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Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple. Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared differently and they contain different enzymatic composition. "Bromelain" refers usually to the "stem bromelain." Bromelain is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, escharase, and several protease inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Bromelain is considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side effects. Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics. It also relieves osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the possible mode of action.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Biotechnology Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 976203, 6 pages
Review A rticle
Properties and Therapeutic Application of Bromelain: A Review
Rajendra Pavan, Sapna Jain, Shraddha, and Ajay Kumar
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh 202145, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Ajay Kumar,
Received 25 September 2012; Accepted 13 November 2012
Academic Editor: Michael Hust
Copyright © 2012 Rajendra Pavan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which p ermits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple.
Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared dierently and they contain dierent enzymatic composition. “Bromelain
refers usually to the “stem bromelain. Bromelain is a mixture of dierent thiol endopeptidases and other components like
phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, escharase, and several protease inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate
that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Bromelain is
considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side eects.
Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma,
and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics. It also relieves
osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes
apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the
1. Introduction
Pineapple is the common name of Ananas comosus (syns.
A. sativus, Ananassa sativa, Bromelia ananas, B. comosa).
Pineapple is the leading edible member of the family
Bromeliaceae, grown in several t ropical and subtropi-
cal countries including Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Kenya, India, and China. It has been used as
a medicinal plant in several native cultures [1] and these
medicinal qualities of pineapple are attributed to bromelain
(EC, which is a crude extract from pineapple that
contains, among other compounds, various closely related
proteinases, exhibiting various fibrinolytic, antiedematous,
antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and
in vivo. Bromelain has been chemically known since 1875
and is used as a phytomedical compound [2]. Bromelain
concentration is high in pineapple stem, thus necessitating
its extraction because, unlike the pineapple fruit which
is normally used as food, the stem is a waste byproduct
and thus inexpensive [3].Awiderangeoftherapeutic
benefits have been claimed for bromelain, such as reversible
inhibition of platelet aggregation, sinusitis, surgical traumas
[4], thrombophlebitis, pyelonephriti angina pectoris, bron-
chitis [5], and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly
of antibiotics [6, 7]. Several studies have been carried out
indicating that bromelain has useful phytomedical applica-
tion. However, these results are yet to be amalgamated and
critically compared so as to make out whether bromelain
will gain wide acceptance as a phytomedical supplement
[8]. Bromelain acts on fibrinogen giving products that are
similar, at least in eect, to those formed by plasmin [9].
Experiment in mice showed that antacids such as sodium
bicarbonate preserve the proteolytic activity of bromelain
in the gastrointestinal tract [ 10]. Bromelain is considered
as a food supplement and is freely available to the general
public in health food stores and pharmacies in the USA and
Europe [11]. Existing evidence indicates that bromelain can
be a promising candidate for the development of future oral
enzyme therapies for oncology patients [12]. Bromelain can
be absorbed in human intestines without degradation and
without losing its biological activity [12, 13].
2 Biotechnology Research International
2. Biochemical Properties
The crude aqueous extract from stem and fruit of pineap-
ple is known as bromelain. It is a mixture of dierent
thiol endopeptidases and other components like phos-
phatases, glucosidase, peroxidases, cellulases, glycoproteins,
carbohydrates, and several protease inhibitors [14]. Stem
bromelain (EC. is dierent from fruit bromelain
(EC. [15]. The enzymatic ac tivities of bromelain
comprise a wide spectrum with pH range of 5.5 to 8.0
[16]. Dierent protein fractions were obtained by mean
of various biochemical techniques as sodium dodecyl
sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),
isoelectric focusing (IEF), and multicathodal-PAGE [17, 18].
Nowadays, bromelain is prepared from cooled pineapple
juice by centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and lyophilization.
The process yields a yellowish powder, the enzyme activity of
which is determined with dierent substrates such as casein
(FIP unit), gelatin (gelatin digestion units), or chromogenic
tripeptides [7, 17, 19, 20].
3. Absorption and Bioavailability
The body can absorb significant amount of bromelain;
about 12 gm/day of bromelain can be consumed without
any major side eects [13]. Bromelain is absorbed from
the gastrointestinal tract in a functionally intact form;
approximately 40% of labeled bromelain is absorbed from
intestine in high molecular form [21]. In a study carried
out by Castell et al. [13] bromelain was detecte d to retain
its proteolytic activity in plasma and was also found linked
with alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin,
the two antiproteinases of blood. In a recent study, it was
demonstrated that 3.66 mg/mL of bromelain was stable
in artificial stomach juice after 4 hrs of reaction and also
2.44 mg/mL of bromelain remained in artificial blood after
4 hrs of reaction [22].
4. Medicinal Uses
Clinical studies have shown that bromelain may help in the
treatment of several disorders.
4.1. Eects of Bromelain on Cardiovascular and Circulation.
Bromelain prevents or minimizes the severity of angina
pectoris and transient ischemic attack (TIA). It is useful
in the prevention and treatment of thrombophlebitis. It
may also break down cholesterol plaques and exerts a
potent fibrinolytic activity. A combination of bromelain and
other nutrients protect a gainst ischemia/reperfusion injury
in skeletal muscle [23]. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)
include disorders of the blood vessels and heart, coro-
nary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease
(stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral
artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, heart failure, and
congenital heart disease [24]. Stroke and heart disease are
the main cause of death, about 65% of people with diabetes
die from stroke or heart disease. Bromelain has been eective
in the treatment of CVDs as it is an inhibitor of blood
platelet aggregation, thus minimizing the risk of arterial
thrombosis and embolism [25]. King et al. [26] reported that
administration of medication use to control the symptoms
of diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesteromia increased
by 121% from 1988–1994 to 2001–2006 (P<0.05) and
was greater for patients with fewer healthy lifestyle habits.
Bromelain supplement could reduce any of risk factors that
contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. In a
recent research, Bromelain was found to attenuate develop-
ment of allergic airway disease (AAD), while altering CD4
to CD8
T lymphocyte populations. From this reduction
in AAD outcomes it was suggested that bromelain may
have similar eects in the t reatment of human asthma and
hypersensitivity disorders [27]. In another study, carried out
by Juhasz et al., Bromelain was proved to exhibit the ability
of inducing cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion
injury through Akt/Foxo pathway in rat myocardium [28].
4.2. Bromelain Relieves Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the
most common form of arthritis in Western countries; in USA
prevalence of osteoarthritis ranges from 3.2 to 33% depen-
dent on the joint [29]. A combination of bromelain, trypsin,
and rutin was compared to diclofenac in 103 patients with
osteoarthritis of the knee. After six weeks, both treatments
resulted in significant and similar reduction in the pain and
inflammation [30]. Bromelain is a food supplement that
may provide an alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) [31]. It plays an important role
in the pathogenesis of arthritis [32]. Bromelain has analgesic
properties which are thought to be the result of its direct
influence on pain mediators such as bradykinin [33, 34].
The earliest reported studies investigating bromelain were a
series of case reports on 28 patients, with moderate or severe
rheumatoid or osteoarthritis [35].
4.3. Eect of Bromelain on Immunogenicity. Bromelain has
been recommended as an adjuvant therapeutic approach
in the treatment of chronic inflammatory, malignant, and
autoimmune diseases [36]. In vitro experiments have shown
that Bromelain has the ability to modulate surface adhesion
molecules on T cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells
and also induce the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour
necrosis factor α (TNFα) by peripheral blood mononu-
clear cel ls (PBMCs) [3743]. Bromelain can block the
Raf-1/extracellular-regulated-kinase- (ERK-) 2 pathways by
inhibiting the T cell signal transduction [44]. Treatment of
cells with bromelain decreases the activation of CD4 (+)
T cells and reduce the expression of CD25 [45]. Moreover,
there is evidence that oral therapy with bromelain produces
certain analgesic and anti-inflammatory eects in patients
with rheumatoid arthritis, which is one of the most common
autoimmune diseases [46].
4.4. Eect of Bromelain on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis.
Bromelain influences blood coagulation by increasing the
serum fibrinolytic ability and by inhibiting the synthesis of
fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting [47]. In rats, the
reduction of serum fibrinogen level by bromelain is dose
Biotechnology Research International 3
dependent. At a higher concentration of bromelain, both
prothrombin t ime (PT) and ac tivated partial thromboplastin
time (APTT) are markedly prolonged [48]. In vitro and in
vivo studies have suggested that bromelain is an eective fib-
rinolytic agent as it stimulates the conversion of plasminogen
to plasmin, resulting in increased fibrinolysis by degrading
fibrin [49, 50].
4.5. EectsofBromelainonDiarrhea. Evidence has suggested
that bromelain counteracts some of the eects of certain
intestinal pathogens like Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli,
whose enterotoxin causes diarrhoea in animals. Bromelain
appears to exhibit this eect by interacting with intestinal
secretory signaling pathways, including adenosine 3
cyclic monophosphatase, guanosine 3
-cyclic monophos-
phatase, and calcium-dependent signaling cascades [51].
Other studies suggest a dierent mechanism of action. In
E. coli infection, an active supplementation with bromelain
leads to some antiadhesion eects which prevent the bac teria
from attaching to specific glycoprotein receptors located
on the intestinal mucosa by proteolytical ly modifying the
receptor attachment sites [52, 53].
4.6. Eect of Bromelain on Cancer Cells. Recent studies
have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modify
key pathways that support malignancy. Presumably, the
anticancerous activity of bromelain is due to its direct impact
on cancer cells and their microenvironment, as well as on
the modulation of immune, inflammatory, and haemostatic
systems [12]. Most of the in vitro and in vivo studies on
anticancer activity of bromelain are concentrated on mouse
and human cells, both cancerous and normal, treated with
bromelain preparations. In an experiment conducted by
Beez et al chemically induced mouse skin papillomas were
treated with bromelain and they observed that it reduced
tumor formation, tumor volume and caused apoptotic cell
death [54]. In one study related to bromelain treatment of
gastric carcinoma Kato III cell lines, significant reduction
of cell growth was observed [55] while in another study
bromelain reduced the invasive capacity of glioblastoma cells
and reduced de novo protein synthesis [56]. Bromelain is
found to increase the expression of p53 and Bax in mouse
skin, the well-known activators of apoptosis [54]. Bromelain
also decreases the activity of cell surv ival regulators such
as Akt and Erk, thus promoting apoptotic cell death in
tumours. Dierent studies have demonstrated the role of NF-
κB, Cox-2, and PGE2 as promoters of cancer progression.
Evidence shows that the signaling and overexpression of
NF-κB plays an important part in many types of cancers
[57, 58]. Cox-2, a multiple target gene of NF-κB, facilitates
the conversion of arachidonic acid into PGE2 and thus
promotes tumour angiogenesis and progression [59, 60]. It is
considered that inhibiting NF-κB, Cox-2, and PGE2 activity
has potential as a t reatment of cancer. Bromelain was found
to downregulate NF-κB and Cox-2 expression in mouse
papillomas [54] and in models of skin tumourigenesis [61].
Bromelain was also shown to inhibit bacterial endotoxin
(LPS)-induced NF-κB activity as well as the expression of
PGE2 and Cox-2 in human monocytic leukemia and murine
microglial cell lines [62, 63]. Bromelain markedly has in
vivo antitumoural activity for the following cell lines: P-
388 leukemia, sarcoma (S-37), Ehrlich ascetic tumour, Lewis
lung carcinoma, and ADC-755 mammary adenocarcinoma.
In these studies, intraperitoneal administration of bromelain
after 24 hours of tumour cell inoculation resulted in tumour
regression [54].
4.7. Role of Bromelain in Surgery. Administration of brome-
lain before a surgery can reduce the average number of
days for complete disappearance of pain and postsurgery
inflammation [64, 65]. Trials indicate that bromelain might
be eective in reducing swelling, bruising, and pain in
women having episiotomy [66]. Nowadays, bromelain is
used for treating acute inflammation and sports injuries [31].
4.8. Role of Bromelain in Debridement Burns. The removal
of damaged tissue from wounds or second/third degree
burns is termed as debridement. Bromelain applied as a
cream (35% bromelain in a lipid base) can be beneficial for
debridement of necrotic tissue and acceleration of healing.
Bromelain contains escharase w hich is responsible for this
eect. Eschar ase is nonproteolytic and has no hydrolytic
enzyme activity against normal protein substrate or various
glycosaminoglycan substrates. Its activity varies greatly with
dierent preparations [67]. In two dierent enzymatic
debridement studies carried out in porcine model, using
dierent bromelain-based agents, namely, Debriding Gel
Dressing (DGD) and Debrase Gel Dressing showed rapid
removal of the necrotic layer of the dermis with preservation
of the unburned tissues [68, 69]. In another study on
Chinese landrace pigs, enzymatic debridement using topical
bromelain in incised wound tracks accelerated the recovery
of blood perfusion, pO
in wound tissue, controlled the
expression of TNF-α, and raised the expression of TGT-
β [70]. Enzymatic debridement using bromelain is better
than surgical debridement as surgical incision is painful,
nonselective and exposes the patients to the risk of repeated
anaesthesia and significant bleeding [7174].
4.9. Toxicity of Bromelain. According to Taussig et al. [75]
bromelain has very low toxicity with an LD
(lethal doses)
greater than 10 g/kg in mice, rates, and rabbits. Toxicity tests
on dogs, with increasing level of bromelain up to 750 mg/kg
administered daily, showed no toxic eects after six months.
Dosages of 1500 mg/kg per day when administered to rats
showed no carcinogenic or teratogenic eects and did not
provoke any alteration in food intake, histology of heart,
growth, spleen, kidney, or hematological parameters [76].
Eckert et al. [41] after giving bromelain (3000 FIP unit/day)
to human over a per iod of ten days found no significant
changes in blood coagulation parameters.
5. Conclusion
Bromelain has a wide range of therapeutic benefits, but
the mode of its action is not properly understood. It
4 Biotechnology Research International
is proved that bromelain is well absorbed in body after
oral administration and it has no major side eects, even
after prolonged use. All the evidences reviewed in this
paper suggest that bromelain can be used as an eective
health supplement to prevent cancer, diabetes, and various
cardiovascular diseases in the long run.
6. Future Trends and Perspectives
Bromelain can be a promising candidate for the development
of oral enzyme therapies for oncology patients. It is clear
from this paper that bromelain is a multiaction enzyme;
however, more research is required to understand the proper
mechanism of action of bromelain so that the multiaction
activities of bromelain can be harnessed eciently.
The authors are grateful to DEAN, Department of Biotech-
nology, IBMER, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, India,
for providing necessary facilities and encouragement. They
are also thankful to all faculty members of the Institute of
Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan Univer-
sity, Aligarh, India, for their generous help and suggestions
during the paper preparation.
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... Assays for the individual protease components of bromelain have recently been established raising the possibility of standardizing bromelain preparations [334]. Bromelain is sold in health food stores as a nutritional supplement to promote digestion and wound healing, and as an anti-inflammatory agent [335]. ...
... Bromelain can be easily extracted from pineapple juice by ultrafiltration; however, fruit bromelain (FBM) is not commercially available, due to being different from stem Bromelain (SBM) [335,336]. The traditional methods for bromelain isolation have been through microfiltration and ultrafiltration followed by chemical precipitation using ammonium sulfate and then ultracentrifugation [337]. ...
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Cancer is one of the main causes of death globally and considered as a major challenge for the public health system. The high toxicity and the lack of selectivity of conventional anticancer therapies make the search for alternative treatments a priority. In this review, we describe the main plant-derived natural products used as anticancer agents. Natural sources, extraction methods, anticancer mechanisms, clinical studies, and pharmaceutical formulation are discussed in this review. Studies covered by this review should provide a solid foundation for researchers and physicians to enhance basic and clinical research on developing alternative anticancer therapies.
... Chauhan et al in 2015 evaluated the effect of deproteinization of dentin surface with bromelain enzyme, which belongs to the group of proteolytic enzymes (29), and 5% sodium hypochlorite on shear bond strength of composite restorations (1). They found that the bond strength in the group subjected to treatment with bromelain enzyme was significantly higher than that in the control and sodium hypochlorite groups (1). ...
... Bromelain obtained from the fruit or the stem of pineapple (Ananas comosus) by simple processes is mostly made up of a mixture of thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, esterase and several protease inhibitors [1]. Clinically, bromelain is used to treat inflammation in cases such as rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue injuries, inflammation of the colon, chronic pain and asthma [2][3][4]. ...
Full-text available
The therapeutic application of bromelain is limited due to its sensitivity to operating conditions such as high acidity, gastric proteases in the stomach juice, chemicals, organic solvents and elevated temperature. We hypothesized that bromelain immobilized on probiotic bacterial spores would show enhanced therapeutic activity through possible synergistic or additive effects. In this study, the oedema inhibition potential of bromelain immobilized on probiotic Bacillus spores was compared to the free enzyme using the carrageenan paw oedema model with Wistar rats. In batch A rats (carrageenan-induced inflammation 30 min after receiving oral treatments), group 7 rats treated with a lower dose of spore-immobilized bromelain suspension showed the highest oedema inhibition, 89.20 ± 15.30%, while group 4 treated with a lower dose of free bromelain had oedema inhibition of 60.25 ± 13.00%. For batch B rats (carrageenan-induced inflammation after receiving oral treatment for three days), group 7 rats treated with a lower dose of spore-immobilized bromelain suspension showed higher inhibition percentage (81.94 ± 8.86) than group 4 treated with a lower dose of free bromelain (78.45 ± 4.46) after 24 h. Our results showed that used alone, the enzyme and the spores produced oedema inhibition and improved the motility of the rats. The spore-immobilized bromelain formulation performed approximately 0.9-fold better than the free bromelain and the free spores at the lower evaluated dose.
... The quality of life improves during the first postoperative week of bromelain treatment [134]. After oral administration of bromelain, it has no major side effects even prolonged use [135]. ...
The use of nutraceuticals and supplements are increasing day by day due to the drawbacks associated with synthetic drugs. Clinicians are aware of these therapies and prescribing the nutraceuticals in addition to the current choice of therapy. Many scientific studies, meta-analysis, randomised clinical trials have proved the effects of nutraceuticals in arthritis. Arthritis is the inflammatory disorder characterized by pain, swelling and stiffness of one or more joints. Two common types of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The review covers all the possible nutraceuticals used in these two types of arthritis with their evidence and mechanism of action. Search engines like PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Researchgate and Science Direct are used to collect articles published from Jun 1983 to January 2020.
... To stop antimicrobial activity after specific designated exposure times, a neutralizing solution was used comprising of 40 g neutralizing efficacy for all tested antiseptics and antimicrobials, non-toxicity toward microbial strains used in a planktonic, as well as a biofilm setup and showed no interference with the integrity of the biofilm model. For dissolving the model after successful conduction of experiments to recover and quantify surviving microorganisms, a 10% (w/v) bromelain solution was used, as bromelain exhibits a fibrinolytic activity and has been previously used for debridement and biofilm dispersal purposes (Maurer, 2001;Pavan et al., 2012;Besser et al., 2019Besser et al., , 2020. Therefore, 10 tablets of Bromelain-POS ® (500 F.I.P. units per tablet; URSAPHARM Arzneimittel GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany) were dissolved in 100 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the solution stored at 4°C until further use. ...
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Biofilms pose a relevant factor for wound healing impairment in chronic wounds. With 78% of all chronic wounds being affected by biofilms, research in this area is of high priority, especially since data for evidence-based selection of appropriate antimicrobials and antiseptics is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm efficacy of commercially available hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions compared to established antimicrobials. Using an innovative complex in-vitro human plasma biofilm model (hpBIOM), quantitative reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilms by three hypochlorous irrigation solutions [two <0.08% and one 0.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)] was compared to a 0.04% polyhexanide (PHMB) irrigation solution and 0.1% octenidine-dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OCT/PE). Efficacy was compared to a non-challenged planktonic approach, as well as with increased substance volume over a prolonged exposure (up to 72 h). Qualitative visualization of biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both reference agents (OCT/PE and PHMB) induced significant biofilm reductions within 72 h, whereby high volume OCT/PE even managed complete eradication of P. aeruginosa and MRSA biofilms after 72 h. The tested hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions achieved no relevant penetration and eradication of biofilms despite increased volume and exposure. Only 0.2% NaClO managed a low reduction under prolonged exposure. The results demonstrate that low-dosed hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions are significantly less effective than PHMB-based irrigation solution and OCT/PE, thus unsuitable for biofilm eradication on their own. The used complex hpBIOM thereby mimics the highly challenging clinical wound micro-environment, providing a more profound base for future clinical translation.
... Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponons, tannins, and bromelin enzymes can suppress bacterial growth. Phytochemical compounds have the potential as a natural antibacterial in pathogenic bacteria, for example against the bacteria Streptococcus viridans and Escherichia coli (Pavan et al. 2012). ...
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Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) is one of the favorite fruits of Indonesian society. phenol compounds, flavonoids, saponons, tannins, and bromelin enzymes in pineapple have the potential to be a natural antibacterial in pathogenic bacteria, for example against Streptococcus viridans bacteria that cause dental caries and Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea infections. The aim of this study is to determine the minimum inhibitory (KHM) and the minimum kill rate (KBM) against the growth of Streptococcus viridans and Escherichia coli. This research is an experimental laboratory using the liquid dilution method to assess the MIC and solid dilution to assess the CBC. The concentrations used are 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%. The results of the study found that in the bacteria Streptococcus viridans pineapple juice is unable to provide antibacterial activity, while the 75% concentration is the best minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and the 100% concentration is the Minimum Kill concentration to kill Escherichia coli. It can be concluded that pineapple juice can be used as an antibacterial for Gram-negative bacteria such as escherichia coli, but does not show antibacterial properties in gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus viridans.
... It applied its beneficial effects via the regulation of macrophage polarization, as well as the suppression of cytokine signaling proteins and JAK/STAT pathways (Zhao et al. 2019). Bromelain, a crude extract of the pineapple, contains several substances such as endopeptidases, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates (Pavan et al. 2012). Sahbaz et al. (2015) reported that bromelain (crude extract of pineapple) with natural proteolytic effects could reduce the adhesion scores via decreasing inflammation, neovascularization, and fibrosis in rats (Sahbaz et al. 2015). ...
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Postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) is a serious clinical condition that affects the high percentage of patients after abdominal surgery. In this review, we have tried to focus on pathophysiology and different underlying signal pathways of adhesion formation based on recent progress in the molecular and cellular mechanisms. Also, the strategies, developed based on traditional herbal and modern medicines, to prevent and treat the PPA via regulation of the molecular mechanisms were investigated. The search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct have been used to evaluate the current literature related to the pathogenesis of adhesion formation and novel products. Recently, different mechanisms have been defined for adhesion formation, mainly categorized in fibrin formation and adhesion fibroblast function, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Therefore, the suppression of these mechanisms via traditional and modern medicine has been suggested in several studies. While different strategies with encouraging findings have been developed, most of the studies showed contradictory results and were performed on animals. The herbal products have been introduced as safe and effective agent which can be considered in future preclinical and clinical studies. Although a wide range of therapeutics based on traditional and modern medicines have been suggested, there is no agreement in the efficacy of these methods to prevent or treat adhesion formation after surgeries. Further basic and clinical researches are still needed to propose the efficiency of recommended strategies for prevention and treatment of PPA.
... The high content of vitamin C in fruit is quite useful for human health to prevent some diseases such as common cold and joint pain. Besides, antioxidants in this fruit play an important role in antioxidative stress, prevent cancers and reduce inflammation, etc. [3][4][5]. ...
The pineapple juice contains many bioactive compounds and they are quite sensitive to heat, light and oxygen. There are many methods to maintain these compounds, especially spray drying technology with gum arabic (GA) as a carrier agent. However, the physico-chemical properties of raw material and products should be determined to enhance storage stability. The received result showed that the pineapple juice was spray dried with 16% gum arabic (w/w) at drying air temperature of 160°C, output temperature of 70°C, airflow rate of 70 m 3 /h, feed flow rate of 750 mL/h and pressure of 4 bar. In addition, the current study also evaluated the changes in physico-chemical properties of gum arabic before and after the spray drying process including encapsulation yield, total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), moisture, bulk density, flowability, wettability, hygroscopicity, water solubility index (WSI), color parameters, structure and distribution of particles. In conclusion, GA has a significant influence on physico-chemical properties of powder produced by spray drying method. While the values of moisture, bulk density, wettability and a * of powder product are lower than those of initial material, the opposite is true for the values of TPC, AA, hygroscopicity and WSI. It is noticeable that the values of flowability, L * and b * are relatively equally represented in both the initial material and powder product. In addition, the product has many various small sizes and its structure was smooth and spherical.
Ananas comosus (A. comosus) is one of the many commercial crops in Asian countries well-known for its medicinal characteristics, and widely popular in the food industry. Nonetheless, large quantities of the antioxidant rich pineapple peels (PP) are discarded or used as animal fodder, thus the full potential of the PP for nanocosmeceutical applications remain untapped. This study assessed the use of D-optimal mixture design for optimizing droplet size and polydispersity index (PDI) of PP extract nanoemulsion (AcPEN), for four different independent variables (olive oil, grapeseed oil, Tween 80, water). The identified best formulation indicated satisfactory agreement, with the percentage prediction error (PPE) for the actual and predicted values being less than 10%. The optimized AcPEN (OPT-AcPEN) was organoleptically characterized and the Transmission Electron Micrograph corroborated the minimum droplet size and PDI of OPT-AcPEN being <200nm and <0.25, respectively. The OPT-AcPEN was stable under different storage conditions for up to 90 days, and the corresponding repeated centrifugation and freeze-thaw tests retaining the recommended pH of between 4�6 for topical skin application. Pertinently, the shear thinning and pseudoplastic behavior seen from the rheology results implied the suitability of OPT-AcPEN as a topical cosmeceutical nanoemulsion and could meet user’s requirements.
Conference Paper
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Introduction: Bengkuang (Pachyrizus erosus (L.) Urb) contains 86-90% water, phenol, and saponins. In substance fenolida Bengkuang effective in inhibiting the formation of melanin so pigmentation, due to sun can be reduced making it suitable for skin in the tropics such as Indonesia, including Bengkulu Province. Objective: In this study the gel was formulated and evaluate starch bengkuang formulation with varying HPMC is gelling agent. Method: This research is an experimental study. Gel made in 3 formulas at concentration of starch bengkuang every formula 5 gr with different HPMC F1,F2,F3 with a concentration of 3%,5%,7%. Results: Gel from starch bengkuang was evaluated for 3 weeks, from the research starch bengkuang with gelling agent HPMC can be formulated into gel preparations, Gel with a concentration of HPMC 3% in F1 is the best preparation. The form of moderately viscous, rose fragrant, homogeneous with a pH of 6 and the spread of 5-7 cm, not irritate the skin and From the results of visual observation there is no the growth of bacterial and fungi in the gel. Conclusion: Starch bengkuang with gelling agent HPMC preparation gel can be made in various concentrations. The physical properties gel a variation of the starch bengkuang does not affect the stability physical gel and has not change for storage. Keywords: starch bengkuang_Pachyrizus erosus_preparation gel_HPMC
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Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem that contains proteinases and exhibits pleiotropic therapeutic effects, i.e., antiedematous, antiinflammatory, antimetastatic, antithrombotic, fibrinolytic activities. In this study, we tested bromelain's effects on glioma cells to assess whether bromelain could be a potential contributor to new antiinvasive strategies for gliomas. Several complementary assays demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell adhesion, migration, invasion without affecting cell viability, even after treatment periods extending over several months. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that a3 and α1 integrin subunits and hyaluronan receptor CD44 protein levels were reduced within 24 hours of bromelain treatment. These effects were not reflected at the RNA level because RNA profiling did not show any significant effects on gene expression. Interestingly, metabolic labelling with 35-S methionine demonstrated that de novo protein synthesis was greatly attenuated by bromelain, in a reversible manner. By using a transactivating signaling assay, we found that CRE-mediated signaling processes were suppressed. These results indicate that bromelain exerts its antiinvasive effects by proteolysis, signaling cascades, translational attenuation.
Bromelain is a crude extract from the fruit or stem of pineapple [Ananas comosus (Linn.) Merr.] plant. It consists of different closely related proteinases which are good antiinflammatory, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic agents. The active fractions have been characterized biochemically and found to be effective after oral administration. It has earned universal acceptability as a phytotherapeutical drug because of its history of safe use and zero side effects. This communication deals with the biochemistry and applications of bromelain in therapeutic purposes.
latory effects. In this study, we show for the first time that extracellular proteases may also block signal transduction. We show that bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks activation of ERK-2 in Th0 cells stimulated via the TCR with anti-CD3e mAb, or stimulated with combined PMA and calcium ionophore. The inhibitory activity of bromelain was dependent on its proteolytic activity, as ERK-2 inhibition was abrogated by E-64, a selective cysteine protease inhibitor. However, inhibitory effects were not caused by nonspecific proteolysis, as the protease trypsin had no effect on ERK activation. Bromelain also inhibited PMA-induced IL-2, IFN-g, and IL-4 mRNA accumulation, but had no effect on TCR-induced cytokine mRNA production. This data suggests a critical requirement for ERK-2 in PMA-induced cytokine production, but not TCR-induced cytokine production. Bromelain did not act on ERK-2 directly, as it also inhibited p21ras activation, an effector molecule upstream from ERK-2 in the Raf-1/MEK/ERK-2 kinase signaling cascade. The results indicate that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of T cell signal transduction and suggests a novel role for extracellular proteases as inhibitors of intracellular signal transduction pathways. The Journal of Immunology, 1999, 163: 2568 -2575.
The kinetics of enzyme inactivation in aqueous solution of neutral pH were studied for -chymotrypsin, bromelain, and kallikrein. Inactivation of -chymotrypsin and bromelain followed simple first-order kinetics, and the rate constant obtained conformed to the Arrhenius relationship. Kallikrein, however, presented more complicated kinetics of inactivation, which could be described by a kinetic expression combining a reversible and an irreversible pathway. Nonlinear regression analysis suggested that the rate constants conform reasonably well to the Arrhenius relationship. The results suggest that inactivation of enzymes in aqueous solution can be modeled even if the profile is complicated and that the inactivation rates can be predicted based on the relationship between the parameter estimates and temperature.