Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies specific to West Nile virus envelope protein

Center for Molecular Immunology and Center for Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
Journal of Virological Methods (Impact Factor: 1.78). 11/2008; 154(1-2):20-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2008.09.019
Source: PubMed


Recent epidemics of West Nile virus (WNV) around the world have been associated with significant rates of mortality and morbidity in humans. To develop standard WNV diagnostic tools that can differentiate WNV from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to WNV envelope (E) protein were produced and characterized by isotyping, reactivity with denatured and native antigens, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and epitope competition, as well as cross-reactivity with JEV. Two of the MAbs (6A11 and 4B3) showed stronger reactivity with E protein than the others (2F5 and 6H7) in Western blot analysis. 4B3 could bind with denatured antigen, as well as native antigens in indirect ELISA, flow cytometry analysis, and IFA; whereas 2F5 showed highest affinity with native antigen. 4B3 and 2F5 were therefore used to establish an antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) detection system. The sensitivity of this AC-ELISA was 3.95 TCID(50)/0.1 ml for WNV-infected cell culture supernatant. Notably, these MAbs showed no cross-reactivity with JEV, which suggests that they are useful for further development of highly sensitive, easy handling, and less time-consuming detection kits/tools in WNV surveillance in areas where JEV is epidemic.

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    • "WNV envelope protein (E protein) domain III (the sequence corresponding to nt 1858–2211) was expressed in E.coli as an inclusion body, and then purified and refolded in appropriate buffer [46]. Protein concentrations were determined at an absorbance of 280 nm by spectrophotometry. "
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    ABSTRACT: West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging arthropod-born flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide that is responsible for a large proportion of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. Given that there are no effective antiviral drugs available for treatment of the disease, efforts have been directed to develop vaccines to prevent WNV infection. Recently baculovirus has emerged as a novel and attractive gene delivery vehicle for mammalian cells. In the present study, recombinant baculoviruses expressing WNV premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins under the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with or without vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV/G) were constructed. The recombinant baculoviruses designated Bac-G-prM/E and Bac-prM/E, efficiently express E protein in mammalian cells. Intramuscular injection of the two recombinant baculoviruses (at doses of 108 or 109 PFU/mouse) induced the production of WNV-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies as well as gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in a dose-dependent pattern. Interestingly, the recombinant baculovirus Bac-G-prM/E was found to be a more efficient immunogen than Bac-prM/E to elicit a robust immune response upon intramuscular injection. In addition, inoculation of baculovirus resulted in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6. These recombinant baculoviruses are capable of eliciting robust humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and may be considered as novel vaccine candidates for West Nile Virus.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Virology Journal
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    • "It was found that a combination of 3B2 as catcher and tracer MAb gave the highest signal combined with good specificity. The detection limit of 103.8TCID50/100 μl for WNV-infected cell culture supernatant obtained in the present study is comparable with that found in previously published AC-ELISA [30]. Considering that AC-ELISAs performed with pairs of MAbs made up of 2A8 and 4G9 allowed the detection of USUVs, these tests could be useful for viral detection in pathological specimens or cell cultures in areas where WNV and USUV spread concomitantly. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infections is often difficult due to the extensive antigenic cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, especially in geographic regions where two or more of these viruses are present causing sequential infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced against WNV to verify their applicability in WNV diagnosis and in mapping epitope targets of neutralizing MAbs. Six MAbs were produced and characterized by isotyping, virus-neutralization, western blotting and MAb-epitope competition. The MAb reactivity against various WNVs belonging to lineage 1 and 2 and other related flaviviruses was also evaluated. The molecular basis of epitopes recognized by neutralizing MAbs was defined through the selection and sequencing of MAb escape mutants. Competitive binding assays between MAbs and experimental equine and chicken sera were designed to identify specific MAb reaction to epitopes with high immunogenicity. All MAbs showed stronger reactivity with all WNVs tested and good competition for antigen binding in ELISA tests with WNV-positive equine and chicken sera. Four MAbs (3B2, 3D6, 4D3, 1C3) resulted specific for WNV, while two MAbs (2A8, 4G9) showed cross-reaction with Usutu virus. Three MAbs (3B2, 3D6, 4D3) showed neutralizing activity. Sequence analysis of 3B2 and 3D6 escape mutants showed an amino acid change at E307 (Lys → Glu) in the E protein gene, whereas 4D3 variants identified mutations encoding amino acid changed at E276 (Ser → Ile) or E278 (Thr → Ile). 3B2 and 3D6 mapped to a region on the lateral surface of domain III of E protein, which is known to be a specific and strong neutralizing epitope for WNV, while MAb 4D3 recognized a novel specific neutralizing epitope on domain II of E protein that has not previously been described with WNV MAbs. MAbs generated in this study can be applied to various analytical methods for virological and serological WNV diagnosis. A novel WNV-specific and neutralizing MAb (4D3) directed against the unknown epitope on domain II of E protein can be useful to better understand the role of E protein epitopes involved in the mechanism of WNV neutralization.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Virology Journal
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    • "Among the many techniques developed for the rapid diagnosis of viral infections, AC-ELISA is a sensitive and specific method that is capable of large-scale screening in surveillance programs[30]. It also offers some advantages over the more traditional antigen detection methods[29]. Nowadays, rabies rapid enzyme immunodiagnosis (RREID) is being widely used to diagnose rabies virus[15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rabies is invariably a fatal encephalomyelitis that is considered to be a serious public health problem. It is necessary to develop standard rabies virus diagnostic tools, especially for diagnosing the strains prevalent in China. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to rabies virus were produced and characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), isotyping, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and immunocytochemistry. The MAb, whose affinity was higher for antigen, was used to establish an antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) detection system and test the efficiency by using clinical samples. The heavy chain subclasses of two MAbs were all determined to be IgG2a. The 3C7 MAb showed stronger reactivity with rabies virus protein than the 2C5 MAb in an ELISA analysis, whereas the 3C7 MAb showed the highest affinity for antigen. IFA and immunocytochemistry results also indicated that the two MAbs could recognize rabies virus protein in its native form in cell samples. Data obtained using clinical samples showed that rabies virus could be detected by AC-ELISA detection system using the 3C7 MAb. It was potentially useful for the further development of highly sensitive, easily handled, and relatively rapid detection kits/tools for rabies surveillance in those areas where rabies is endemic, especially in China.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010
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