable for at least 3 years in the soil seedbank and rapidly germinate to produce a new cohort if a disturbance removes an existing cohort. On fertile floodplain sites, soil fertilization in March had no effect on seed production in October. When M. vimineum seeds were sown into existing vegetation, seed production was negatively correlated with soil potassium, calcium, silt and pH, probably because the more fertile sites also supported a denser ground vegetation layer. These qualities, in addition to its cleistogamous or apomictic reproduction, help explain how M. vimineum has spread throughout the eastern U.S. since its introduction approximately 70 years ago.
Article
Full-text available
Roads are believed to be a major contributing factor to the ongoing spread of exotic plants. We examined the effect of road improvement and environmental variables on exotic and native plant diversity in roadside verges and adjacent semiarid grassland, shrubland, and woodland communities of southern Utah ( U.S.A. ). We measured the cover of exotic and native species in roadside verges and both the richness and cover of exotic and native species in adjacent interior communities ( 50 m beyond the edge of the road cut ) along 42 roads stratified by level of road improvement ( paved, improved surface, graded, and four-wheel-drive track ). In roadside verges along paved roads, the cover of Bromus tectorum was three times as great ( 27% ) as in verges along four-wheel-drive tracks ( 9% ). The cover of five common exotic forb species tended to be lower in verges along four-wheel-drive tracks than in verges along more improved roads. The richness and cover of exotic species were both more than 50% greater, and the richness of native species was 30% lower, at interior sites adjacent to paved roads than at those adjacent to four-wheel-drive tracks. In addition, environmental variables relating to dominant vegetation, disturbance, and topography were significantly correlated with exotic and native species richness and cover. Improved roads can act as conduits for the invasion of adjacent ecosystems by converting natural habitats to those highly vulnerable to invasion. However, variation in dominant vegetation, soil moisture, nutrient levels, soil depth, disturbance, and topography may render interior communities differentially susceptible to invasions originating from roadside verges. Plant communities that are both physically invasible ( e.g., characterized by deep or fertile soils ) and disturbed appear most vulnerable. Decision-makers considering whether to build, improve, and maintain roads should take into account the potential spread of exotic plants.
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out on the flora and vegetation of the Solakli watershed in Northeastern Turkey, situated in the Euxine province of the Euro-Siberian floristic region. The vegetation of the area was investigated following the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological approach. During a two-year study period, 223 relevés have been established and 13 plant associations were described. The floristic compositions and abundance patterns of all plant associations were also determined to evaluate the species diversity and richness of the study area. The richness of vascular plant species (α diversity) and the species turnover (β diversity) were calculated by different categories of measures often used to quantify biodiversity within habitats. A total of 1024 vascular plant taxa, including 73 endemics and 105 threatened plant species, were recorded from the whole area (80 436 ha). A new association, Anemono narcissiflorae-Betuletum litwinowii, was described for the first time and supplied with a vegetation table. This association belongs to the alliance Lilio pontici-Anemonion narcissiflorae. The alliance is represented by two associations and the new association is described. The similarity between these associations, based on the Sorensen Index, was 32.3%. In terms of diversity of the study area, some significant differences were found among the 13 associations, and the species richness varied between 13.64 (min.) and 28.88 (max.). Our results indicate that the study area has a remarkable diversity of vascular plants.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Lippia is one of two species in the genus Phyla present in Australia. It is known to have been in this country from the 1920s, introduced as a lawn ornamental. It has established a good foothold in the floodplains of south-east Australia, including the Murray-Darling system, and may have the potential to grow in more tropical areas of Queensland given the right soil and moisture availability. Lippia is an environmental and economic weed in some parts of Queensland and is already a significant problem in New South Wales. Lippia is a prostrate (growing along the ground) perennial plant that spreads both vegetatively and by seed, enabling it to spread to vast areas of land. Vegetative material breaks off the main plant during flooding events and can remain dormant until suitable environmental conditions present. It appears to be particularly adapted to floodplain clay soils but has been found occurring on lighter soils and in non-flood-prone environments. The spreading nature and deep rooting system of lippia are some of the main concerns with this plant. Both characteristics are associated with stream bank and soil erosion, structural damage to roads, and high control costs. Lippia probably imposes its most long-reaching impact on primary production in grazing country. It appears to be either unpalatable to stock and/or too short to be easily consumed. Stock avoidance thus contributes to its spread as they may more heavily graze other areas creating more bare areas. Reduced stocking rates and productivity loss on grazing land, as well as reduced land values, are all associated with lippia infestations. Control of lippia involves long-term commitment and integrated management practices aimed at both reducing bare soil and increasing competition by other plants. A combination of pasture improvement, herbicide use and grazing management appears to be the best approach to control currently available. Whether such commitment and monitoring can be achieved in all areas and by all landholders is currently questionable. It may also be economically unfeasible at some sites. There is much concern over lippia in south-east Queensland among local governments and landholders. It is currently undeclared as a weed in the State of Queensland. Further research into methods of control and extension of management practices may help contain the spread of lippia throughout the state. Eradication is unfeasible at this point, but controls on sale and awareness of control methods is possible.
Article
Full-text available
The ground cover species assemblages in rocky, roadside and forest habitats in Trabzon (north-eastern Turkey), were studied to describe floristic structures and disclose diversity pattern. To provide a quantitatively based classification of these assemblages, both two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) were used. Nine groups for rocky habitats sampled from 100 sites, 10 groups for 100 roadside sites and four groups for 50 forest sites were classified. These groups primarily correspond to different effects of altitude, pH, sand, cover, skeleton and moisture content. Some alpha and beta diversity indices for each habitat and TWINSPAN groups at different altitudinal zones were assessed. Our results supported the hypothesis that altitudinal and other environmental properties have significant influences on species composition and diversity in three habitats, being similar to that on major vegetation composition.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the roles of dispersal mechanism, a biological barrier; light availability, an environ-mental barrier; and level of disturbance, a physical barrier, in explaining the spatial patterns of exotic plant species along road and stream segments in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon (U.S.A). The presence or absence of 21 selected exotic plant species and light levels were observed along 0.3-to 1.0-km transects within four habitat types. Each habitat represented a different level of disturbance: high-use roads, low-use roads, abandoned roads, and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Nearly 300 50 2–m sampling units were surveyed along five transects in each habitat type. We used ordination (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) and logistic regression to analyze data. All of the nearly 200 sampling units along roads with high and low levels of vehicle traffic contained at least one exotic plant species, and some con-tained as many as 14. Streams that were most recently disturbed by floods 20–30 years ago and abandoned spur roads with no traffic for 20–40 years also had numerous exotic species. Roads and streams apparently serve multiple functions that enhance exotic species invasion in this landscape: they act as corridors or agents for dispersal, provide suitable habitat, and contain reservoirs of propagules for future episodes of in-vasion. Species-specific dispersal mechanisms, habitat characteristics, and disturbance history each explain some, but not all, of the patterns of exotic species invasion observed in this study. Resumen: Para explicarnos los patrones espaciales de plantas exóticas a lo largo de segmentos de caminos y de arroyos en un paisaje boscoso del Cascade Range, Oregon, examinamos el papel de los mecanismos de dis-persión (una barrera biológica), de la luz (una barrera ambiental) y del nivel de perturbación (una barrera física). Se observaron la presencia o ausencia de 21 especies de plantas exóticas y los niveles lumínicos a lo largo de transectos de 0.3 a 1.0 km en cuatro tipos de hábitat. Cada hábitat presentaba diferentes niveles de perturbación: caminos de uso frecuente, caminos de uso no frecuente, caminos abandonados y arroys en el Bosque Experimental H. J. Andrews. Se trabajó en cerca de 300 unidades de muestreo de 50 2 m, a lo largo de cinco transectos en cada tipo de hábitat. Para el análisis de datos utilizamos ordenamiento (escala multi-dimensional no-numérica) y regresión logística. Las cerca de 200 unidades de muestreo a lo largo de cami-nos con uso frecuente y no frecuente presentaron por lo menos una especie de planta exótica y algunas pre-sentaron hasta 14. Los arroyas recientemente perturbados por inundaciones (20–30 años) y los caminos abandonados hace 20 -40 años también presentaron numerosas especies exóticas. Aparentemente, los cami-nos y arroyos realizan varias funciones que acrecientan la invasión de especies exóticas en este paisaje. Actúan como corredores o agentes dispersores, proporcionan hábitats adecuados y contienen reservorios de propágulos para futuras invasiones. Los mecanismos específicos de dispersión, las características del hábitat y los antecedentes de perturbación permiten explicar algunos, pero no todos, los patrones de invasión de es-pecies exóticas observados en este estudio.
Article
Full-text available
Restoration of communities invaded by exotic plants requires effective eradication of the invader and reestablishment of the resident plant community. Despite the commonly cited need for techniques to accomplish such goals, studies that test strategies for removing invasive plants, monitor effects on resident communities, and incorporate replicate sites are generally lacking. Microstegium vimineum is an exotic annual grass that is rapidly invading forests in the eastern United States and threatening to reduce biodiversity and inhibit forest regeneration. I conducted a field experiment at eight sites over two growing seasons in southern Indiana to evaluate hand-weeding (HW), a postemergent grass-specific herbicide (POST), and the postemergent herbicide plus a preemergent herbicide (POST + PRE) for removing Microstegium. Compared to reference plots (REF), the three treatments each reduced Microstegium biomass at the end of the growing seasons to relatively low levels. However, after the second year of the experiment, POST and POST + PRE resulted in very little spring cover of Microstegium, but HW plots were significantly reinvaded. HW and POST, but not POST + PRE, increased resident plant community productivity and spring resident community cover compared to reference plots. The amount of light at the research sites did not alter the effectiveness of treatments, but the recovery of resident communities was positively correlated with light availability under HW and POST + PRE. These results indicate that natural systems invaded by Microstegium can be restored using the POST or HW treatments, which will effectively remove the invasion and allow the resident plant community to recover when used over multiple growing seasons.
Article
Full-text available
Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes. We reviewed the scientific literature on the ecological effects of roads and found support for the general conclusion that they are associated with negative effects on biotic integrity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Roads of all kinds have seven general effects: mortality from road construction, mortality from collision with vehicles, modification of animal behavior, alteration of the physical environment, alteration of the chemical environment, spread of exotics, and increased use of areas by humans. Road construction kills sessile and slow-moving organisms, injures organisms adjacent to a road, and alters physical conditions beneath a road. Vehicle collisions affect the demography of many species, both vertebrates and invertebrates; mitigation measures to reduce roadkill have been only partly successful. Roads alter animal behavior by causing changes in home ranges, movement, reproductive success, escape response, and physiological state. Roads change soil density, temperature, soil water content, light levels, dust, surface waters, patterns of runoff, and sedimentation, as well as adding heavy metals (especially lead), salts, organic molecules, ozone, and nutrients to roadside environments. Roads promote the dispersal of exotic species by altering habitats, stressing native species, and providing movement corridors. Roads also promote increased hunting, fishing, passive harassment of animals, and landscape modifications. Not all species and ecosystems are equally affected by roads, but overall the presence of roads is highly correlated with changes in species composition, population sizes, and hydrologic and geomorphic processes that shape aquatic and riparian systems. More experimental research is needed to complement post-hoc correlative studies. Our review underscores the importance to conservation of avoiding construction of new roads in roadless or sparsely roaded areas and of removal or restoration of existing roads to benefit both terrestrial and aquatic biota. Resumen: Las carreteras son una característica predominante y en incremento de la mayoría de los paisajes. Revisamos la literatura científica sobre los efectos ecológicos de las carreteras y encontramos sustento para la conclusión general de que las carreteras están asociadas con efectos negativos en la integridad biótica tanto de ecosistemas terrestres como acuáticos. Las carreteras de cualquier tipo ocasionan siete efectos generales: mortalidad ocasionada por la construcción de la carretera; mortalidad debida a la colisión con vehículos; modificaciones en la conducta animal; alteración del ambiente físico; alteración del ambiente químico; dispersión de especies exóticas e incremento en el uso de áreas por humanos. La construcción de carreteras elimina a organismos sésiles y a organismos de lento movimiento, lesiona a organismos adyacentes a la carretera y altera las condiciones físicas debajo ella misma. Las colisiones con vehículos afectan la demografía de muchas especies tanto de vertebrados como invertebrados; las medidas de mitigación para reducir la pérdida de animales por colisiones con vehículos han sido exitosas solo de manera parcial. Las carreteras alteran la conducta animal al ocasionar cambios en el rango de hogar, movimientos, éxito reproductivo, respuesta de escape y estado fisiológico. Las carreteras cambian la densidad del suelo, temperatura, contenido de agua en el suelo, niveles de luz, polvo, aguas superficiales, patrones de escurrimiento y sedimentación, además de agregar metales pesados (especialmente plomo), sales, moléculas orgánicas, ozono y mutrientes a los ambientes que atraviesan. Las carreteras promueven la dispersión de especies exóticas al alterar los hábitats, al estresar a las especies nativas y proveer corredores para movimiento. Las carreteras también promueven el incremento de la caza y la pesca, el hostigamiento pasivo de animales y modificaciones del paisaje. No todas las especies ni todos los ecosistemas son afectados por las carreteras de igual forma, pero en general la presencia de carreteras está altamente correlacionada con cambios en la composición de especies, los tamaños poblacionales y los procesos hidrológicos y geomorfológicos que afectan a la estructura de sistemas acuáticos y reparios. Se necesita más investigación experimental para complementar estudios correlativos post-hoc. Nuestra revisión hace énfasis en que en trabajos de conservación es importante evitar la construcción de nuevas carreteras en áreas carentes de ellas o en áreas con pocas carreteras, además de remover o restaurar carreteras existentes con la finalidad de beneficiar tanto a la biota acuática como la terrestre.
Article
Full-text available
Most of the Chilean traffic exchange takes place along the border with Argentina. The road network between both countries facilitates the transport of alien plant species, raising the chance of new introductions of plant species and increasing the propagule pressure of already introduced plants. We used a modified version of the Australian Weed Risk Assessment method (AWRA) to analyze if alien plant species already present either exclusively in Chile or Argentina can be a potential source of risk for new alien species introduction and, specifically, which of the two countries poses a higher risk for its counterpart. We recorded 875 alien species of which 288 are exclusive to Chile, 283 are exclusive to Argentina, and 304 are shared by both countries. Considering the risk of new alien plants introductions, Chile presents a higher threat to Argentina than vice versa. Specifically, twenty-two alien species are exclusive to Chile, and are present on roadsides connecting both countries, hence they are regarded as a top risk for Argentina; a comparable top risk of alien species is absent from Argentinean roadsides. Both countries have a similar number of alien species being exclusive to one country, but are not present along roadsides (Chile 162; Argentina 186), which could represent a potential risk to the other country. The methodological approach proposed here may be a useful tool not only for screening potential new alien plant introductions, but also for the prioritization of eradication or control measures of those species already introduced. KeywordsAlien plants-Argentinean flora-Chilean flora-Plant invasion-Roadsides-Weed risk assessment
Article
Full-text available
Islands are paradigms of the pervasive spread of alien plants, but little work has been done assessing pattern and cause of the distribution of such plants in relation to roads on oceanic islands. We studied richness, composition, and distribution of alien plants and compared them with native species along roads on Tenerife (Canary Islands). We studied a single road transect that sampled two contrasting wind-facing aspects (leeward versus windward) and ran from coastal Euphorbia scrubland through thermophilous scrubland to Makaronesian laurel forest at the top of a mountainous massif. We evaluated the effects of elevation, aspect, distance to urban nuclei, and several road-edge features (including road-edge width and management—implying disturbance intensity), using regression models, analysis of variance, and multivariate ordination methods. Richness of both endemics and native nonendemics was explained by elevation (related to well-defined vegetation belts), steepness of the edge slope, and cover of rocky ground. Despite a short elevational gradient (0–650m), we found clear altitudinal zonation by biogeographic origin of both nonendemic natives and aliens, and altitudinal distribution of aliens followed the same zonation as that of natives. Alien species’ richness was related to management intensity determining edge disturbance, road-edge width, and distance to the nearest urban nuclei (propagule sources). Different variables explained distribution patterns of natives, endemics, and aliens along roadsides on leeward and windward aspects. Altitude and aspect also had a strong influence on the frequency of life strategies (woody species, annuals and biennial/perennial herbs) of roadside plant communities. Due to harsher environmental filters operating on the leeward aspect, alien species were distributed along the altitudinal gradient in apparent consistency with general biogeographical affinities. Tropical/subtropical taxa showed exponential decrease with increasing elevation, Mediterranean taxa showed a unimodal response (i.e., maximum richness at mid elevation, minimum at the extremes of the gradient), and temperate taxa showed linear increase with elevation. Native but nonendemic species followed analogous trends to those of aliens. This suggests climatic matching as a prerequisite for successful invasion of this topographically complex island. Other road traits, such as edge width, slope steepness, soil cover, and road-edge disturbance intensity may play a complementary role, at a more local scale, to shape the distribution of alien plants on these island roads.
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides the first estimate of the composition and structure of alien plants occurring in the wild in the European continent, based on the results of the DAISIE project (2004-2008), funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union and aimed at "creating an inventory of invasive species that threaten European terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments". The plant section of the DAISIE database is based on national checklists from 48 European countries/regions and Israel; for many of them the data were compiled during the project and for some countries DAISIE collected the first comprehensive checklists of alien species, based on primary data (e.g., Cyprus, Greece, R Y. R. O. Macedonia, Slovenia, Ukraine). In total, the database contains records of 5789 alien plant species in Europe (including those native to a part of Europe but alien to another part), of which 2843 are alien to Europe (of extra-European origin). The research focus was on naturalized species; there are in total 3749 naturalized aliens in Europe, of which 1780 are alien to Europe. This represents a marked increase compared to 1568 alien species reported by a previous analysis of data in Flora Europaea (1964-1980). Casual aliens were marginally considered and are represented by 1507 species with European origins and 872 species whose native range falls outside Europe. The highest diversity of alien species is concentrated in industrialized countries with a tradition of good botanical recording or intensive recent research. The highest number of all alien species, regardless of status, is reported from Belgium (1969), the United Kingdom (1779) and Czech Republic (1378). The United Kingdom (857), Germany (450), Belgium (447) and Italy (440) are countries with the most naturalized neophytes. The number of naturalized neophytes in European countries is determined mainly by the interaction of temperature and precipitation; it increases with increasing precipitation but only in climatically warm and moderately warm regions. Of the nowadays naturalized neophytes alien to Europe, 50% arrived after 1899, 25% after 1962 and 10% after 1989. At present, approximately 6.2 new species, that are capable of naturalization, are arriving each year. Most alien species have relatively restricted European distributions; half of all naturalized species occur in four or fewer countries/regions, whereas 70% of non-naturalized species occur in only one region. Alien species are drawn from 213 families, dominated by large global plant families which have a weedy tendency and have undergone major radiations in temperate regions (Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae). There are 1567 genera, which have alien members in European countries, the commonest being globally-diverse genera comprising mainly urban and agricultural weeds (e.g., Amaranthus, Chenopodium and Solanum) or cultivated for ornamental purposes (Cotoneaster, the genus richest in alien species). Only a few large genera which have successfully invaded (e.g., Oenothera, Oxalis, Panicum, Helianthus) are predominantly of non-European origin. Conyza canadensis, Helianthus tuberosus and Robinia pseudoacacia are most widely distributed alien species. Of all naturalized aliens present in Europe, 64.1% occur in industrial habitats and 58.5% on arable land and in parks and gardens. Grasslands and woodlands are also highly invaded, with 37.4 and 31.5%, respectively, of all naturalized aliens in Europe present in these habitats. Mires, bogs and fens are least invaded; only approximately 10% of aliens in Euope occur there. Intentional introductions to Europe (62.8% of the total number of naturalized aliens) prevail over unintentional (37.2%). Ornamental and horticultural introductions escaped from cultivation account for the highest number of species, 52.2% of the total. Among unintentional introductions, contaminants of seed, mineral materials and other commodities are responsible for 1091 alien species introductions to Europe (76.6% of all species introduced unintentionally) and 363 species are assumed to have arrived as stowaways (directly associated with human transport but arriving independently of commodity). Most aliens in Europe have a native range in the same continent (28.6% of all donor region records are from another part of Europe where the plant is native); in terms of species numbers the contribution of Europe as a region of origin is 53.2%. Considering aliens to Europe separately, 45.8% of species have their native distribution in North and South America, 45.9% in Asia, 20.7% in Africa and 5.3% in Australasia. Based on species composition, European alien flora can be classified into five major groups: (1) north-western, comprising Scandinavia and the UK; (2) west-central, extending from Belgium and the Netherlands to Germany and Switzerland; (3) Baltic, including only the former Soviet Baltic states; (4) east-central, comprizing the remainder of central and eastern Europe; (5) southern, covering the entire Mediterranean region. The clustering patterns cut across some European bioclimatic zones; cultural factors such as regional trade links and traditional local preferences for crop, forestry and ornamental species are also important by influencing the introduced species pool. Finally, the paper evaluates a state of the art in the field of plant invasions in Europe, points to research gaps and outlines avenues of further research towards documenting alien plant invasions in Europe. The data are of varying quality and need to be further assessed with respect to the invasion status and residence time of the species included. This concerns especially the naturalized/casual status; so far, this information is available comprehensively for only 19 countries/regions of the 49 considered. Collating an integrated database on the alien flora of Europe can form a principal contribution to developing a European-wide management strategy of alien species.
Article
Full-text available
The invasive grass Microstegium vimineum grows in low light beneath the canopy of eastern forests in North America by reiteration of modules (phytomers) along a tiller. Basal phytomers are vegetative; terminal phytomers produce a raceme of chasmogamous (CH) spikelets plus an axillary raceme of cleistogamous (CL) spikelets. Additional subterminal phytomers with CL racemes mature basipetally. Allocation to culms, leaves, and CH and CL within phytomers was examined in relation to light conditions for a population in New Jersey, USA. Plants were reared in a greenhouse from seed families of parents in deep shade (2-8% full sun) or sunny, edge habitats. Primary tillers were subdivided into phytomers, dried, and weighed. Tillers from field habitats were similarly treated. For vegetative and subterminal phytomers, allocation to leaves and CH was greatest for the shady habitat. CL allocation decreased from terminal to reproductively immature subterminal phytomers. CH and CL mass was positively correlated with leaf mass, suggesting that reproduction is determined by available photosynthate. CH mass showed a genetic correlation with leaf mass. Developmental plasticity in modular allocation allows Microstegium to maximize fitness when conditions are favorable (e.g., high light along forest edges) by continual maturation of CL caryopses on axillary racemes.
Article
Full-text available
Land managers need cost-effective and informative tools for non-native plant species management. Many local, state, and federal agencies adopted mapping systems designed to collect comparable data for the early detection and monitoring of non-native species. We compared mapping information to statistically rigorous, plot-based methods to better understand the benefits and compatibility of the two techniques. Mapping non-native species locations provided a species list, associated species distributions, and infested area for subjectively selected survey sites. The value of this information may be compromised by crude estimates of cover and incomplete or biased estimations of species distributions. Incorporating plot-based assessments guided by a stratified-random sample design provided a less biased description of non-native species distributions and increased the comparability of data over time and across regions for the inventory, monitoring, and management of non-native and native plant species.
Chapter
There is no summary to this chapter - only a two-page section entitled 'Summary and Conclusions' which is too long to reproduce here.
Article
The Japanese species, Lysimachia japonica Thunb. (Primulaceae) has been recorded as a new alien for the Flora of Turkey from the NE Anatolia. The detailed description of the species together with its photographs is provided.
Article
The synonymy of this taxon, its geographical range, habitats, and dates of introduction into the U.S. are reviewed. In addition, morphological studies were made of New Jersey populations. It is concluded that subspecific categories should not be designated.
Article
We examined the roles of dispersal mechanism, a biological barrier, light availability, an environmental barrier; and level of disturbance, a physical barrier, in explaining the spatial patterns of exotic plant species along road and stream segments in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon (U.S.A). The presence or absence of 21 selected exotic plant species and light levels were observed along 0.3- to 1.0-km transects within four habitat types. Each habitat represented a different level of disturbance: high-use roads, low-use roads, abandoned roads, and streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. Nearly 300 50 X 2-m sampling units were surveyed along five transects in each habitat type. We used ordination (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) and logistic regression to analyze data. All of the nearly 200 sampling units along roads with high and low levels of vehicle traffic contained at least one exotic plant species, and some contained as many as 14. Streams that were most recently disturbed by floods 20-30 years ago and abandoned spur roads with no traffic for 20-40 years also had numerous exotic species. Roads and streams apparently serve multiple functions that enhance exotic species invasion in this landscape: they act as corridors or agents for dispersal, provide suitable habitat, and contain reservoirs of propagules for future episodes of invasion. Species-specific dispersal mechanisms, habitat characteristics, and disturbance history each explain some, but not all, of the patterns of exotic species invasion observed in this study.
Article
Acalypha australis (Euphorbiaceae), a species of East Asia, has been recently discovered in Turkey (A7 and A8 Trabzon) and recorded as a new alien genus for the flora of Turkey. A detailed description of the species along with its photograph is provided.
Article
Mile-a-minute (Polygonum perfoliatum L., POLPF) is an introduced annual vine from eastern Asia that has become a serious weed in the eastern United States (Jianquing et al. 2000; McCormick and Hartwig 1995; Mc- Cormick and Johnson 1997; Oliver 1996). This plant is considered an invasive noxious weed because its aggressive growth allows it to outcompete and displace native plants in many habitats (Okay 1997; Oliver and Coile 1994). It is feared that mile-a-minute could spread all the way to Florida where under warm, moist climatic conditions it may attain the status of a perennial weed (Stevens 1994). The possibility of this weed spreading from coast to coast has also been raised (Hartwig 1991; Oliver 1996). The objective of this paper is to review key aspects of the etymology, history, biology, impact, and management of mile-a-minute in natural and seminatural plant communities with the ultimate goal of increasing awareness of the threat posed by this species, and of stimulating research into the development of effective and economical management strategies.
Article
Summary • Humans have traded and transported alien species for millennia with two notable step-changes: the end of the Middle Ages and beginning of the Industrial Revolution. However, in recent decades the world has entered a new phase in the magnitude and diversity of biological invasions: the Era of Globalization. This Special Profile reviews the links between the main drivers of globalization and biological invasions and examines state-of-the-art approaches to pathway risk assessment to illustrate new opportunities for managing invasive species. • Income growth is a primary driver of globalization and a clear association exists between Gross Domestic Product and the richness of alien floras and faunas for many regions of the world. In many cases, the exposure of these economies to trade is highlighted by the significant role of merchandise imports in biological invasions, especially for island ecosystems. • Post-1950, technical and logistic improvements have accelerated the ease with which commodities are transported across the globe and hindered the traceability of goods and the ease of intercepting pests. New sea, land and air links in international trade and human transport have established novel pathways for the spread of alien species. Increasingly, the science advances underpinning invasive species management must move at the speed of commerce. • Increasing transport networks and demand for commodities have led to pathway risk assessments becoming the frontline in the prevention of biological invasions. The diverse routes of introduction arising from contaminant, stowaway, corridor and unaided pathways, in both aquatic and terrestrial biomes are complex. Nevertheless, common features enable comparable approaches to risk assessment. By bringing together spatial data on climate suitability, habitat availability and points of entry, as well a demographic models that include species dispersal (both natural and human-mediated) and measures of propagule pressure, it is possible to generate risk maps highlighting potential invasion hotspots that can inform prevention strategies. • Synthesis and applications. To date, most attempts to model pathways have focused on describing the likelihood of invader establishment. Few have modelled explicit management strategies such as optimal detection and inspection strategies and assessments of the effectiveness of different management measures. A future focus in these areas will ensure research informs response.
Article
Although invasive alien plants are gaining increased attention within EPPO countries, there is no existing widely agreed method to identify those alien plants that are considered invasive and represent the highest priority for pest risk analysis. In the framework of the ad hoc Panel on Invasive Alien Species, EPPO proposes a prioritization process for invasive alien plants designed (i) to produce a list of invasive alien plants that are established or could potentially establish in the EPPO region and (ii) to determine which of these have the highest priority for an EPPO pest risk analysis. The process consists of compiling available information on alien plants according to pre-determined criteria, and can be run at the EPPO region level, or at a country or local area level. These criteria examine whether the species is alien in the area under study, and whether it is established or not. The criteria used primarily rely on observations in the EPPO region but, if the species is not established, the invasive behaviour of the species in other countries should be investigated, as well as the suitability of the ecoclimatic conditions in the area under consideration. The spread potential, the potential negative impacts on native species, habitats and ecosystems, as well as on agriculture, horticulture or forestry are considered. If the species qualifies as an invasive alien plant of major concern through this first set of questions, the process then investigates the efficiency of international measures (to be justified through a pest risk analysis) to prevent the entry and spread of the species. The second set of questions are designed to determine whether the species is internationally traded or enters new countries through international pathways for which the risk of introduction is superior to natural spread, and whether the species still has a significant suitable area for further spread. If used by several EPPO countries, this prioritization process represents an opportunity to provide consistent country lists of invasive alien plant species, as well as a tool for dialogue and exchange of information.
Article
1. Pathways describe the processes that result in the introduction of alien species from one location to another. A framework is proposed to facilitate the comparative analysis of invasion pathways by a wide range of taxa in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Comparisons with a range of data helped identify existing gaps in current knowledge of pathways and highlight the limitations of existing legislation to manage introductions of alien species. The scheme aims for universality but uses the European Union as a case study for the regulatory perspectives. 2. Alien species may arrive and enter a new region through three broad mechanisms: importation of a commodity, arrival of a transport vector, and/or natural spread from a neighbouring region where the species is itself alien. These three mechanisms result in six principal pathways: release, escape, contaminant, stowaway, corridor and unaided. 3. Alien species transported as commodities may be introduced as a deliberate release or as an escape from captivity. Many species are not intentionally transported but arrive as a contaminant of a commodity, for example pathogens and pests. Stowaways are directly associated with human transport but arrive independently of a specific commodity, for example organisms transported in ballast water, cargo and airfreight. The corridor pathway highlights the role transport infrastructures play in the introduction of alien species. The unaided pathway describes situations where natural spread results in alien species arriving into a new region from a donor region where it is also alien. 4. Vertebrate pathways tend to be characterized as deliberate releases, invertebrates as contaminants and plants as escapes. Pathogenic micro-organisms and fungi are generally introduced as contaminants of their hosts. The corridor and unaided pathways are often ignored in pathway assessments but warrant further detailed consideration. 5. Synthesis and applications. Intentional releases and escapes should be straightforward to monitor and regulate but, in practice, developing legislation has proved difficult. New introductions continue to occur through contaminant, stowaway, corridor and unaided pathways. These pathways represent special challenges for management and legislation. The present framework should enable these trends to be monitored more clearly and hopefully lead to the development of appropriate regulations or codes of practice to stem the number of future introductions.
Article
Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest is an informative, colorful, comprehensive guide to invasive species that are currently endangering native habitats in the region. It will be an essential resource for land managers, nature lovers, property owners, farmers, landscapers, educators, botanists, foresters, and gardeners. Invasive plants are a growing threat to ecosystems everywhere. Often originating in distant climes, they spread to woodlands, wetlands, prairies, roadsides, and backyards that lack the biological controls which kept these plant populations in check in their homelands. Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest includes more than 250 color photos that will help anyone identify problem trees, shrubs, vines, grasses, sedges, and herbaceous plants (including aquatic invaders). The text offers further details of plant identification; manual, mechanical, biological, and chemical control techniques; information and advice about herbicides; and suggestions for related ecological restoration and community education efforts. Also included are literature references, a glossary, a matrix of existing and potential invasive species in the Upper Midwest, an index with both scientific and common plant names, advice on state agencies to contact with invasive plant questions, and other helpful resources. The information in this book has been carefully reviewed by staffs of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Endangered Resources and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum and other invasive plant experts.
Invasion of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an exotic, annual shade-tolerant, C-4 grass, into a North Carolina floodplain Alien plants in the Black Sea region of Turkey215 ª 2011 The Authors Journal compilation ª 2011 OEPP/EPPO The art and science of weed mapping
  • Barden
Barden LS (1987) Invasion of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an exotic, annual shade-tolerant, C-4 grass, into a North Carolina floodplain. American Midland Naturalist 118, 40–45. Alien plants in the Black Sea region of Turkey215 ª 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation ª 2011 OEPP/EPPO, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 41, 208–216 rBarnett DT, Stohlgren TJ, Jarnevich CS, Chong GW, Ericson JA & Davern TR (2007) The art and science of weed mapping. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 132, 235–252
A new record for the flora of Turkey, and Campanula latiloba subsp. rizeensis, new subspecies from Anatolia
  • Güner
Gu ¨ner A (1984) A new record for the flora of Turkey, and Campanula latiloba subsp. rizeensis, new subspecies from Anatolia. Candollea 39, 345–348
Alien plants in the Black Sea region of Turkey The art and science of weed mapping
  • Barnett Dt Stohlgren Tj
  • Jarnevich
  • Chong Gw Cs
  • Ja Ericson
  • Davern
Alien plants in the Black Sea region of Turkey Barnett DT, Stohlgren TJ, Jarnevich CS, Chong GW, Ericson JA & Davern TR (2007) The art and science of weed mapping. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 132, 235–252.
Flora Corsica. Edisud, Aix-en-Provence (FR)
  • Jeanmonod
Jeanmonod D & Gamisans J (2007) Flora Corsica. Edisud, Aix-en-Provence (FR).
LIFE Focus – Alien Species and Nature Conservation in the EU. The Role of the LIFE Program Three grasses new to turkey
  • Scalera
Scalera R & Zaghi D (2004) LIFE Focus – Alien Species and Nature Conservation in the EU. The Role of the LIFE Program. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 56 pp. Scholz H & Byfield AJ (2000) Three grasses new to turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 24, 263–267.
Istanbul (Turkey) EUNIS system; Davies CE & Moss D (2003) EUNIS Habitat Classification
  • Erinc
Erinc S (1969) Climate Science and Methods, Istanbul University Geography Institute Publications, No. 35, Istanbul (Turkey). EUNIS system; Davies CE & Moss D (2003) EUNIS Habitat Classification. August 2003. European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity, Paris (France), http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/habitats.jsp [accessed on 11 March 2011].
project interactive agricultural ecological Atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds
  • Kravchenko
  • Oe
Kravchenko OE (2009) Acalypha australis L. – Southern Acalypha. 2003–2009 project interactive agricultural ecological Atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds. http:// www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/weeds/Acalypha_australis/. [accessed on 11 March 2011]
Towards an early warning and information system for invasive alien species (IAS) threatening biodiversity in Europe Gü A (1984) A new record for the flora of Turkey, and Campanula latiloba subsp. rizeensis, new subspecies from Anatolia
  • P Genovesi
  • R Scalera
  • Roy S Brunel
Genovesi P, Scalera R, Brunel S, Roy D & Solarz W (2010) Towards an early warning and information system for invasive alien species (IAS) threatening biodiversity in Europe. EEA Technical report, no. 5 ⁄ 2010, 52 pp. Gü A (1984) A new record for the flora of Turkey, and Campanula latiloba subsp. rizeensis, new subspecies from Anatolia. Candollea 39, 345–348.
Lippia (Phyla canescens) in Queensland. Pest status review series – Land protection. The State of Queensland, Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, 34 pp
  • Leigh
  • Walton
Leigh C & Walton CS (2004) Lippia (Phyla canescens) in Queensland. Pest status review series – Land protection. The State of Queensland, Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, 34 pp. [http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/ documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Lippia-PSA.pdf] [accessed on 11 March 2011].
Trabzon-Meryemana Arastırma Ormanı Florası ve Saf Ladin Mescerelerinde Floristic Arastırmalar (The flora of the Trabzon-Meryemana research forest and the floristic studies on the pure oriental spruce stands)
  • R Anşin
Climate Science and Methods
  • Erinc S
Acalypha australis L. – Southern Acalypha. 2003–2009 project interactive agricultural ecological Atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds
  • Kravchenko OE
Sicyos angulatus, nouvelle adventice du maıs dans le Sud-Ouest de la France
  • Larché
A contribution to exotic plants of Turkey: Sicyos angulatus L.
  • Terzioglu
Three grasses new to turkey
  • Scholz
  • Ai Poyarkova
  • L Acalypha
  • In
Poyarkova AI (1974) Acalypha L. In: Flora of the USSR, Vol. 14 (Ed. Komarov VL), pp. 228–229. Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem (Israel).
CTA's Executive brief: tea: trade issues for the ACP
CTA (2010) CTA's Executive brief: tea: trade issues for the ACP. April 2010
EUNIS Habitat Classification European Topic Centre on
  • Ce Davies
  • D Moss
EUNIS system; Davies CE & Moss D (2003) EUNIS Habitat Classification. August 2003. European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity, Paris (France), http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/habitats.jsp [accessed on 11 March 2011].