Titanium levels in the organs and blood of rats with a titanium implant, in the absence of wear, as determined by double-focusing ICP-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem

Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, 33006, Oviedo, Spain.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.44). 11/2008; 393(1):335-43. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-008-2449-2
Source: PubMed


Titanium (Ti) has long been regarded as an inert and biocompatible metal, ideal for biomedical applications such as dental implants or joint replacements. However, concerns about the biocompatibility of Ti have lately arisen. Unfortunately, information on reliable Ti baseline physiological levels in blood and organ tissues is still pending and the real effects of physiological corrosion as opposed to wear processes of Ti or Ti alloys implants is controversial so far. In this work a previously developed and validated methodology, based on using double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) has been used to establish Ti basal levels in blood and organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs) of Wistar rats. These data were compared with the levels found in three Wistar rats implanted with a Ti wire embedded in their femur for 18 months, in order to assign possible Ti released purely due to non-wear physiological mechanisms. Results showed that Ti content in all the selected organ tissues and blood was higher than previously determined Ti basal levels, clearly showing both corrosion of the Ti implant and systemic Ti accumulation in target tissues. These results indicate that Ti metal corrosion occurs. This seems to be the only mechanism responsible in the long term for the observed passive dissolution of Ti of the implant in the absence of wear. A comparative study of the systemic distribution of the soluble and particulate Ti potentially released from Ti implants was also carried out by intraperitoneally injection of soluble Ti(citrate)(3) and insoluble TiO(2) particles, respectively. Different systemic Ti storage was observed. Whereas soluble Ti was rapidly transported to all distal organs under study, TiO(2) particles were only accumulated in lung tissue.

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    • "Pure titanium and some of its alloys are non-toxic and generally have been described as being biocompatible with human tissues [5]. Despite its biocompatibility, toxicological concerns are depicted in the literature related to ions, microparticles (MPs), fine particles and nanoparticles [6-10]. Despite being inert [11], titanium may promote inflammatory reactions by recruiting inflammatory cells [12], such as neutrophils. "
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    • "The release of metal ions from some metal materials, e.g. aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), vanadium (V) and cobalt (Co), can generate adverse biological effects and affect cell metabolism [2]. On the other hand, the nature of the bone–implant interface is a result of the competition between bone regeneration and fibrous tissue formation [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Niobium based thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates to evaluate them as possible biocompatible surfaces that might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel dental implants. Niobium nitride and niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering under standard deposition conditions without substrate bias or heating. The biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by testing the cellular adhesion and viability/proliferation of human cementoblasts during different culture times, up to 7 days. The response of the films was compared to the bare substrate and pieces of Ti6Al4V; the most commonly used implant material for orthopedics and osteo-synthesis applications. The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated by different means; X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results suggested that the niobium oxide films were amorphous and of stoichiometric Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5), while the niobium nitride films were crystalline in the FCC phase (c-NbN) and were also stoichiometric with an Nb to N ratio of one. The biological evaluation showed that the biocompatibility of the SS could be improved by any of the two films, but neither was better than the Ti6Al4V alloy. On the other hand, comparing the two films, the c-NbN seemed to be a better surface than the oxide in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of human cemetoblasts.Research highlights▶ The coatings of niobium oxide and niobium nitride improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. ▶ The niobium oxide and niobium nitride coatings increase cell proliferation. ▶ The niobium-based coatings do not have a toxic effect on cells. ▶ The niobium nitride coatings show better cell adhesion than the uncoated stainless steel. ▶ The niobium-based coatings have a similar biocompatibility to titanium.
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