Conference Paper

A Model to Analyze Critical Factors in B2B Interoperability Standards Lifecycle

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Abstract

In the past different models were defined to represent the life cycle of B2B standards. Starting from there, this work defines a new standards life cycle model aiming to point out the aspects related to the production of Use Profiles and the execution of Conformance and Interoperability Testing. Indeed, at present more than in the past, they are going to play a relevant role in the B2B interoperability standards life cycle, especially when the target domains are characterised by a fragmentation of the actors in place. Then some critical factors that could hamper the adoption (thus the success) of a B2B interoperability standard specification are detected and analyzed in order to extract qualitative suggestions and define performance indicators.

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The present paper aims to analyse the main barriers and drivers that obstacle and push the adoption of an eBusiness standard, such as eBIZ, and IoT technology, such as RFId, within the fashion industry. This purpose represents the first step of the European project “eBIZ 4.0—Enhancing textile/clothing sector by eBIZ and RFIds technologies adoption”, aiming to promote the integration between RFId technology and eBIZ standard for improving data interoperability among companies operating along the fashion supply chain. The tool used for this kind of analysis has been an online survey dispatched to the mailing list of all the project partners belong to different European Community countries and involving both software houses and fashion companies. The survey results have been crossed with the external variables that characterize the analysed companies, in order to classify the evidences related to one or another cluster of companies similar in terms of external variables such as dimension, headquarter location, industry segment.
Chapter
Purpose. This paper aims to define the overall Made in Italy perception within the on-line and off-line contexts. Particularly, authors attempt to consider three main aspects; the first one regards the key product categories linked to the Made in Italy production; the second aspect concerns the key characteristics linked to the Italy Country Image and the overall sentiment related to it. Finally, the research aims at identifying whether Italian brands enhance their Country of Origin (COO) image or not.
Article
Full-text available
The adoption of a public standard at application domain level enables systems to interoperate, with a positive impact for eBusiness adoption, especially towards SMEs networks. Nevertheless conformance to standard specification is not enough to guarantee interoperability between different implementations. If we consider interoperability based on three levels (technical, semantic and organisational) not all the standard specifications aim to cover all the three levels. One of the key enablers of a 'service based economy' is the interchangeability of the service providers that requires that all the three levels of interoperability are effectively achieved. This paper analyses first these critical factors in adopting technical standardized specifications for data exchange in eBusiness; then analyses one of the possible countermeasure: domain specific use profiling and related conformance testing tools based on customization rules.
Article
Standardization is a poorly understood discipline in practice. While there are excellent studies of standardization as an economic phenomenon, or as technical a phenomenon, or as a policy initiative, most of these are ex post facto and written from a dispassionate academic view. They are of little help to practitioners who actually are using and creating standards. The person actually creating the standards is working in an area of imperfect knowledge, high economic incentives, changing relationships, and often, short-range planning. The ostensible failure of a standard has to be examined not so much from the focus of whether the standard or specification was written or even implemented (the usual metric), but rather from the viewpoint of whether the participants achieved their goals from their participation in the standardization process. To achieve this, various examples are used to illustrate how expectations from a standardization process may vary, so that what is perceived as a market failure may very well be a signal success for some of the participants. The paper is experientially, not empirically based, and relies on my observations as an empowered, embedded, and occasionally neutral observer in the Information Technology standardization arena. Because of my background, the paper does have a focus on computing standards, rather than publishing standards. However, from what I have observed, the lessons learned apply equally to all standardization activities, from heavy machinery to quality to publishing. Standards names may vary; human nature doesn't.
Conference Paper
Standards-related literature within business-to-business (B2B) covers many separate areas. Examples are enabling technology, development processes for standards in formal, semi-formal and informal fora, base standards (XML and EDI) extensions and evolvement, intellectual property rights, etc, etc. In computer science literature, the term life cycle is usually used to denote the previously mentioned phases for a product or process, from ”birth to death”. They are useful for understanding various phenomena and how these relate to their respective environments such as to stakeholders. However, the standards life cycles is only rarely discussed in literature. This paper examines seven existing life cycle models for standards and standardisation, and shows where extensions to the current approaches are needed. The result is a general standards life cycle model, which may serve as the basis for discussion and to identify perspectives for both standards research and standards practice to consider.
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