Article

Looker KJ, Garnett GP, Schmid GPAn estimate of the global prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Bull World Health Organ 86:805-812

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, England.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation (Impact Factor: 5.09). 11/2008; 86(10):805-12, A. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.07.046128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To estimate the global prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in 2003.
A systematic review was undertaken of published seroprevalence surveys describing the prevalence or incidence of HSV-2 by age and gender. For each of 12 regions, pooled prevalence values by age and gender were generated in a random-effect model. HSV-2 incidence was then estimated from these pooled values using a constant-incidence model. Values of the HSV-2 seroprevalence from the model fits were applied to the total population to estimate the numbers of people infected.
The total number of people aged 15-49 years who were living with HSV-2 infection worldwide in 2003 is estimated to be 536 million, while the total number of people who were newly infected with HSV-2 in 2003 is estimated to be 23.6 million. While the estimates are limited by poor availability of data, general trends are evident. For example, more women than men were infected, and the number infected increased with age. Although prevalence varied substantially by region, predicted prevalence was mostly higher in developing regions than developed regions.
The prevalence of HSV-2 is relatively easy to measure since infection is lifelong and has a specific serological test. The burden of disease is less easy to quantify. Despite the often sparse data on which these estimates are based, it is clear that HSV-2 infection is widespread. The dramatic differences in prevalence between regions are worthy of further exploration.

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    • "The World Health Organization estimated that over 500 million people are infected with HSV-2 worldwide with approximately 20 million new cases annually (Looker et al., 2008). The extremely high prevalence of HSV-2 in sub-Saharan Africa (∼70%) (Looker et al., 2008) may contribute more to the spread of HIV-1 than number of sex partners or other sexually transmitted infections (Freeman et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007). Moreover, as HSV establishes latency in neurons with frequent subclinical or clinical reactivations, there is a lifelong impact of infection. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    • "Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a member of the HSV subfamily of alphaherpesviruses that commonly causes infections of the genital area. The sexually transmitted virus has infected more than 500 million people worldwide and causes an estimated 23 million new infections each year[1,2]; however, most people are not aware that they are infected and may transmit the virus during periods of subclinical shedding[3]. Therefore, there is an interest in developing a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine that would prevent infection and augment host immunity to contain the virus and prevent reactivation, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: The highly immunogenic glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a very important element for entry of this virus into host cells. These characteristics have made this protein a very interesting HSV-2 subunit vaccine candidate. Despite efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-based subunit vaccines, to date, clinical trials using this antigen have failed. Therefore, using a small animal model, we sought to determine if a tetramerized truncated form of gD subunit vaccine, produced by recombinant baculovirus infected insect larvae, would elicit better protection against genital herpes than a monomeric gD-2 subunit vaccine. Three out of 5 mice immunized with the tetramerized antigen produced in a baculovirus expression vector system, survived a lethal challenge with a wild type HSV-2 strain (for more than 3 weeks after challenge). In contrast, all the mice (5) immunized with the truncated protein, produced by the same methodology, died within two weeks after challenge. These results suggest that multimerization (increasing the structural complexity) of the truncated gD antigen might be more likely protective than the monomer form. Also the use of an alternative cost-efficient eukaryotic expression system is described. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Protein Expression and Purification
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    • "The WHO estimates that 536 million people, aged 15 -49 are infected with HSV-2 type 2, the causative agent of genital herpes. Annually approximately 23.6 million people in this age group become newly infected with HSV-2 [11]. The epidemiology of each STI is different and is influenced by various factors, including sexual mixing patterns (moderated by protective behaviours), the transmissibility of each pathogen, and the duration of infectiousness (moderated by access to effective treatment), demographics, and social circumstances [12]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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