Article

# Improvement of 800-m Running Performance With Prior High-Intensity Exercise

Authors:
• Supporting Champions
• Boardman Performance Centre
Article

# Improvement of 800-m Running Performance With Prior High-Intensity Exercise

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

## Abstract

Prior high-intensity exercise increases the oxidative energy contribution to subsequent exercise and may enhance exercise tolerance. The potential impact of a high-intensity warm-up on competitive performance, however, has not been investigated. To test the hypothesis that a high-intensity warm-up would speed VO2 kinetics and enhance 800-m running performance in well-trained athletes. Eleven highly trained middle-distance runners completed two 800-m time trials on separate days on an indoor track, preceded by 2 different warm-up procedures. The 800-m time trials were preceded by a 10-min self-paced jog and standardized mobility drills, followed by either 6 × 50-m strides (control [CON]) or 2 × 50-m strides and a continuous high-intensity 200-m run (HWU) at race pace. Blood [La] was measured before the time trials, and VO2 was measured breath by breath throughout exercise. 800-m time-trial performance was significantly faster after HWU (124.5 ± 8.3 vs CON, 125.7 ± 8.7 s, P < .05). Blood [La] was greater after HWU (3.6 ± 1.9 vs CON, 1.7 ± 0.8 mM; P < .01). The mean response time for VO2 was not different between conditions (HWU, 27 ± 6 vs CON, 28 ± 7 s), but total O2 consumed (HWU, 119 ± 18 vs CON, 109 ± 28 ml/kg, P = .05) and peak VO2 attained (HWU, 4.21 ± 0.85 vs CON, 3.91 ± 0.63 L/min; P = .08) tended to be greater after HWU. These data indicate that a sustained high-intensity warm-up enhances 800-m time-trial performance in trained athletes.

## No full-text available

... Skof and Strojnik (21) reported that a warm-up for middle distance runners that included slow running, stretching, sprinting, and bounding increased muscle activation more than a warm-up that included slow running and stretching only. Additionally, Ingham, Fudge, Pringle, and Jones (12) concluded that a high intensity and volume warm-ups may improve 800-meter performance. ...
... Numerous studies have assessed performance following warm-ups on single sprint performance or continuous exercise (10,20,23); however, there is a paucity of well-documented studies assessing low, medium, and high-volume warm-up protocols on 800-meter performance found in the literature (9). In a study of 800-meter runners, researchers reported that higher volume and intensity warm-ups resulted in better performance (12). Despite the positive findings, the study's main weakness was that all testing was done on a treadmill. ...
... These findings agree with International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com 1405 a recent study, which reported that high volume warm-ups may improve 800-meter running performance (12). Note, the present study confirmed the finding by implementing three warmup protocols (low, medium, and high volume), which allowed for additional distinctions regarding the most effective warm-up protocol for 800-meter runners. ...
Article
Track and Field athletes perform different types of warm-ups at varying levels of volume and/or intensity prior to competition. Theoretically, this prepares sport specific muscles for activity by increasing muscle temperature, thus mitigating the chance for injury. There is a paucity of information regarding the optimum level for warm-ups regarding maximizing performance in middle distance events. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of three different warm-ups on 800-meter performance. Thirteen Division I student-athletes (seven males and six females) from the Southeastern Conference (SEC) who were middle distance runners participated in this study. We utilized a randomized, cross-over study design to test low, medium, and high-volume warm-up protocols on 800-meter performance. Trials were conducted over a span of three weeks on a SEC University outdoor track. We used a 2 (Sex) x 3 (Warm-Up Protocol) mixed-factor ANOVA, and our results show a main effect of warm-up volume that is not moderated by sex. Post-hoc tests reveal a high-volume warm-up yields superior results for the 800-meter run in comparison to a medium volume warm-up, which provides better results than a low-volume warm-up. These findings may be of value in providing information in program design for coaches on the most effective warm-up protocols for 800-meter runners. Identifying the best warm-up protocol to prime an 800-meter runner for peak performance may not only assist in preventing injury, but enhance performance thus leading to an increased of achievement, and confidence in personal ability.
... Recently, however, the way in which passive warm-up strategies are employed has changed, largely because of the timing constraints incurred during competition [4,123]. It is not uncommon for competitive athletes to complete their active warm-up and then have to wait 10-40 min in a changing room, call room or marshalling area before their event begins [4,123,[126][127][128]. ...
... All of the studies utilized a sprint-oriented (\400 m) test, except for one study in which 800 m running performance was investigated. In that study, athletes completed an active warm-up involving 'jogging', mobility drills and strides with or without a 200 m effort at 800 m race pace, prior to a 20 min transition period [128]. Subsequent performance in an 800 m time-trial was *1 % faster when a race-pace effort was included, with pacing differences in the latter part of the effort. ...
... In addition, these researchers investigated the optimal transition duration after which sprint performance should commence, with a transition phase of 15 min found to elicit the best performances [136]. The remaining nine studies utilized transition durations of 1 min [93,133], 4 min [76,87,132,134] and 10 min [131,135], with only one study extending the transition phase to 20 min [128]. Given that the marshalling time in competitive running events, particularly track events, can last between 10 and 20 min [128], arguably a focus for future studies should be to employ more competition-realistic timelines. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely accepted that warming-up prior to exercise is vital for the attainment of optimum performance. Both passive and active warm-up can evoke temperature, metabolic, neural and psychology-related effects, including increased anaerobic metabolism, elevated oxygen uptake kinetics and post-activation potentiation. Passive warm-up can increase body temperature without depleting energy substrate stores, as occurs during the physical activity associated with active warm-up. While the use of passive warm-up alone is not commonplace, the idea of utilizing passive warming techniques to maintain elevated core and muscle temperature throughout the transition phase (the period between completion of the warm-up and the start of the event) is gaining in popularity. Active warm-up induces greater metabolic changes, leading to increased preparedness for a subsequent exercise task. Until recently, only modest scientific evidence was available supporting the effectiveness of pre-competition warm-ups, with early studies often containing relatively few participants and focusing mostly on physiological rather than performance-related changes. External issues faced by athletes pre-competition, including access to equipment and the length of the transition/marshalling phase, have also frequently been overlooked. Consequently, warm-up strategies have continued to develop largely on a trial-and-error basis, utilizing coach and athlete experiences rather than scientific evidence. However, over the past decade or so, new research has emerged, providing greater insight into how and why warm-up influences subsequent performance. This review identifies potential physiological mechanisms underpinning warm-ups and how they can affect subsequent exercise performance, and provides recommendations for warm-up strategy design for specific individual and team sports.
... An appropriately designed (i.e. according to the physical demands of the performance task) active warm-up improves short-term sprint (Sargeant and Dolan 1987;Yaicharoen et al. 2012) and prolonged endurance exercise (carter et al. 2005;Jones et al. 2003) performance. A limited number of studies have also examined the effect of active warm-up on simulated time-trial performance in competitive athletes, with ~1.0-2.8 % improvements being observed for 3-and 4-km cycling and 800-m running performances (Hajoglou et al. 2005;Ingham et al. 2013;Palmer et al. 2009). ...
... the faster time-trial time during cYc compared to cOnt is consistent with the findings of Hajoglou et al. (2005) who reported improvements in 3-km cycling timetrial performance after an identical warm-up protocol. the mechanism by which warm-up improves performance is likely to be multifaceted and possibly include: increased nerve conduction velocity, faster V O 2 kinetics due to reduced oxidative metabolic inertia, increased aerobic contribution, and reduced muscle and joint stiffness (Bishop 2003b;Hajoglou et al. 2005;Ingham et al. 2013;Palmer et al. 2009). Altered metabolic responses could explain the observed change from a negative (cOn) to a J-shaped (cYc and cYc + IMW) pacing strategy. ...
... Previous IMW studies also include a 5-to 10-min period of stretching in the active warm-up, which may also impair subsequent exercise performance (Behm and chaouachi 2011). Finally, given that the self-paced active warm-up protocols adopted by highly trained experienced athletes are not always optimal (Ingham et al. 2013;Mandengue et al. 2005), it is possible that sub-optimal (possibly even detrimental) self-paced active warm-up protocols were performed by the recreationally active participants in some IMW studies (lin et al. 2007;lomax et al. 2011;tong and Fu 2006). We controlled for the aforementioned confounding variables and demonstrated no further performance benefits when an IMW is added to an ergogenic active warm-up. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study examined the effects of an active cycling warm-up, with and without the addition of an inspiratory muscle warm-up (IMW), on 10-km cycling time-trial performance. Methods Ten cyclists ($$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{ 2} \,{ \hbox{max} }$$ = 65 ± 9 mL kg−1 min−1) performed a habituation 10-km cycling time-trial and three further time-trials preceded by either no warm-up (CONT), a cycling-specific warm-up (CYC) comprising three consecutive 5-min bouts at powers corresponding to 70, 80, and 90 % of the gas exchange threshold, or a cycling-specific warm-up preceded by an IMW (CYC + IMW) comprising two sets of 30 inspiratory efforts against a pressure-threshold load of 40 % maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The cycling warm-up was followed by 2-min rest before the start of the time-trial. Results Time-trial performance times during CYC (14.75 ± 0.79 min) and CYC + IMW (14.70 ± 0.75 min) were not different, although both were faster than CONT (14.99 ± 0.90 min) (P
... The aim of a warm-up is to elicit various physiological effects, such as increased body and muscle temperature, and metabolic and neural stimulation, that can enhance muscle function and subsequent performance (McGowan et al., 2015). Preexercise HI warm-ups can improve subsequent HI exercise tolerance due to a speeding of VO 2 kinetics and a greater oxidative energy contribution to subsequent exercise (Burnley et al., 2005;Ingham et al., 2013). The beneficial effect of priming exercise has a "Goldilocks zone," and is apparent only when the warm-up intensity leads to blood lactate concentrations of 3-5 mmol/L (Bailey et al., 2009;Ingham et al., 2013) with a sufficient recovery period (>9 min; Bailey et al., 2009). ...
... Preexercise HI warm-ups can improve subsequent HI exercise tolerance due to a speeding of VO 2 kinetics and a greater oxidative energy contribution to subsequent exercise (Burnley et al., 2005;Ingham et al., 2013). The beneficial effect of priming exercise has a "Goldilocks zone," and is apparent only when the warm-up intensity leads to blood lactate concentrations of 3-5 mmol/L (Bailey et al., 2009;Ingham et al., 2013) with a sufficient recovery period (>9 min; Bailey et al., 2009). Warm-up intensities that lead to higher and lower increases in blood lactate, and an insufficient recovery period, do not enhance and may even impair subsequent (Bailey et al., 2009;Burnley et al., 2001). ...
... Despite the existing evidence base supporting the performance enhancing effect of SB, many studies have not considered the impact of the warm-up prior to exercise. Many SB studies have employed low-intensity (LI) warm-ups with short recovery periods prior to the main exercise task (Froio de Araujo Dias et al., 2015;Saunders et al., 2014), which limits the extrapolation of results to the real-world setting, since athletes involved in HI competitions would likely employ a HI warm-up (Ingham et al., 2013). It might be suggested that the recovery kinetics of bicarbonate following a warm-up and the time taken between warm-up and the subsequent bout of exercise could be important for performance. ...
Article
This study determined the influence of a high (HI) vs. low-intensity (LI) cycling warm-up on blood acid-base responses and exercise capacity following ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB; 0.3 g·kg-1 body-mass (BM)) or a placebo (PLA; maltodextrin) 3-hours prior to warm-up. Twelve men (21±2 years, 79.2±3.6 kg BM, maximum power output (Wmax) 318±36 W) completed a familiarisation and four double-blind trials completed in a counterbalanced order: HI warm-up with SB (HISB); HI warm-up with PLA (HIPLA); LI warm-up with SB (LISB); and LI warm-up with PLA (LIPLA). LI warm-up was 15-minutes at 60%Wmax, while the HI warm-up (typical of elites) featured LI followed by 2 x 30-sec (3-minute break) at Wmax, finishing 30-minute prior to a cycling capacity test at 110%Wmax (CCT110%). Blood bicarbonate and lactate were measured throughout. SB supplementation increased blood bicarbonate (+6.4 [95%CI: 5.7 to 7.1 mmol·L-1]) prior to greater reductions with high intensity warm-up (-3.8 [95%CI: -5.8 to -1.8 mmol·L-1]). However, during the 30-minute recovery, blood bicarbonate rebounded and increased in all conditions, with concentrations ~5.3mmol·L-1 greater with SB supplementation (P<0.001). Blood bicarbonate significantly declined during the CCT110% with greater reductions following SB supplementation (-2.4 [95%CI: -3.8 to -0.90 mmol·L-1]). Aligned with these results, SB supplementation increased total work done during the CCT110% (+8.5 [95%CI: 3.6 to 13.4 kJ], ~19% increase) with no significant main effect of warm-up intensity (+0.0 [95%CI: -5.0 to 5.0 kJ). Collectively, the results demonstrate that SB supplementation can improve HI cycling capacity irrespective of prior warm-up intensity, likely due to blood alkalosis.
... The participants next performed a 5-min submaximal run at 60 % vVO 2 max (1 % gradient) for calculation of running economy, kinematic and neuromuscular variables followed immediately by 3-min recovery. Before the performance test, participants were required to rate their readiness with the scale "perceived race readiness" from 1 (not effective at all) to 10 (extremely effective), previously used in other studies [2,20]. Finally, the performance test involved a TLimT at a constant speed corresponding to 105 % vVO 2 max (1 % gradient), in order to mimic a middle distance race pace, as used in a previous research [38]. ...
... To our knowledge, this is the first research to demonstrate an improvement in performance following a high-intensity uphill WU protocol in well-trained runners. Previously, high-intensity level WU compared to traditional WU caused improvements of 1 % in 800m performance in runners [20]. More recently, in a previous study [2], the authors found a 2.9 % improvement in performance following a weighted-vest highintensity level WU protocol in trained runners. ...
... On the other hand, although runners did not score the conditions different to uphill WUs so negatively, this fact could have affected on the changes of performance found. Contrary to our results, Ingham et al [20], reported greater significantly race readiness in high-intensity condition (6.3) compared to low-intensity (4.8). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity warm-ups (WUs) on performance, physiological, neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters. Three randomized cross-over 105%vVO2max time limit trials (TLimT) were performed by 11 well-trained runners following three different WU protocols. These included two experimental high-intensity variants and one control WU variant: (i) 9x20-sec level strides (105%vVO2max; 1% gradient) with 60 s of recovery (level); (ii) 6x6-sec uphill strides (105%vVO2max; 5% gradient), with the same recovery (uphill) and (iii) 7 min at 60%vVO2max as control condition (control). The uphill and level WUs resulted in a greater performance during TLimT (160.0±6.62 s and 152.64±10.88 s, respectively) compared to control WUs (144.82±6.60 s). All WU conditions reduced the energy cost (EC) of running, respiratory exchange ratio, and step frequency (SF) after the experimental and control phases of WU, while blood lactate (BLC) increased in uphill and level WUs and decreased in control WUs. Changes in kinematic variables were found without differences between WU conditions during TLimT. BLC rose at conclusion of TLimT without differences between WU conditions. Both high-intensity WUs show a longer TLimT. EC is deteriorated after the high-intensity WU exercise due to a change of substrate utilization, increase of BLC and SF. A long transient phase (18 min) is necessary to avoid impairing the performance.
... The participants next performed a 5-min submaximal run at 60 % vVO 2 max (1 % gradient) for calculation of running economy, kinematic and neuromuscular variables followed immediately by 3-min recovery. Before the performance test, participants were required to rate their readiness with the scale "perceived race readiness" from 1 (not effective at all) to 10 (extremely effective), previously used in other studies [2,20]. Finally, the performance test involved a TLimT at a constant speed corresponding to 105 % vVO 2 max (1 % gradient), in order to mimic a middle distance race pace, as used in a previous research [38]. ...
... To our knowledge, this is the first research to demonstrate an improvement in performance following a high-intensity uphill WU protocol in well-trained runners. Previously, high-intensity level WU compared to traditional WU caused improvements of 1 % in 800m performance in runners [20]. More recently, in a previous study [2], the authors found a 2.9 % improvement in performance following a weighted-vest highintensity level WU protocol in trained runners. ...
... Bailey et al. [1] highlights that a severe-intensity priming bout increases the time to exhaustion (15-30 %) when the transition phase was ≥ 9 min. In our case, the transient phase was higher than on the study of Bailey et al. [1] but similar to the study of Ingham et al. [20] at 20 min. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity warm-ups (WUs) on performance, physiological, neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters. Three randomized cross-over 105%vVO2max time limit trials (TLimT) were performed by 11 well-trained runners following three different WU protocols. These included two experimental high-intensity variants and one control WU variant: (i) 9x20-sec level strides (105%vVO2max; 1% gradient) with 60 s of recovery (level); (ii) 6x6-sec uphill strides (105%vVO2max; 5% gradient), with the same recovery (uphill) and (iii) 7 min at 60%vVO2max as control condition (control). The uphill and level WUs resulted in a greater performance during TLimT (160.0±6.62 s and 152.64±10.88 s, respectively) compared to control WUs (144.82±6.60 s). All WU conditions reduced the energy cost (EC) of running, respiratory exchange ratio, and step frequency (SF) after the experimental and control phases of WU, while blood lactate (BLC) increased in uphill and level WUs and decreased in control WUs. Changes in kinematic variables were found without differences between WU conditions during TLimT. BLC rose at conclusion of TLimT without differences between WU conditions. Both high-intensity WUs show a longer TLimT. EC is deteriorated after the high-intensity WU exercise due to a change of substrate utilization, increase of BLC and SF. A long transient phase (18 min) is necessary to avoid impairing the performance.
... Studies have typically shown that a warm-up which includes a bout of high-intensity exercise (60-85% of peak power output) lasting 3-6 min is sufficient to positively influence endurance performance (4,41,60). Several studies have also investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent and single sprint approaches to enhancing performance or the V̇O2 response at the onset of exercise (11,17,48,61,90). When compared to a continuous warm-up of lower intensity, a priming protocol involving 5 x 10-s near-maximal sprints (50-s recovery) have been shown to enhance kayak 2 min time trial (TT) performance by a small (effect size (ES): 0.2) but statistically significant margin (11). ...
... Utilizing a longer inter-repetition recovery duration (5-min), and rest period prior to the onset of exercise (15-min), maximal sprints (3 x 30-s) were shown to enhance the amplitude to which V̇O2 rose during peri-maximal-intensity cycle exercise by 11% (90). Similarly, the use of a single high-intensity run (200-m), performed 20-min prior to an 800-m TT, provided a significantly faster time (1.2-s) compared to a control trial, which utilized 6 x 50-m 'strides', typical of traditional warm-up for a middle-distance runner (48). ...
... It may also be the case that middle-distance performances lasting < 3-min might gain more benefit compared to longer distance efforts. Studies that have used high-intensity sprinting as part of a warm-up lend support to this notion as improvements in swimming, running and kayak performance lasting 1-2 min have been demonstrated (11,43,48). ...
Article
The warm-up is an integral component of a middle- and long-distance athlete's pre-performance routine. The use of a loaded conditioning activity (LCA), which elicits a post-activation potentiation (PAP) response to acutely enhance explosive power performance, is well-researched. A similar approach incorporated into the warm-up of a middle- or long-distance athlete potentially provides a novel strategy to augment performance. Mechanisms that underpin a PAP response, relating to acute adjustments within the neuromuscular system, should theoretically improve middle- and long-distance performance via improvements in sub-maximal force-generating ability. Attempts to enhance middle- and long-distance related outcomes using a LCA have been used in several recent studies. Results suggest benefits to performance may exist in well-trained middle- and long-distance athletes by including high-intensity resistance training (1-5 repetition maximum) or adding load to the sport skill itself during the latter part of warm-ups. Early stages of performance appear to benefit most, and it is likely that recovery (5-10 min) also plays an important role following a LCA. Future research should consider how priming activity, designed to enhance the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetic response, and a LCA may interact to affect performance, and how different LCA's might benefit various modes and durations of middle- and long-distance exercise.
... Two similar supramaximal intensity WU manipulation investigations have also been completed using running modalities. Following a typical WU with jogging and change-of-direction drills, Ingham, Fudge, Pringle, and Jones (2013) had elite runners complete 300 m of total striding at 800-m race pace. One WU protocol used six, 50-m strides and the other included two, 50-m and one, 200-m strides. ...
... The investigators hypothesized that the enhancement in performance was likely due to increased VO2 capacity during the run related to the doubling in lactate concentration prior to the time trial with the longer duration stride bout versus the shorter distance repeated strides. A limitation of the study of Ingham et al. (2013), was there was no low-intensity-only WU control group for comparison. However, a recent investigation by Gonzalez-Mohino et al. (2018) reported the two different high-intensity WU modalities improved a timed run to exhaustion by approximately 5 and 10% compared to a low intensity only WU, respectively supporting high intensity striding addition to WU protocols. ...
... However, a recent investigation by Gonzalez-Mohino et al. (2018) reported the two different high-intensity WU modalities improved a timed run to exhaustion by approximately 5 and 10% compared to a low intensity only WU, respectively supporting high intensity striding addition to WU protocols. Interestingly and in opposition to Ingham et al. (2013), the high-intensity WU method with the most improvement were the 6 short duration (6-s) uphill (5% grade) sprints versus nine, 20-s strides at the same speed but only a 1% grade (Gonzalez- Mohino et al., 2018). ...
... To our knowledge, we are the first to report that performance was unchanged following an AWU when exercising with load carriage. This is surprising since AWU consistently improves running and cycling performance during exercise of a similar intensity and duration as the present study, including-7 min all-out cycling (Burnley et al. 2005) and 800-m running time-trial performance (Ingham et al. 2013). Why AWU failed to improve load carriage performance is therefore interesting especially since load carriage performance can be improved through a variety of whole-body (Knapik 1997) and inspiratory muscle training interventions (Faghy and Brown 2015). ...
... However, Tong and Fu (2006) and Lin et al. (2007) instructed participants to adopt a self-selected exercise intensity for the AWU prior to the performance task. It has been noted that this approach is suboptimal (Ingham et al. 2013) and most likely provides a stimulus to the locomotor and respiratory muscles that is insufficient (Burnley et al. 2005;Johnson et al. 2014) and hence there is potentially greater opportunity for performance improvement through IMW. In addition, the duration between the end of the AWU and performance in previous studies was greater than 10 min (5 min in the present study) (Tong and Fu 2006;Lin et al. 2007;Lomax et al. 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Whole body active warm ups (AWU) and inspiratory muscle warm up (IMW) prior to exercise improves performance on some endurance exercise tasks. This study investigated the effects of AWU with and without IMW upon 2.4 km running time-trial performance while carrying a 25 kg backpack, a common task and backpack load in physically demanding occupations. Participants (n = 9) performed five 2.4 km running time-trials with a 25 kg thoracic load preceded in random order by 1) IMW comprising 2 x 30 inspiratory efforts against a pressure-threshold load of 40 % maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), 2) 10 min unloaded running (AWU) at lactate turnpoint (10.33 ± 1.58 km·h-1), 3) placebo IMW (PLA) comprising five min breathing using a sham device, 4) AWU+IMW and 5) AWU+PLA. Pooled baseline PImax was similar between trials and increased by 7% and 6% following IMW and AWU+IMW (P<0.05). Relative to baseline, pooled PImax was reduced by 9% after the time-trial, which was not different between trials (P>0.05). Time-trial performance was not different between any trials. Whole body AWU and IMW performed alone or combination have no ergogenic effect upon high intensity, short duration performance when carrying a 25 kg load in a backpack.
... From sports other than soccer such as distance running, it appears that an athlete's normal WU practices may benefit from an increase in intensity 9,10 . For example, increasing the intensity of the same distance (300 m) WU from 6 x 50 m of striding (separated by a 45-60 s active recovery) to include 200 m of race-pace running and 100 m of striding (2 x 50 m separated by a 45-60 s active recovery) improved subsequent 800 m time trial performance by ~1% 9 . ...
... From sports other than soccer such as distance running, it appears that an athlete's normal WU practices may benefit from an increase in intensity 9,10 . For example, increasing the intensity of the same distance (300 m) WU from 6 x 50 m of striding (separated by a 45-60 s active recovery) to include 200 m of race-pace running and 100 m of striding (2 x 50 m separated by a 45-60 s active recovery) improved subsequent 800 m time trial performance by ~1% 9 . Such findings corroborate those observed in elite bob-skeleton athletes whereby an increased WU intensity (+30%) resulted in improved mean 20 m resisted sprint performance 10 . ...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: This review aimed (i) to evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of warm-up (WU) and re-warm-up (RWU) on physical performance, and (ii) to highlight the WU and RWU characteristics that optimise subsequent performance in soccer players. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A computerized search was performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar (from 1995 to December 2015) for English-language, peer-reviewed investigations using the terms "soccer" OR "football" AND "warm-up" OR "stretching" OR "post-activation potentiation" OR "pre-activity" OR "re-warm-up" AND "performance" OR "jump" OR "sprint" OR "running". EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty seven articles were retrieved. Particularly, 22 articles examined the effects of WU on soccer performance and 5 articles focused on the effects of RWU. Clear evidence exists supporting the inclusion of dynamic stretching or postactivation potentiation-based exercises within a WU as acute performance enhancements were reported (pooled estimate changes of +3.46% and +4.21%, respectively). The FIFA 11+ WU also significantly increases strength, jump, speed and explosive performances (changes from 1 to 20%). At half-time, active RWU protocols including postactivation potentiation practices and multidirectional speed drills attenuate temperature and performance reductions induced by habitual practice. The data obtained in the present review showed that the level of play did not moderate the effectiveness of WU and RWU on soccer performance. CONCLUSION: This review demonstrated that a static stretching WU reduced acute subsequent performance, while WU activities that include dynamic stretching, PAP-based exercises, and the FIFA 11+ can elicit positive effects in soccer players. The efficacy of an active RWU during half-time is also justified.
... Copyright ª 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association A C C E P T E D Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up (general + specific) with a short warm-up (only specific part) on an intermediate running performance of 3 min. A 3-min running test was used as an intermediate running performance, because in earlier studies it was found that a short warm-up gives better results in achievements shorter than 3 min, whereas a long warm-up seems to give better results in performances longer than 3 min (7,9,16). It was hypothesized that a short warm-up would enhance running performance equally or more in comparison to a long warm-up, because earlier studies on short term performances have shown that the duration of this short warm-up (only specific part) is enough to increase performance (7,24,27). ...
... In the present study, a 3-min running test was used, because in earlier studies it was found that a short warm-up gives better results in achievements shorter than 3 min, whereas a long warm-up seems to give better results in performances longer than 3 min (7, 9, 16,). Ingham et al. (16) showed that only using 2x50 m and a continuous 200-m run at an estimated 800-m race pace gave better 800-m times compared with a 10-min self-paced jog and 6x50 m as warm-up. Our study also indicates that it is not necessary to include a 10-min jog at 70% maximal VO 2max to get better running results in a 3-min run. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up (general + specific) and a short warm-up (specific) on intermediate running performance (3-min run). Thirteen experienced endurance-trained athletes (age 23.2 +/- 2.3 yr, body mass 79.8 +/- 8.2 kg, body height 1.82 +/- 0.05 m) conducted two types of warm-ups in a cross-over design with one week in between: a long warm-up (10 min, 80% maximal heart rate, and 8x60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 min rest in between) and a short warm-up (8x60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 min rest in between). Each warm-up was followed by a 3-min running test on a non-motorized treadmill. Total running distance, running velocity at each 30 s, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, and rate of perceived exertion were measured. No significant differences in running performance variables and physiological parameters were found between the two warm-up protocols, except for the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate, which were higher after the long warm-up and after the 3-min running test compared with the short warm-up. It was concluded that a short warm-up is as effective as a long warm-up for intermediate performance. Therefore, athletes can choose for themselves if they want to include a general part in their warm-up routines, even though it would not enhance their running performance more compared with only using a short specific warm-up. However, to increase efficiency of time for training or competition these short specific warm-up should be performed instead of long warm-ups. Copyright (C) 2016 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.
... Although substitutes awaiting introduction may perform short bouts of rewarm-up activity whilst the match is underway and potentially at half-time, much of the period between kick-off and pitch-entry is typically spent seated beside the pitch [12]. Although the efficacy of such practices for maximising match-performance and minimising injury-risk remains unclear, it has been suggested that the intensity of warm-up activity represents an important factor in determining the effectiveness of any preparatory strategy employed [13,16,22,23]. For example, amongst team sport players, beneficial effects on repeated sprint ability have been observed following a warm-up incorporating actions conducted above, versus below, the anaerobic threshold [23]. ...
... For example, amongst team sport players, beneficial effects on repeated sprint ability have been observed following a warm-up incorporating actions conducted above, versus below, the anaerobic threshold [23]. Similarly, middle-distance runners produced improved 800 m running performance when prior warm-up exercise was modified from 300 m of striding to include an equidistant bout of combined striding and race-pace running [22]. In the only study to have profiled the pre-pitch-entry practices of soccer substitutes, players covered <2 m�min -1 of HSR (defined as distance covered at a speed of >5.5 to �7 m�s -1 ) during each bout of warm-up or rewarm-up activity performed, and recorded no sprinting (SPR; >7 m�s -1 ) at any time prior to match-introduction [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Modifying a soccer substitute’s pre-pitch-entry activities may represent an opportunity to maximise physical performance and minimise injury-risk following match-introduction. Using a professional team that has previously participated in substitute profiling research, this follow-up case study investigated the effects of a modified match-day protocol that included substitutes; 1) performing a new pre-match warm-up alongside members of the starting team (as opposed to a separate substitute-only warm-up), 2) participating in a staff-led half-time rewarm-up (as opposed to player-led half-time activities), and 3) receiving ongoing education focusing on the efficacy of (re)warm-up activities. English Championship substitutes (n = 15) were monitored using Micro-electromechanical Systems during 13 matches incorporating the modified practices (35 observations). On an individual player basis, data were organised into bouts of warm-up activity (pre-pitch-entry) and five min epochs of match-play (post-pitch-entry). Linear mixed modelling assessed the influence of ‘bout’ and ‘epoch’, position, and scoreline. Substitutes performed 3±1 rewarm-up bouts∙player⁻¹∙match⁻¹ between kick-off and pitch-entry, which were shorter (-17.2 to -27.1 min) and elicited less distance (-696 to -1257 m) than the pre-match warm-up (p≤0.001). Compared with previous data, heightened absolute movement responses were observed during the pre-match and staff-led half-time (re)warm-ups, alongside greater relative distances covered during player-led activities performed between kick-off and pitch-entry. Whilst less distance (-10%) was covered during the second versus first five min period following match-introduction, values remained higher than previously reported. Between pitch-entry and the end of the match, the scoreline improved and worsened following 26% and 11% of substitutions, respectively; a favourable record compared with existing observations. Acknowledging the likely contribution from external factors, this case study reports heightened movement profiles and improved match scorelines when pre-pitch-entry practices were modified. Practitioners should note the potential influence of match-day activities on the physical responses of soccer substitutes and, if deemed necessary, consider adapting their pre-pitch-entry routines accordingly.
... Several studies have investigated the physiological effects of different priming approaches (Billat et al., 2000;Ingham, Fudge, Pringle, & Jones, 2013;Mandengue et al., 2005;Stewart & Sleivert, 1998;Tomaras & MacIntosh, 2011;Wittekind, Cooper, Elwell, Leung, & Beneke, 2012), though few have considered their effect on subsequent sport-specific performance measures in athletes (Bishop, Bonetti, & Dawson, 2001;Bishop et al., 2003;Hajoglou et al., 2005;Ingham et al., 2013;Palmer et al., 2009). In this regard, these priming studies have reported (1) beneficial performance effects of priming compared to no priming during high-intensity cycling (Hajoglou et al., 2005;Palmer et al., 2009); (2) impaired kayak performance following a 15 min heavy-intensity (50%Δ; half-way between aerobic and anaerobic thresholds) continuous priming bout compared to lower-intensity kayaking (Bishop et al., 2001); and (3) self-selected priming results in similar cycling performance to a heavy-intensity continuous priming bout (Palmer et al., 2009). ...
... Several studies have investigated the physiological effects of different priming approaches (Billat et al., 2000;Ingham, Fudge, Pringle, & Jones, 2013;Mandengue et al., 2005;Stewart & Sleivert, 1998;Tomaras & MacIntosh, 2011;Wittekind, Cooper, Elwell, Leung, & Beneke, 2012), though few have considered their effect on subsequent sport-specific performance measures in athletes (Bishop, Bonetti, & Dawson, 2001;Bishop et al., 2003;Hajoglou et al., 2005;Ingham et al., 2013;Palmer et al., 2009). In this regard, these priming studies have reported (1) beneficial performance effects of priming compared to no priming during high-intensity cycling (Hajoglou et al., 2005;Palmer et al., 2009); (2) impaired kayak performance following a 15 min heavy-intensity (50%Δ; half-way between aerobic and anaerobic thresholds) continuous priming bout compared to lower-intensity kayaking (Bishop et al., 2001); and (3) self-selected priming results in similar cycling performance to a heavy-intensity continuous priming bout (Palmer et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The pre-event warm-up or "priming" routine for optimising cycling performance is not well-defined or uniform to a specific event. We aimed to determine the effects of varying the intensity of priming on 3 km cycling performance. Ten endurance-trained male cyclists completed four 3 km time-trials (TT) on four separate occasions, each preceded by a different priming strategy including "self-selected" priming and three intermittent priming strategies incorporating 10 min of constant-load cycling followed by 5 × 10 s bouts of varying relative intensity (100% and 150% of peak aerobic power, Wpeak, and all-out priming). The self-selected priming trial (379 ± 44 W) resulted in similar mean power during the 3 km TT to intermittent priming at 100% (376 ± 45 W; -0.7%; unclear) and 150% (374 ± 48 W; -1.5%, unclear) of Wpeak, but significantly greater than all-out priming (357 ± 45 W; -5.8%, almost certainly harmful). Differences between intermittent and self-selected priming existed with regards to heart rate (6.2% to 11.5%), blood lactate (-22.9% to 125%) and VO2 kinetics (-22.9% to 8.2%), but these were not related to performance outcomes. In conclusion, prescribed intermittent priming strategies varying in intensity did not substantially improve 3 km TT performance compared to self-selected priming.
... In addition to improving aspects of O2 kinetics, priming exercise and fast-start or all-out pacing strategies have been shown to improve exercise tolerance 7,9,14 and performance. 8,[10][11][12]15,[17][18][19][20][21][22] Since the use of prior 'warm up' exercise and fast-start strategies are recommended as interventions to enhance O2 kinetics and athletic performance, 23 priming exercise and different pacing strategies interact might help inform best practice for optimizing exercise performance. ...
... On the other hand, the total O2 consumed and O2 consumption relative to work done over the first 60-s were higher, the percentage of O2peak attained was increased and exercise performance was improved with priming when the same pacing strategy was employed. This finding is consistent with previous reports that priming exercise is ergogenic [7][8][9][19][20][21]25 , particularly when baseline blood [lactate] is elevated to 3-4 mM, [8][9]11 and suggests that priming might improve short-duration high-intensity exercise performance by increasing the absolute aerobic energy contribution to total energy turnover. However, since the exercise performance trials in this study were conducted in competitive, but not highly trained, athletes in an exercise physiology laboratory, further research is required to assess the effects of pacing and prior exercise strategies on cycling performance in well-trained cyclists in the velodrome. ...
Purpose: To assess whether combining prior 'priming' exercise with an all-out pacing strategy was more effective at improving O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics and cycling performance than either intervention administered independently. Methods: Nine males completed target-work cycling performance trials using a self-paced or all-out pacing strategy with or without prior severe-intensity (70%Δ) priming exercise. Breath-by-breath pulmonary VO2 and cycling power output were measured during all trials. Results: Compared to the self-paced-unprimed control trial (22 ± 5 s), the VO2 mean response time (MRT) was shorter (VO2 kinetics was faster) with all-out pacing (17 ± 4 s) and priming (17 ± 3 s), with the lowest VO2 MRT observed when all-out pacing and priming were combined (15 ± 4 s) (P<0.05). However, total O2 consumed and end-exercise VO2 were only higher than the control condition in the primed trials (P<0.05). Similarly, cycling performance was improved compared to control (98 ± 11 s) in the self-paced-primed (93 ± 8 s) and all-out-primed (92 ± 8 s) trials (P<0.05), but not the all-out-unprimed trial (97 ± 5 s; P>0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that combining an all-out start with severe-intensity priming exercise additively improves the VO2 MRT, but not total O2 consumption and cycling performance since these were improved by a similar magnitude in both primed trials relative to the self-paced-unprimed control condition. Therefore, these results support the use of priming exercise as a pre-competition intervention to improve oxidative metabolism and performance during short-duration high-intensity cycling exercise, independent of the pacing strategy adopted.
... Although such practices reflect observations from professional soccer players, 8 warm-up and rewarm-up intensity may modulate physical performance during subsequent exercise. 3,22,23 Notably, 800 m running performance was enhanced by ∼1% when preceded by combined striding and race-pace running, compared with an equidistant bout of striding alone. 23 Moreover, achieving ∼90% of an individual's maximum HR during prior exercise can benefit subsequent performance during explosive tasks such as jumps and sprints. ...
... 3,22,23 Notably, 800 m running performance was enhanced by ∼1% when preceded by combined striding and race-pace running, compared with an equidistant bout of striding alone. 23 Moreover, achieving ∼90% of an individual's maximum HR during prior exercise can benefit subsequent performance during explosive tasks such as jumps and sprints. 3 Although HR during the warm-up peaked at >90% of maximum HR, mean and peak HR during rewarm-ups were ∼26−31 beats·min −1 and ∼48−50 beats·min −1 lower, respectively. ...
Article
Objectives: To profile performance and physiological responses to typical patterns of match-day activity for second-half soccer substitutes. Design: Descriptive. Methods: Following a warm-up, 13 male team sports players underwent ∼85min of rest, punctuated with five min rewarm-ups at ∼25, ∼50, and ∼70min, before ∼30min of simulated soccer match-play. Countermovement jump performance (jump height, peak power output), alongside 15m sprints, were assessed post-warm-up, and pre- and post-simulated match-play. Core temperature, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and blood glucose and lactate concentrations were measured throughout. Results: Warm-up-induced core temperature elevations (∼2.3%, +0.85°C; p<0.001) were maintained until after the first rewarm-up. Thereafter, core temperature was reduced from post-warm-up values until pre-simulated match-play (∼1.6%, -0.60°C; p<0.001), where values were similar to pre-warm-up (37.07±0.24°C, p=0.981). Simulated match-play increased core temperature progressively (p≤0.05) but values remained lower than post-warm-up (∼5min; p=0.002) until ∼10min into exercise. From post-warm-up to pre-simulated match-play, sprint times (∼3.9%, +0.10s, p=0.003), jump height (∼9.4%, -3.1cm; p=0.017), and peak power output (∼7.2%, -296W; p<0.001) worsened. Despite increased ratings of perceived exertion and elevated blood lactate concentrations (p≤0.05), sprint times were maintained throughout exercise, whereas peak power increased (∼7.8%, +294W; p=0.006) pre- to post-exercise. Conclusions: At the point of simulated pitch-entry, body temperature and physical performance responses were not maintained from warm-up cessation despite typical substitute-specific match-day practices being employed in thermoneutral conditions. Evidence of performance-limiting fatigue was absent during ∼30min of simulated match-play. These data question the efficacy of practices typically implemented by substitutes before pitch-entry.
... The mechanisms underlying this potential benefit are similarly very poorly understood and under-investigated. Finally, it is unclear whether limb IPC can add significant value over and above a well-planned warm-up, particularly in well-trained, elite athletes [115][116][117][118][119]. In addition, application of limb IPC or RIPC may pose an ethical dilemma regarding the appropriateness of its use to improve exercise performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive cardioprotective intervention that involves brief cycles of limb ischemia and reperfusion. This is typically delivered by inflating and deflating a blood pressure cuff on one or more limb(s) for several cycles, each inflation-deflation being 3-5 min in duration. RIPC has shown potential for protecting the heart and other organs from injury due to lethal ischemia and reperfusion injury, in a variety of clinical settings. The mechanisms underlying RIPC are under intense investigation but are just beginning to be deciphered. Emerging evidence suggests that RIPC has the potential to improve exercise performance, via both local and remote mechanisms. This review discusses the clinical studies that have investigated the role of RIPC in cardioprotection as well as those studying its applicability in improving athletic performance, while examining the potential mechanisms involved.
... No encontraron diferencias en el rendimiento entre protocolos de calentamiento y llegaron a la conclusión que, por eficiencia en el tiempo, el de corta duración podría ser una buena alternativa. Ingham et al. 75 usaron la intensidad propia de competición (800 m) para cuantificar la carga del calentamiento previo a la prueba de rendimiento. Llegaron a la conclusión que un esfuerzo sostenido (2x50 m + 200 m) de alta intensidad (intensidad de competición) mejoraba el rendimiento respecto a pequeños esfuerzos (6x50 m) de la misma intensidad. ...
Article
Interest in relation to running economy has increased such as determinant of running performance in scientific literature in trained long and middle distance runners and recreational runners. Trained runners are more efficient than untrained runners, meaning it is a “trainable” parameter. A key factor during endurance training is the intensity of corresponding effort, characterized by two endurance training methods such as interval and continuous training. In recreational runners, there is some controversy about which intensities are optimal in order to improve running economy, thus, periodized endurance training with a logical relationship between high and low-intensity training is recommended. We recommend the inclusion of 2-3 session per week of interval training, compensated with continuous training. Regarding to trained runners, interval training (at intensities close to VO2max) will be more important because of the need to be more economical at competitive intensities. Very high training intensities would not lead improvements in running economy due to it is not posible to accumulate enough training volumen during the training period. Conversely, the high-intensity efforts prior to competition (intensities above anaerobic threshold), during a warm-up protocol, increase the energy cost (reduce the running economy) and therefore, it is recommended a long transient phase (9-20 min) before to competition so as not to disturb the subsequent performance. An increase of scientific studies regarding the effects of high-intensity efforts during a warm-up protocol is needed in order to know the optimal intensities, flat or uphill ground, or the adequate recovery to improve the subsequent performance.
... From a heuristic point of view, faster V O 2 kinetics implies a smaller oxygen deficit at the beginning of exercise and a smaller perturbation of the intracellular milieu, so that the onset of peripheral fatigue may be postponed. Although our data on the positive correlation between faster V O 2 kinetics and physical performance during moderate-intensity are inconclusive, we know that in sports, the acceleration of V O 2 kinetics is tightly correlated with improved track running performance (Ingham et al. 2013). Therefore, a practical indication emerging from our findings is that moderate-intensity exercise performed at high altitude can induce beneficial effects on physical performance in spite of the occurrence of muscular changes that may potentially impair the aerobic metabolic energy-yielding pathway. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We investigated the effects of moderate-intensity training at low and high altitude on V˙O2 and Q˙aO2 kinetics and on myosin heavy-chain expression (MyHC) in seven women (36.3 yy ± 7.1; 65.8 kg ± 11.7; 165 cm ± 8) who participated in two 12- to 14-day trekking expeditions at low (598 m) and high altitude (4132 m) separated by 4 months of recovery. Methods Breath-by-breath V˙O2 and beat-by-beat Q˙aO2 at the onset of moderate-intensity cycling exercise and energy cost of walking (C w) were assessed before and after trekking. MyHC expression of vastus lateralis was evaluated before and after low-altitude and after high-altitude trekking; muscle fiber high-resolution respirography was performed at the beginning of the study and after high-altitude trekking. Results Mean response time of V˙O2 kinetics was faster (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001) and oxygen deficit was smaller (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0004) after low- and high-altitude trekking, whereas Q˙aO2 kinetics and C w did not change. Percentages of slow and fast isoforms of MyHC and mitochondrial mass were not affected by low- and high-altitude training. After training altitude, muscle fiber ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration was decreased as compared with the control condition (P = 0.016), whereas leak respiration was increased (P = 0.031), leading to a significant increase in the respiratory control ratio (P = 0.016). Conclusions Although training did not significantly modify muscle phenotype, it induced beneficial adaptations of the oxygen transport–utilization systems witnessed by faster V˙O2 kinetics at exercise onset.
... Only one article that included a method that documented improved performance was found. Ingham et al. 35 showed that a warm up session including six 50 m race-pace strides separated by a walking recovery (45-60 s) and one race-pace 200 m run elicited superior performance over a 10-minute jog warm-up in 11 welltrained 800 m athletes. The runners exhibited higher lactate levels and higher VO2 during the 800 m run as a result of the shorter warm up method, indicating that the metabolic machinery was functioning at an appropriate rate to support exercise intensity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Very little peer-reviewed information is available to aid military personnel in selecting training programs to enhance performance on fitness tests and direct fitness-related military policy. Objective: This review provides recommendations on training programs for enhancing performance on 1.5-mile and 2-mile runs based on the available relevant literature. Design: Short review article. Methods: Collected relevant research articles by using search terms such as aerobic power, military physical fitness test, strength training, resistance training, endurance training, high intensity interval training, running economy, 3 km run, 5 km run, and 1.5/2-mile run. Results: Evidence has shown running performance can improve with a combination of traditional strength training, high intensity interval training, and distance training. Conclusion: A combination of traditional strength training, high intensity interval training, and distance training should be used to enhance running performance on the 1.5 and 2-mile run tests used by the military.
... The coaches also identified that the pool warm-up permitted swimmers to get a feel for the pacing used in the subsequent race, hence the inclusion of a set of race or near race-pace efforts toward the end of the pool warm-up. At least one set of race-pace efforts can enhance subsequent exercise performance more so than when such efforts are not completed (15,25). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A better understanding of current swimming warm-up strategies is needed to improve their effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe current pre-competition warm-up practices and identify contemporary issues faced by elite swimming coaches during competition. Forty-six state-international level swimming coaches provided information via a questionnaire on their prescription of volume, intensity and recovery within their pool and dryland-based competition warm-ups, and challenges faced during the final stages of event preparation. Coaches identified four key objectives of the pre-competition warm-up: physiological (elevate body temperature/muscle activation), kinesthetic (tactile preparation, increase "feel" of the water), tactical (race-pace rehearsal) and mental (improve focus, reduce anxiety). Pool warm-up volume ranged from ∼1300-2100 m, beginning with 400-1000 m of continuous, low-intensity (∼50-70% of perceived maximal exertion) swimming, followed by 200-600 m of stroke drills and 1-2 sets (100-400 m in length) of increasing intensity (∼60-90%) swimming, concluding with 3-4 race or near race-pace efforts (25-100 m; ∼90-100%) and 100-400 m easy swimming. Dryland-based warm-up exercises, involving stretch cords and skipping, were also commonly prescribed. Coaches preferred swimmers complete their warm-up 20-30 min prior to race start. Lengthy marshalling periods (15-20+ min) and the time required to don racing suits (>10 min) were identified as complicating issues. Coaches believed the pool warm-up affords athletes the opportunity to gain a tactile "feel" for the water and surrounding pool environment. The combination of dryland-based activation exercises followed by pool-based warm-up routines appears to be the preferred approach taken by elite swimming coaches preparing their athletes for competition.
... No encontraron diferencias en el rendimiento entre protocolos de calentamiento y llegaron a la conclusión que, por eficiencia en el tiempo, el de corta duración podría ser una buena alternativa. Ingham et al. 75 usaron la intensidad propia de competición (800 m) para cuantificar la carga del calentamiento previo a la prueba de rendimiento. Llegaron a la conclusión que un esfuerzo sostenido (2x50 m + 200 m) de alta intensidad (intensidad de competición) mejoraba el rendimiento respecto a pequeños esfuerzos (6x50 m) de la misma intensidad. ...
... At Olympic and World Championship level many swimmers have similar performance abilities determined by combinations of energy availability and technical effectiveness. Therefore, finding improvements in the performance of as little as 1% will have a significant effect on the race outcome (15). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to establish whether a series of three apnoeas prior to a 400-m freestyle time-trial affected swimming performance when compared to, and combined with a warm-up. Nine (6 males, 3 females) regional to national standard swimmers completed four 400-m freestyle time-trials in 4 randomized conditions: without warm-up or apnoeas (CON), warm-up only (WU), apnoeas only (AP) and warm-up and apnoeas (WUAP). Time-trial performance was significantly improved after WUAP (275.79 ±12.88 s) compared to CON (278.66 ±13.31 s, P = 0.035) and AP (278.64 ±4.10 s, P =0.015). However, there were no significant differences between the WU (276.01 ±13.52 s, P >0.05), and other interventions. Spleen volume compared to baseline was significantly reduced following the apnoeas by a maximum of ~45% in the WUAP and by ~20% in WU. This study showed that the combination of a warm-up with apnoeas could significantly improve 400-m freestyle swim performance compared to a control and apnoea intervention. Further investigation into whether long-term apnoea training can enhance this response is justified.
... This speeding of VO 2 kinetics with a high-intensity warm-up could be important practically in performance as recently demonstrated by improvements in 800 m running performance. 27 It is likely a portion of the increased VO 2 during the sprint bouts may be necessary to re-load myoglobin with oxygen 28,29 or to oxidize the significant amount of lactate generated with this type of effort. 30,31 Further, the VO 2 recovery pattern from all of these bouts is similar with VO 2 decreasing rapidly within ~2 min after which the rate of decline attenuates until the initiation of the next sprint bout. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: We investigated the cardiorespiratory response during acute sprint interval exercise (SIE; 4 x 30 sec maximal efforts, each separated by 4 min recovery) vs. continuous endurance exercise (CEE; 30 min) at 70% VO2max. Methods: Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate were measured in 8 males (age: 23±2.3 y, height: 181±6.4 cm, body mass: 78±8.6 kg, VO2max: 52±3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1, mean±SD). Pre-exercise diet was controlled. Results and conclusion: Total VO2 was greater with CEE vs. SIE (87.6±13.1 vs. 35.1±4.4 L O2) with small differences (P=0.06) in average heart rates (CEE: 157±10 bpm vs. SIE: 149±6 bpm) and peak heart rates (CEE: 166±10 vs. SIE: 173±6; P=0.14). VO2 increased during the sprint bouts (53-72% of VO2max) and attained near maximal values (84-96%) in the immediate recovery period (within 20 sec). Thereafter a rapid decrease occurred so that at 2 min of recovery VO2 was ~1.5 L/min (~38% VO2max). During the remaining 2 min of recovery VO2 declined more slowly to ~1.3 L/min or ~33% of VO2max. Similar heart rate responses with CEE and SIE and a greater VO2 during SIE suggest increased muscle oxygen extraction with SIE, which might explain the greater peripheral adaptations, observed previously with sprint vs. continuous training. The potential value of shorter recovery durations to SIE needs to be examined.
... The mean response time (MRT) was obtained as TD p + t p , and V _ O 2 max was computed as the mean V _ O 2 over the last 60 seconds of the T400 (10,13,40). The amplitude of the slow V _ O 2 component (A sc ) was estimated as the difference between the V _ O 2 at the end (average of the last 60 seconds) and A p + A 0 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Zacca, R, Azevedo, R, Chainok, P, Vilas-Boas, JP, Castro, FAdS, Pyne, DB, and Fernandes, RJ. Monitoring age-group swimmers over a training macrocycle: energetics, technique, and anthropometrics. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study was to quantify changes and contributions of energetic, technique, and anthropometric profiles across the first training macrocycle (16-week) in a traditional 3-peak swimming season. Twenty-four age-group swimmers (10 boys and 14 girls age 14.4 ± 0.9 years) of equal maturational stage were monitored through a 400-m test in front crawl (T400). Energetic, technique, and anthropometric characteristics were compared before (experimental testing 1, E1) and after the preparatory (E2), specific (E3), and competitive (E4) training periods. Sex interaction was not significant for any variable. Multiple linear regressions and principal component analysis were used to identify the most influential variables and the relative contribution of each domain (energetics, technique, and anthropometrics) to changes in swimming performance of T400. The relative contributions for performance of T400 at E1, E2, E3, and E4 were 15, 12, 6, and 13% for energetics, 78, 85, 75, and 70% for technique, and 7, 3, 19 and 17% for anthropometrics, respectively. Technique played the main role during the first 16-week macrocycle in a competitive season, regardless of small fluctuations in the influence of energetics and anthropometrics. Changes and influence of energetics, technique, and anthropometric on age-group swimmers' performance could be described by the T400 swimming test, providing a comprehensive biophysical overview of the main contributors to swimming performance.
... Further, the training stimulus for these players should be considered based on if they are required to start a match, they may not be able to sustain their physical work-rate due to an inefficient pacing strategy. Whilst within match, players should perform a high-intensity warm-up prior to substitution to possibly aid in the performance of high-speed running they are likely to experience [140]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Due to the unpredictable nature of soccer, a match is open to a variety of different factors that may affect player movement, such as environmental or within match situational factors. When practitioners examine match performances, these factors should be considered when providing feedback to coaches and players, and this data should inform the training prescribed. Therefore, this thesis aimed to answer the question, “what are the effects of environmental and situational factors on player movement in international women’s soccer matches?” The secondary question of this thesis is “what is the training approach utilised to peak for international tournaments where such variables are in play?” A comprehensive systematic review of the literature revealed match-factors might affect movement particularly with respect to situational factors. Meanwhile, altitude and temperature reduced match-running in full match and peak period analyses, highlighting the difficulty of playing in these environments. Altitude, temperature, opposition ranking, match outcome and congested schedules were chosen as match-factors for analysis. The aim of the first study was to examine the effects of match-factors on the match-running of elite female soccer players. The main findings observed small to moderate decreases in all metrics (Effect Size - ES = -0.83 to -0.16) in high temperatures and lower total distance at high altitude (ES = -0.54). Playing lower-ranked teams in a draw resulted in moderately greater high-speed running (ES = 0.89), whilst winning against higher-ranked opponents produced moderately greater total distance and low-speed running (ES = 0.75). The second investigation aimed to examine the effect of match-factors in the Peak match-running of elite female soccer players. Less peak distance (ES -0.85) and high-speed running (ES = -0.27), with less distance, high-speed running and accelerations (ES = -0.44 to -0.37) was observed. Drawing a match, compared to winning or losing, increased total distance and high-speed running (ES = 0.32 to 0.43). The aim of the third study was to examine the match-running of full match, and the effect of early or late substitutions. We found that late substitutes completed a greater rate of total distance, high-speed running, accelerations and PlayerLoad than full match and early substitutes (ES = 0.33 to 1.22). The aim of the fourth investigation was to examine changes in match-running, perceived wellness and neuromuscular fatigue during a period of fixture congestion. Mostly trivial findings in the full match analysis were observed, however, with closer examination lower total distance (ES = -0.69) from the first to last match of tournament in players who competed in all matches was observed. Furthermore, self-reported sleep hours declined (ES = -0.94) from the first to the last match, indicating the need for tracking perceived player wellness throughout successive matches. The aim of the fifth study was to examine the effects of 2250 m of altitude on match-running in elite female youth soccer players. Total distance, low-speed running and PlayerLoad were very likely to almost certainly less at altitude (ES = -2.26 to -0.29). In addition, ratings of perceived exertion and heart rate metrics were very likely to almost certainly increased following a submaximal running test at altitude compared to sea-level. Finally, application of match data to the preparation for international tournaments indicated greater training load during preparation for the 2016 Olympics compared to 2015 World Cup during all training blocks (ES -5.92 to -0.66). Following the taper block, all wellness variables were improved compared to both the training and friendly blocks (ES = 0.59 to 2.55). In addition, a delay of approximately one- to two-days was observed between the exposure to a load and the reporting of a change in perceived wellness reported. In summary, match-running is affected by a variety of factors associated with soccer matches. Practitioners should account for these factors when providing feedback to players and coaches, whilst also utilising this information in preparation for matches. This may be by way of loading or coach guidance to understand the effects of a particular factor in the performance of players. Where possible, the inclusion of perceived ratings of wellness should be included to examine the effects of a training programme or a period of successive matches. These ratings should be collected daily in the morning and examined with respect to training loads, either as a rating of perceived exertion of global positioning metrics. Overall, this thesis provides a thorough understanding of match-running in elite females, whilst providing practical recommendations for the preparation of players for competition.
... At Olympic and World Championship level, many swimmers have similar performance abilities determined by combinations of energy availability and technical effectiveness. Therefore, finding improvements in the performance of as little as 1% will have a significant effect on the race outcome (15). ...
Article
Robertson, C, Lodin-Sundström, A, O'Hara, J, King, R, Wainwright, B, and Barlow, M. Effects of pre-race apneas on 400-m freestyle swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to establish whether a series of 3 apneas before a 400-m freestyle time-trial affected swimming performance when compared with and combined with a warm-up. Nine (6 males and 3 females) regional to national standard swimmers completed four 400-m freestyle time-trials in 4 randomized conditions: without warm-up or apneas (CON), warm-up only (WU), apneas only (AP), and warm-up and apneas (WUAP). Time-trial performance was significantly improved after WUAP (275.79 ± 12.88 seconds) compared with CON (278.66 ± 13.31 seconds, p = 0.035) and AP (278.64 ± 4.10 seconds, p = 0.015). However, there were no significant differences between the WU (276.01 ± 13.52 seconds, p > 0.05) and other interventions. Spleen volume compared with baseline was significantly reduced after the apneas by a maximum of ∼45% in the WUAP and by ∼20% in WU. This study showed that the combination of a warm-up with apneas could significantly improve 400-m freestyle swim performance compared with a control and apnea intervention. Further investigation into whether long-term apnea training can enhance this response is justified.
... Both protocols were followed by a further 10 min of passive rest to 170 allow neuromuscular fatigue to dissipate but maximize the likelihood of a PAPE response being 171realized. Immediately prior to remounting the treadmill, participants were asked to provide a rating (1-172 10) of perceived readiness21 . To evaluate the effect of the intervention on RE, participants then ran for 173 a further 5 min at 20%Δ below V̇O2 at LTP. ...
Article
Objectives: To determine the effect of performing depth jumps (DJ) pre-exercise on running economy (RE) and time to exhaustion (TTE) at the speed associated with maximal oxygen uptake (sV˙O2max) in a group of high-performing junior middle-distance runners. Design: Randomized crossover study. Methods: Seventeen national- and international-standard male distance runners (17.6±1.2years, 63.4±6.3kg, 1.76±0.06m, 70.7±5.2mLkg-1min-1) completed two trials. Following a 5min warm-up at 60% V˙O2max, participants performed a 5min run at 20%Δ below oxygen uptake corresponding with lactate turn-point to determine pre-intervention RE. Participants then completed either six DJ from a box equivalent to their best counter-movement jump (CMJ) or a control condition (C) involving body weight quarter squats. After a 10min passive recovery, another 5min sub-maximal run was performed followed by a run to exhaustion at sV˙O2max. Results: Compared to the C trial, DJ produced moderate improvements (-3.7%, 95% confidence interval for effect size: 0.25-1.09) in RE, which within the context of minimal detectable change is considered possibly beneficial. Differences in TTE and other physiological variables were most likely trivial (ES: <0.2). Individual responses were small, however a partial correlation revealed a moderate relationship (r=-0.55, p=0.028) between change in RE and CMJ height. Conclusions: The inclusion of a set of six DJ in the warm-up routine of a well-trained young male middle-distance runner is likely to provide a moderate improvement in RE.
... However, the athletes awareness was raised on the fact that priming exercises can potentially influence peripheral oxygenation Bailey et al., 2009;McIntyre and Kilding, 2015) in a similar way as the studied interventions (Salvador et al., 2015). Precisely, athletes were told that omitting to perform intensity bouts in their warm-ups 20-40-min before their race (Burnley et al., 2006;Bailey et al., 2009;Ingham et al., 2013) could potentially negatively affect their performance (Bailey et al., 2009) and mislead conclusion about the current research. Post-testing, all athletes reported having integrated priming exercises (∼30-min before the race) in their off-ice warm-up as well of having reproduced a very similar warm-up in both conditions ( Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Elite athletes in varied sports typically combine ergogenic strategies in the hope of enhancing physiological responses and competitive performance, but the scientific evidence for such practices is very scarce. The peculiar characteristics of speed skating contribute to impede blood flow and exacerbate deoxygenation in the lower limbs (especially the right leg). We investigated whether combining preconditioning strategies could modify muscular oxygenation and improve performance in that sport. Using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, seven male elite long-track speed skaters performed on-ice 600-m time trials, preceded by either a combination of preconditioning strategies (COMBO) or a placebo condition (SHAM). COMBO involved performing remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) of the upper limbs (3 × 5-min compression at 180 mmHg and 5-min reperfusion) over 3 days (including an acute treatment before trials), with the addition of an inspiratory muscle warm-up [IMW: 2 × 30 inspirations at 40% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP)] on the day of testing. SHAM followed the same protocol with lower intensities (10 mmHg for RIPC and 15% MIP). Changes in tissue saturation index (TSI), oxyhemoglobin–oxymyoglobin ([O2HbMb]), deoxyhemoglobin–deoxymyoglobin ([HHbMb]), and total hemoglobin–myoglobin ([THbMb]) in the right vastus lateralis muscle were monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Differences between COMBO and SHAM were analyzed using Cohen’s effect size (ES) and magnitude-based inferences. Compared with SHAM, COMBO had no worthwhile effect on performance time while mean Δ[HHbMb] (2.7%, ES 0.48; -0.07, 1.03) and peak Δ[HHbMb] (1.8%, ES 0.23; -0.10, 0.57) were respectively likely and possibly higher in the last section of the race. These results indicate that combining ischemic preconditioning and IMW has no practical ergogenic impact on 600-m speed-skating performance in elite skaters. The low-sitting position in this sport might render difficult enhancing these physiological responses.
... The metabolic climate of NZBC supplemented athletes suggests a need for further NZBC research in intermittent and team sports athletes, preferably with a trained comparator group, employing a replicated crossover design or in an extended tournament setting. In aerobic disciplines, future research should focus on exercise tasks in the severe domain (Burnley & Jones, 2016), where an increased lactate production, as observed in the present study, may improve performance via priming (Ingham et al., 2013). When assessing female participants, menstrual cycle phase should also be considered and where possible controlled for too, due to potential oestrogen-mediated antioxidant and glycogen sparing effects (McNulty et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Blackcurrants are an excellent source of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, and recent studies have found them to facilitate performance and recovery in aerobic activities. However, limited research exists in intermittent or anaerobic settings despite known oxidative and inflammatory stresses. Therefore, we examined the effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant (NZBC) on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and recovery parameters. Sixteen recreationally active females were supplemented with either NZBC (1.6mg.kg-1 anthocyanin content; ViBERi, Timaru, New Zealand) or a matched placebo (artificial sweetener) for 7 days in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design. On day 7 participants performed the RSA test which consisted of ten 30m shuttle sprints interspersed with a 30 second recovery period. Blood lactate was assessed 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-minutes post-test. The same protocol was then replicated the following day. NZBC improved mean sprint time from baseline by 2.0% and fastest sprint time by 2.7%. Placebo also improved sprint time by 2.3%. Compared to the placebo group the NZBC group typically performed better in all RSA test outcomes, however the differences were deemed unclear and non-significant. Lactate responses post RSA on average tended to be higher on both days for the NZBC group compared to placebo group (15.1-32.5%). A moderate difference (ES:-0.64) was observed between groups post 7-days of supplementation for lactate clearance from 5-minutes to 10-minutes post-test with NZBC leading to a decrease of 23.7%. In conclusion, NZBC supplementation for 7-days does not improve repeated sprint ability when compared to placebo.
... Studies assessing the effects of an intervention on time-trial performance often schedule time-trials a week apart, at the same time of day [8,66], and, theoretically, time trials have a substantial effect on the athletes training load. Together this makes it harder to recruit high-caliber athletes, specifically when comparing more than two conditions [67]. Further, day-to-day variability in performance readiness will make it challenging to correlate individual improvements in time-trial performance from super spikes to an athlete's individual characteristics, such as their race speed, body mass or plantar flexor strength. ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent and rapid developments in track spike innovation have been followed by a wave of record-breaking times and top performances. This has led many to question what role “super spikes” play in improving running performance. To date, the specific contributions of new innovations in footwear, including lightweight, resilient, and compliant midsole foam, altered geometry, and increased longitudinal bending stiffness, to track running performance are unknown. Based on current literature, we speculate about what advantages these features provide. Importantly, the effects of super spikes will vary based on several factors including the event (e.g., 100 m vs. 10,000 m) and the characteristics of the athlete wearing them. Further confounding our understanding of super spikes is the difficulty of testing them. Unlike marathon shoes, testing track spikes comes with a unique challenge of quantifying the metabolic energy demands of middle-distance running events, which are partly anaerobic. Quantifying the exact benefits from super spikes is difficult and we may need to rely on comparison of track performances pre- and post- the introduction of super spikes.
... Unfortunately, we did not measure core body temperature. However, in the present study, the subjects performed an extensive warm-up including 3 short sprints at 22, 23, and 24 km·h −1 as these high-intensity sprints have been shown to enhance performance in middle-distance runners, 23 and may thereby have equalized any potential effects of the preconditioning sessions. Consequently, we propose that the extensive warm-up in the present study conducted in a room at a temperature of approximately 21°C was sufficient to provide an elevated body temperature, and the warm-up may have equalized any potential preconditioning effects. ...
Article
Purpose: Preconditioning exercise is a widely used strategy believed to enhance performance later the same day. The authors examined the influence of preconditioning exercises 6 hours prior to a time-to-exhaustion (TTE) test during treadmill running. Methods: Ten male competitive runners (age = 26 [3] y, height = 184 [8] cm, weight = 73 [9] kg, maximum oxygen consumption = 72 [7] mL·kg-1·min-1) did a preconditioning session of running (RUN) or resistance exercise (RES) or no morning exercise (NoEx) in a randomized order, separated by >72 hours. The RUN consisted of 15 minutes of low-intensity running and 4 × 15 seconds at race pace (21-24 km·h-1) on a treadmill; RES involved 5 minutes of low-intensity running and 2 × 3 repetitions of isokinetic 1-leg shallow squats with maximal mobilization. Following a 6-hour break, electrically evoked force (m. vastus medialis), countermovement jump, running economy, and a TTE of approximately 2 minutes were examined. Results: Relative to NoEx, no difference was seen for RUN or RES in TTE (mean ± 95% CI: -1.3% ± 3.4% and -0.5% ± 6.0%) or running economy (0.2% ± 1.6% and 1.9% ± 2.7%; all Ps > .05). Jump height was not different for the RUN condition (1.0% ± 2.7%]) but tended to be higher in RES than in the NoEx condition (1.5% ± 1.6%, P = .07). The electrically evoked force tended to reveal low-frequency fatigue (reduced 20:50-Hz peak force ratio) only after RES compared to NoEx (-4.5% ± 4.6%, P = .06). Conclusion: The RUN or RES 6 hours prior to approximately 2 minutes of TTE running test did not improve performance in competitive runners.
... *Gait observations: 0absent; 1occasionally observed; 2recurring, but inconsistent; 3consistent abnormality in canter; 4 consistent abnormality in canter and occasional lameness; 5continuous lameness † Significance indicated between values not sharing a superscript P<0.01, Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni pairwise comparison lameness assessments. The principle of marginal gains in other sports is well-recognised(Hall et al. 2012;Ingham et al. 2013;Robertson et al. 2020); for example, a minor alteration in technique may make a substantial improvement in relative performance. Resolution of low-grade pain would also enhance equine welfare. ...
Article
A Ridden Horse Pain Ethogram (RHpE) was previously developed to facilitate the detection of musculoskeletal pain. The objectives were to apply the RHpE during warm‐up for the dressage phase of two 5* three‐day events and to correlate the RHpE scores with subsequent performance. It was hypothesised that there would be a higher rate of failure to complete the cross‐country phase in horses which exhibited ≥7 behaviours compared with those showing <7 behaviours. The RHpE, comprising 24 behaviours, was applied for 10–12 min during warm‐up. Gait abnormalities in trot and canter were recorded. Dressage penalties, cross‐country performance, showjumping penalties and final placings were documented. Horses were categorised as those which completed cross‐country, or those which did not complete because of elimination or retirement. RHpE scores (n = 137) ranged from 0 to 9/24 (median 3 [range 0–9] for nonlame horses; median 5 [range 1–9] for horses with gait abnormalities in trot or canter). There was a moderate correlation between dressage penalty scores and the RHpE score (rho = 0.4, P<0.001, Spearman rank). Fifty‐nine per cent of horses (n = 10/17) with a RHpE score ≥7 failed to complete cross‐country, compared with 33% (n = 39/117) with a score <7. Horses that failed to complete the cross‐country phase had higher RHpE scores compared with those that completed (P = 0.04, W = 8.3, Kruskal–Wallis; pairwise comparison Bonferroni, P = 0.06). There was a significant (rho = 0.3) relationship between total RHpE score and final horse placings (n = 80, P<0.01, Spearman rank). Horses with lameness or gait abnormalities in canter had significantly higher RHpE scores (P<0.01, χ2 = 35, chi‐square test) compared with other horses. There was a strong correlation between the RHpE scores for horses which competed at both events (P<0.001, rho = 0.6, Spearman rank). The RHpE should facilitate earlier identification of horses which may benefit from diagnosis and treatment, resulting in improvement in both performance and equine welfare.
... The 2,000-m rowing TT was performed on Concept2 rowing ergometers with the display screen blinded to give only distance completed feedback (Model D Concept2, Inc., Morrisville, Vermont, US) after participants replicated their usual, precompetition warm-up in the laboratory. Individual pre-TT warmup (reviewed by a sports physiologist) occurred under the following guidelines: category 6 (C6; lowest intensity) "erging" with a lactate priming effort of 1 min at 2,000-m race pace completed 20 min before the start of the TT [shown to improve high-intensity TT's (21)]. Participants were able to stay warm throughout the post lactate push period with C6 or lower intensity erging, interspersed with periodic power strokes (PS). ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary meta-analyses have generally demonstrated a positive effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on exercise performance. However, despite these claims, there is limited data on contrasting individualized and standardized timing of NaHCO3 ingestion prior to exercise to further enhance performance outcomes. Purpose: To determine whether NaHCO3 ingestion timing impacts 2,000-m rowing time-trial (TT) performance in elite-level rowers (Senior National team including Olympic/World Championships level) adhering to their own individualized pre-race strategies (e.g. nutrition, warm-up, etc.). Methods: Twenty three (n = 23) rowers across two research centers (using the exact same methods/protocols) completed three trials: NaHCO3 loading profile at rest to determine the individual's time-to-peak bicarbonate concentration [ HCO 3 - ], followed by two randomized 0.3 g·kgBM-1 NaHCO3 supplementation experimental trials conducted at different time points [consensus timing (CON): TT performed 60 min post-NaHCO3 ingestion; and individualized peak (IP): TT performed at the rower's individual peak [ HCO 3 - ] determined from the profiling trial post-NaHCO3 ingestion]. Results: There was a significant mean difference of +2.9 [± 0.4 mmol·L-1 HCO 3 - for IP vs. CON (95% CI 2.0 to 3.8 mmol·L-1); p = 0.02; d = 1.08] at pre warm-up, but not immediately prior to the TT (post warm-up). Performance times were significantly different between IP (367.0 ± 10.5 s) vs. CON (369.0 ± 10.3 s); p = 0.007; d = 0.15). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a small but significant performance effect of an individualized NaHCO3 ingestion strategy. Similarities after warm-up between pre-TT sHCO 3 - values (CON ~ + 5.5 mmol·L-1; IP ~ + 6 mmol·L-1), however, would suggest this effect was not a result of any meaningful differences in blood alkalinity.
... El atleta realiza su prueba específica de competición (800 m -1500 m) a la máxima intensidad portando el analizador de gases (con un peso de 950 g, incluida la batería, el cinturón, el sistema y la mascarilla). El calentamiento de la pruebas ha sido a ritmo propio al calentamiento regular pre-evento del atleta (Hanon & Thomas, 2011), pero siendo estandarizado conforme expresa la literatura científica (Bishop, 2003 (Hanon & Thomas, 2011;van den Tillar et al., 2017;Ingham, Fudge, Pringle & Jones, 2013). Después del calentamiento, los atletas han tenido un período de 4 minutos de recuperación antes de empezar el test (Hanon et al., 2007). ...
Book
Full-text available
... The majority of the warm-ups for both World Series and Paratriathlon Series athletes are made up of low intensity activities, and 4/10 of the athletes do not include any high intensity activity in their warm-up. Previously, the inclusion of high intensity activity has significantly improved 100 m swim time (Neiva et al., 2014) and 800 m run time (Ingham, Fudge, Pringle, & Jones, 2013), however reducing the amount of high intensity activity has been shown to be beneficial for sprint cycling (Tomaras & MacIntosh, 2011). Furthermore, researchers have also reported the benefits of a low intensity warm-up compared with no warm-up at all (Zourdos et al., 2017). ...
Article
Netball is a dynamic sport characterised by jumping and agility-based movements. The majority of New Zealand netball players are female, and many play from adolescence and make a lifelong commitment to the sport. Adolescent female players are more susceptible to lower limb injuries, in particular ankle sprains and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The increasing rates and impact of netball injuries may affect participation rates in the future. Injury prevention strategies are therefore a priority. In this study, a six-week netball preseason conditioning program was trialled to investigate the effects on athletic performance and injury prevention in adolescent athletes. A total of 112 participants were recruited from schools and netball centres from the Central Netball Zone of New Zealand and allocated to either a control (n = 30) or intervention (n = 82) group. Press-ups, prone and side holds, jumping performance and agility measurements were conducted at baseline and after the preseason conditioning program. Follow-up surveys were conducted to record the incidence of injuries during the season. At baseline, all performance measures were below the standards set by Netball New Zealand. Following the six-week preseason conditioning program, the intervention group recorded significant improvements in prone holds (p < 0.05) and agility (p < 0.001) compared to a control group. No change in jump performance measures were observed suggesting an intervention of greater than six weeks may be required to improve dynamic performance in this cohort of athletes. Injury incidence for the cohort was 13% over the season with less than 2% requiring surgery. This may suggest that in addition to any conditioning gains, there is value in the education associated with a preseason injury prevention program. This study advocates that a six-week netball-specific preseason conditioning program can improve some measures of athletic performance; however, further investigation is required to inform training practices in order to reduce injury incidence in adolescent female netballers.
... The majority of the warm-ups for both World Series and Paratriathlon Series athletes are made up of low intensity activities, and 4/10 of the athletes do not include any high intensity activity in their warm-up. Previously, the inclusion of high intensity activity has significantly improved 100 m swim time (Neiva et al., 2014) and 800 m run time (Ingham, Fudge, Pringle, & Jones, 2013), however reducing the amount of high intensity activity has been shown to be beneficial for sprint cycling (Tomaras & MacIntosh, 2011). Furthermore, researchers have also reported the benefits of a low intensity warm-up compared with no warm-up at all (Zourdos et al., 2017). ...
... To overcome this important limitation of the VT, other authors have proposed a multistage protocol with 1 or 2 submaximal stages before the supramaximal (4,28,36). In this regard, a recent study (20) has suggested that V _ O 2 max of elite athletes in a 800-m run on an indoor track (;125 seconds) could be higher when performing a high-intensity warmup, therefore confirming that previous metabolic activation is an important factor for aerobic responses in short (i.e., ,3 minutes) square-wave exercises. Further evaluations of protocol design of VTs in the field are warranted. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate if a verification test (VT) performed in the field offers more confident results than traditional criteria in the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Twelve amateur runners (36.6 ± 6.6 years) performed a maximal graded field test and after 15 min of passive recovery a supramaximal test to exhaustion at 105% of their velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max). Traditional criteria and two different verification criteria were evaluated. Verification criteria were: 1) maximal oxygen uptake achieved in the verification test (VO2verif) must be ≤ 5% higher than VO2peak, and 2) no significant differences of means between tests. All participants met the first verification criterion although significant differences were found between VO2peak and VO2verif (59.4 ± 5.1 vs. 56.2 ± 4.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, p< 0.01). The criteria for the plateau, peak heart rate (HRpeak), maximum respiratory exchange ratio (RERmax) and maximum blood lactate concentration ([La]max) were satisfied by 75%, 66%, 92% and 66% of the participants, respectively. Kappa coefficients gave a significant and substantial agreement beyond chance between traditional criteria (p<0.001). Despite the substantial agreement, traditional criteria induced the rejection of participants that might have achieved a true VO2max with HRpeak and [La]max being the more stringent criteria for amateur runners. A verification protocol in the field using the criterion based on individual analysis is recommended.
... At the end of rest following the three warm-up protocols, participants were inquired "how effectively do you think the warm-up was in preparation for racing?" and requested to rate their readiness from 1 (not effective at all) to 10 (extremely effective) (Ingham et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the impact of two differing warm-up protocols (involving either resistance exercises or plyometric exercises) on running economy (RE) in healthy recreationally active participants. Twelve healthy university students [three males, nine females, age 20 ± 2 years, maximal oxygen uptake (38.4 ± 6.4 ml min–1 kg–1)] who performed less than 5 h per week of endurance exercise volunteered to participant in this study. All participants completed three different warm-up protocols (control, plyometric, and resistance warm-up) in a counterbalanced crossover design with trials separated by 48 h, using a Latin-square arrangement. Dependent variables measured in this study were RE at four running velocities (7, 8, 9, and 10 km h–1), maximal oxygen uptake; heart rate; respiratory exchange rate; expired ventilation; perceived race readiness; rating of perceived exertion, time to exhaustion and leg stiffness. The primary finding of this study was that the plyometric warm-up improved RE compared to the control warm-up (6.2% at 7 km h–1, ES = 0.355, 9.1% at 8 km h–1, ES = 0.513, 4.5% at 9 km h–1, ES = 0.346, and 4.4% at 10 km h–1, ES = 0.463). There was no statistically significant difference in VO2 between control and resistance warm-up conditions at any velocity. There were also no statistically significant differences between conditions in other metabolic and pulmonary gas exchange variables; time to exhaustion; perceived race readiness and maximal oxygen uptake. However, leg stiffness increased by 20% (P = 0.039, ES = 0.90) following the plyometric warm-up and was correlated with the improved RE at a velocity of 8 km h–1 (r = 0.475, P = 0.041). No significant differences in RE were found between the control and resistance warm-up protocols. In comparison with the control warm-up protocol, an acute plyometric warm-up protocol can improve RE in healthy adults.
... Yet it would be interesting to evaluate the effects 20 or 30 minutes or even longer after the foam-rolling protocol because the time between warmup and the start of a major competition can be more than 10 minutes in many sports. 35,36 Also, the time to take all the measurements could have influenced the results. For this reason, the order of tests was always randomized. ...
Article
Context Foam-rolling exercises are frequently included in warmups due to their benefits for increasing range of motion (ROM). However, their effects on proprioception and vertical jump have not been analyzed and therefore remain unclear. Moreover, the effects of performing practical-duration foam-rolling exercises after typical warmup exercises such as jogging are unknown. Objective To analyze the effects of jogging and practical-duration foam-rolling exercises on the ROM, knee proprioception, and vertical jump of athletes. Design Randomized controlled study. Setting Sports laboratory and university track. Patients or Other Participants Thirty athletes were randomly classified into an experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). Intervention(s) The EG performed 8-minute jogging and foam-rolling exercises. The CG performed 8-minute jogging. Main Outcome Measure(s) Knee flexion, hip extension, active knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion (ADF), knee-joint position sense, and countermovement jump (CMJ) were evaluated before the intervention (baseline), after (post 0 min), and 10 minutes later. Results The EG exhibited higher values for ADF and CMJ at post 0 min (ADF: P < .001, d = 0.88; CMJ: P < .001, d = 0.52) and 10 minutes later (ADF: P = .014, d = 0.41; CMJ: P = .006, d = 0.22) compared with baseline. Although the CG also showed increased CMJ at post 0 min ( P = .044, d = 0.21), the EG demonstrated a greater increase ( P = .021, d = 0.97). No differences were found in the remaining ROM variables (knee flexion, hip extension, active knee extension: P values > .05). For knee-joint position sense, no differences were found ( P > .05). Conclusions Combining jogging and practical-duration foam rolling may increase ADF and CMJ without affecting knee proprioception and hip or knee ROM. Jogging by itself may slightly increase ADF and CMJ, but the results were better and were maintained after 10 minutes when foam rolling was added.
... However, the athletes' awareness was raised (a warmup checklist was provided and explained) on the fact that priming exercises can influence performance and peripheral oxygenation Bailey et al. 2009;McIntyre and Kilding 2015) and thereby, possibly interact with the expected effects of the studied interventions. Precisely, it was strongly suggested that they perform intensity bouts in their warm-ups 20-40 min before their race (Burnley et al. 2006;Bailey et al. 2009;Ingham et al. 2013). Posttesting, all athletes reported having completed their specific competition warm-up routine that included intensity bouts (≈ 30 min before the race) and having reproduced the same preparation in both conditions (Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose It has been shown that an inspiratory muscle warm-up (IMW) could enhance performance. IMW may also improve the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) during cycling. However, there exists contradictory data about the effect of this conditioning strategy on performance and muscle oxygenation. We examined the effect of IMW on speed skating performance and studied the underpinning physiological mechanisms related to muscle oxygenation. Methods In a crossover, randomized, single-blind study, eight elite speed skaters performed 3000 m on-ice time trials, preceded by either IMW (2 × 30 breaths, 40% maximal inspiratory pressure) or SHAM (2 × 30 breaths, 15% maximal inspiratory pressure). Changes in TSI, oxyhemoglobin–oxymyoglobin ([O2HbMb]), deoxyhemoglobin–deoxymyoglobin ([HHbMb]), total hemoglobin–myoglobin ([THbMb]) and HHbMbdiff ([O2HbMb]–[HHbMb]) in the right vastus lateralis muscle were monitored by NIRS. All variables were compared at different time points of the race simulation with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Differences between IMW and SHAM were also analyzed using Cohen’s effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences. Results Compared with SHAM, IMW had no clear impact on skating time (IMW 262.88 ± 17.62 s vs. SHAM 264.05 ± 21.12 s, effect size (ES) 0.05; 90% confidence limits, − 0.22, 0.32, p = 0.7366), TSI, HbMbdiff, [THbMb], [O2HbMb] and perceptual responses. Conclusions IMW did not modify skating time during a 3000 m time trial in speed skaters, in the conditions of our study. The unchanged [THbMb] and TSI demonstrate that the mechanisms by which IMW could possibly exert an effect on performance were unaffected by this intervention.
... Bootstrapping with 1,000 samples was used to estimate V _ O 2 kinetic parameters. The mean response time (MRT) was obtained as TD p + t p , and V _ O 2 max computed as the mean V _ O 2 over the last 60 seconds of the T400 (12,15,44). The amplitude of the slow V _ O 2 component (A sc ) was estimated as the difference between the V _ O 2 at the end (average of the last 60 seconds) and A p + A 0 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Zacca, R, Azevedo, R, Ramos, VR, Abraldes, JA, Vilas-Boas, JP, Castro, FAdS, Pyne, DB, and Fernandes, RJ. Biophysical follow-up of age-group swimmers during a traditional three-peak preparation program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—The aim of this study was to quantify changes and contributions of bioenergetic, technique, and anthropometric profiles across a traditional 3-peak swimming season. Twenty-four age-group swimmers (11 boys: 15 years 6 months ± 1 year 1 month; 13 girls: 14 years 5 months ± 10 months) of equal maturational stage were monitored through a 400-m test in front crawl (T400). Bioenergetic, technique, and anthropometric characteristics were compared before and after macrocycles I, II and III. Sex interaction was verified only for amplitude of the fast oxygen uptake component and height (moderate). Multiple linear regressions and principal component analysis were used to identify the most influential variables and the relative contribution of each domain (bioenergetics, technique, and anthropometrics) to changes in swimming performance of T400. The relative contributions for the performance of T400 after macrocycles I, II, and III were, respectively, 6, 18, and 27% for bioenergetics, 88, 69, and 54% for technique, and 6, 13, and 20% for anthropometrics. Technique was the biggest contributor (71%) for changes in the performance of T400 over the training season, followed by bioenergetics (17%) and anthropometrics (12%). Technique played the main role during the competitive season, regardless of gradual increase in the contribution of bioenergetics and anthropometrics. Despite that, bioenergetics and technique are closely connected, thus a powerful and endurable metabolic base and cannot be overlooked. Changes and contribution of bioenergetics, technique, and anthropometrics on age-group swimmers' performance over a traditional 3-peak swimming season could be described by the T400 swimming test, providing a comprehensive biophysical overview of the main contributors to swimming performance.
Article
Gil, MH, Neiva, HP, Alves, AR, Sousa, AC, Ferraz, R, Marques, MC, and Marinho, DA. The effect of warm-up running technique on sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of the current study was to analyze the effect of changing the running technique during warm-up on sprint performances, running biomechanics, physiological, and psychophysiological responses. Thirty-one physically active men aged 18-23 years (mean ± SD: 19.35 ± 1.08 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.07 m of height; 71.90 ± 10.37 kg of body mass) volunteered to participate and randomly performed 2 maximal 30-m sprints, 5 minutes after completing a warm-up focused on increased stride length-SL (WUL) or a warm-up focused on increased stride frequency-SF (WUF). The results showed that there were no differences between the 30-m sprint performances and in running biomechanics. However, WUF showed increased performances in the first 15 m of the race (WUF: 2.59 ± 0.11 seconds vs. WUL: 2.63 ± 0.15 seconds; p = 0.03), and WUL resulted in higher performances in the last 15 m (1.94 ± 0.19 seconds vs. 1.88 ± 0.09 seconds; p = 0.05). In the second 30-m time trial, WUF also resulted in faster starting 15 m of the race (2.58 ± 0.12 seconds vs. 2.63 ± 0.16 seconds; p = 0.04). Interestingly, the WUF was the warm-up that revealed more stability in performances and running biomechanics between both trials. These results showed that there were no significant differences between warm-ups comprising exercises focusing in higher SL or higher SF in 30-m sprint biomechanics and performance. Nevertheless, different running strategies were caused by those 2 warm-ups and a more stabilized running pattern, and performance values were found when warm-up focused on higher SF.
Thesis
Full-text available
Heat challenges multiple physiological systems, and its effects are heavily felt by endurance athletes due to the duration and intensity that must be sustained in competition and training sessions. Runners may demonstrate impaired thermoregulatory responses or opportunities due to lower rates of convective cooling and fewer opportunities to provide cooling interventions during exercise than other endurance athletes e.g. cyclists. Cooling strategies may be employed before or during exercise to minimise the effects of heat exposure, and their effects have been studied for at least three Olympic cycles. Hence, the optimisation of timing and method of delivery of cooling provision, with the addition of any novel strategies, would be of benefit to the contemporary sport and exercise science practitioner. Initially this thesis sought to better understand the effects of cooling strategies upon time trial performance in endurance sports with a systematic review and meta-analysis. The efficacy of strategies was assessed with respect to intervention timing (pre or per-cooling or both) and method of delivery (oral or topical or both). Cooling strategies were found to provide small but ecologically relevant improvements in time trial performance, especially when administered during the exercise bout to the oral cavity; the addition of menthol was seen to possibly enhance ergogenic effects. Hence, a second systematic review regarding external or internal application of menthol was conducted and found that menthol demonstrated improvements in performance when applied internally, most likely due to altered thermal and ventilatory responses. A range in menthol concentrations and dilution methods was noted in the literature, establishing a clear need for a randomised trial to ascertain menthol concentration preference. Following appropriate dilution, 0.1% menthol was determined to be preferred; colour preference was also established to maximise the perceptual cooling effect of menthol solution. This solution was then used (without colour to ensure blindness) in subsequent investigations. At rest this solution was shown to improve perceptions of thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst, when compared to carbohydrate and water swilling. Two exercise trials were conducted: the first examined the effects of menthol mouth swilling upon physiological and perceptual markers over four minute intervals at a range of pertinent running speeds (14-20km.h-1), and following 1km time trial performance. Effects on time trial performance were unclear, as were the effects in physiological parameters. Thermal comfort however was improved, with menthol mouth swilling counterintuitively increasing thermal sensation and thirst in the heat (35ºC), but ameliorating these factors in the cold (15ºC). Secondly, at a fixed rating of perceived exertion, corresponding to 2mmol.L-1 blood lactate, runners demonstrated a lower oxygen consumption following menthol mouth swilling for the latter two thirds of a 30-minute training session than compared to no swill or ice swilling. No changes in ventilation were shown, and the perceptual responses at a group level were unclear – suggesting that whilst menthol may improve the oxygen cost of running at a fixed rating of perceived exertion, this does not correspond to improvements in thermoregulatory perception in this sample. Qualitative responses regarding the swill from the athletes involved in the exercise studies were collated and menthol was considered an enjoyable and useful strategy by the athletes. Further research is required to assess if these hedonic and utilitarian perspectives are rated as highly in more ecologically valid environments; the athletes indicated this would be the case. The findings presented in this thesis demonstrate that a light blue or light green 0.1% menthol mouth rinse is preferred and can alleviate thermal sensation and thirst, and improve thermal comfort at rest in the heat. During exercise in a small sample of trained distance runners, menthol mouth swilling may alleviate perceptual symptoms of heat exposure without necessarily improving performance, dependent upon the running speeds chosen. Furthermore, menthol mouth swilling is considered a pleasant and potentially ergogenic strategy by athletes who have used it, suggesting that even in the absence of performance or physiological enhancements that exceed the typical coefficient of variation in performance, menthol mouth swilling is a viable nutritional support strategy for trained distance runners, when exercising in the heat.
Article
Full-text available
Whilst the movement demands of players completing a whole soccer match have been well-documented, comparable information relating to substitutes is sparse. Therefore, this study profiled the match-day physical activities performed by soccer substitutes, focusing separately on the pre and post pitch-entry periods. Seventeen English Championship soccer players were monitored using 10 Hz Micromechanical Electrical Systems (MEMS) devices during 13 matches in which they participated as substitutes (35 observations). Twenty physical variables were examined and data were organised by bouts of warm-up activity (pre pitch-entry), and five min epochs of match-play (post pitch-entry). Linear mixed modelling assessed the influence of time (i.e., 'bout' and 'epoch'), playing position, and match scoreline. Substitutes performed 3±1 rewarm-up bouts∙player-1∙match-1. Compared to the initial warm-up, each rewarm-up was shorter (-19.7 to -22.9 min) and elicited less distance (-606 to -741 m), whilst relative total distances were higher (+26 to +69 m∙min-1). Relative total (+13.4 m∙min-1) and high-speed (+0.4 m∙min-1) distances covered during rewarm-ups increased (p
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Swimming requires sustained high performance, with limited recovery between heats, recovery strategies are essential to performance but are often self-regulated and sub- optimal. Accordingly, we investigated a physiologically determined recovery protocol. METHODS: Fifteen (m=9, f=6) international junior age group swimmers participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 15.8 ± 1.5 years. All participants completed a lactate elevation protocol (8 x 50 m sprints), followed by one of three recovery strategies, 1) velocity at lactate threshold (VLT), 2) coach prescribed protocol (COA) and 3) national governing body recommendations (NGB) and thereafter a 200-m time trial. RESULTS: [lac-]B was similar between trials at baseline (pooled data: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol.l-1, P>0.05) but increased following 8x50 m sprints (pooled data 9.5 ± 3.5 mmol.l-1, P<0.05) and reduced in all conditions (mean reduction 6.4 ± 1.7 mmol.l-1). [lac-]B remained elevated following NGB (5.6 ± 0.8 mmol.l-1, P<0.05) compared with COA (2.3 ± 1.7 mmol.l-1) and VLT (1.7 ± 1.2 mmol.l-1) but was blunted during the 200-m time trial in VLT (6.4 ± 1.7 mmol.l-1, P<0.05). Time trial performance was similar between trials; VLT (2.24 ± 0.12 min), COA (2.23 ± 0.14 min) and NGB (2.22 ± 0.13 min, P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar performance, individually prescribed recovery strategy with a physiological basis will preserve repeated exercise performance performed on the same day.
Article
Objective The study was conducted to understand the effects of a short (10-minute) and a long (30-minute) duration warm-up on subsequent readiness to exercise and movement during simulated rugby league match play Methods Using a randomised cross-over design, 13 male rugby players (age: 23.6 ± 4.1 y) completed a 10- or 30-minute warm-up immediately before 2 x 23 min rugby league movement simulation protocol. Comparisons of the responses to the warm-up and during the simulation were made between each trial Results Total distance, high- and low speed running and tympanic temperature (ES = 0.56 to 20.8) were all higher in the 30 min warm-up, with differences in relative distance and heart rate unclear (ES = -0.36 to 0.06). Differences in participants’ readiness to exercise after the warm-ups were unclear (ES = 0.25). Differences between trials for movement characteristics (ES = -0.13 to -0.32), RPE (ES = -0.13 to 0.04) and B[La] after the simulation were mostly unclear, with only trivial changes in high-speed running (ES = 0.08) and a lower heart rate (ES = -0.26) between the two playing bouts after the 30 min warm-up trial Conclusion Practitioners can use warm-ups between 10 or 30 minutes for rugby league interchange players without any implications for subsequent match running performance.
Article
Abstract Barnes, KR and Ludge, AR. Inspiratory muscle warm-up improves 3,200-m running performance in distance runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—This study examined the effects of an inspiratory muscle exercise as part of a warm-up (IMW) using a resisted breathing trainer on running performance. In a randomized crossover design, 17 trained distance runners completed two 3,200-m performance trials on separate days, preceded by 2 different warm-up procedures: IMW or sham IMW (CON). In each condition, subjects performed 30 breaths against either 50% of each athlete's peak strength (IMW) or 30 slow protracted breaths against negligible resistance (CON). Perceived race readiness and inspiratory muscle strength, flow, power, and volume were measured before and after each warm-up. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and dyspnea (RPD), and expired gases were collected during each trial. A 3,200-m run performance was 2.8% ± 1.5% (20.4-second) faster after IMW (effect size [ES] = 0.37, p = 0.02). After each warm-up condition, there was as small effect on peak inspiratory strength (6.6 ± 4.8%, ES = 0.22, p = 0.02), flow (5.2 ± 4.4%, ES = 0.20, p = 0.03), power (17.6 ± 16.7%, ES = 0.22, p = 0.04), and volume (6.7 ± 6.3%, ES = 0.24, p = 0.01) after IMW compared with CON. There were no differences in HR, minute volume, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2, or V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at each 800-m interval between conditions (ES ≤ 0.13, p > 0.17). There were small differences in RPE at 800 m and 1,600 m (ES = 0.32, p = 0.17; ES = 0.21, p = 0.38, respectively), but no difference at the last 1,600 m (p = 1.0). There was a moderate positive effect on RPD (ES = 0.81, p < 0.001) and race readiness (ES = 0.76, p < 0.01) after IMW. Overall, the data suggest that IMW improves 3,200-m performance because of enhancements in inspiratory muscle function characteristics and reduction in dyspnea.
Article
Full-text available
Changes in performance, energetics and kinematics during age-group swimmers off-season inform the prescription of training for the following season. Age-group swimmers (n = 15, age 14.3 ± 0.7 years) of equal maturational stage performed a 400-m front crawl (T400) before and after a four-weeks training cessation period. Performance-related energetic and kinematic variables were obtained controlling for anthropometric changes and non-swimming specific physical activities during off-season. T400 time decreased 3.8% (95%CI 1.4 to 6.1%; p < 0.01; d = 0.90) with non-specific physical activities (1814 ± 1989 MET-min·wk−1) accounting for ~40% of the underlying variance (p = 0.01; η2 = 0.40). Stroke rate and stroke index decreased despite similar stroke length and index of coordination values. Although mean response time, amplitude, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, total energy expenditure, metabolic power and energy cost were similar, aerobic contribution decreased by ~1.8% (−2.7 to −0.9%; p < 0.01; d = −1.19) and anaerobic lactic contribution increased by ~1.6% (0.8 to 2.5%; p < 0.01; d = 1.08) over the off-season. Impaired performance was mainly associated with a decreased stroke rate (r = −0.85 to −0.61; p ≤ 0.02), increased peak blood lactate (r = −0.52; p = 0.05) and fewer non-swimming specific physical activities performed during the off-season (r = −0.58; p = 0.03). The end-of-season cessation of training yielded moderate impairments in age-group swimmers performance-related energetic and kinematic factors, however non-specific physical activities can minimise fitness losses. KEYWORDS: Swimming, age-group, off-season, training cessation, detraining
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, Mage = 21 ± 2 years, MVO2max = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). Method: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). A 2-min walk at 3.2 km/hr concluded the 13-min warm-up protocol. For the control condition, participants sat quietly for 13 min. VO2 and heart rate (HR) were determined at Minutes 0, 5, and 13 of the pre-exercise protocol in each condition. Results: At the end of 13 min prior to the distance trial, mean VO2 (warm-up = 14.1 ± 2.2 mL/kg/min vs. control = 5.5 ± 1.7 mL/kg/min) and mean HR (warm-up = 105 ± 11 bpm vs. control = 67 ± 11 bpm) were statistically greater (p < .001) in the warm-up condition compared with the control condition. The distance run did not statistically differ (p = .37) between the warm-up (7.8 ± 0.5 km) and control (7.7 ± 0.6 km) conditions; however, effect size calculation revealed a small effect (d = 0.2) in favor of the warm-up condition. Thus, the warm-up employed may have important and practical implications to determine placing among high-level athletes in close races. Conclusions: These findings suggest a submaximal running warm-up may have a small but critical effect on a 30-min distance trial in competitive endurance athletes. Further, the warm-up elicited increases in physiological variables VO2 and HR prior to performance; thus, a submaximal specific warm-up should warrant consideration.
Article
Full-text available
While warm up is considered to be essential for optimum performance, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness in many situations. As a result, warm-up procedures are usually based on the trial and error experience of the athlete or coach, rather than on scientific study. Summarising the findings of the many warm-up studies conducted over the years is difficult. Many of the earlier studies were poorly controlled, contained few study participants and often omitted statistical analyses. Furthermore, over the years, warm up protocols consisting of different types (e.g. active, passive, specific) and structures (e.g. varied intensity, duration and recovery) have been used. Finally, while many studies have investigated the physiological responses to warm up, relatively few studies have reported changes in performance following warm up. The first part of this review critically analyses reported changes in performance following various active warm-up protocols. While there is a scarcity of well-controlled studies with large subject numbers and appropriate statistical analyses, a number of conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of active warm up on performance. Active warm up tends to result in slightly larger improvements in short-term performance (10 seconds, but 2). While active warm up has been reported to improve endurance performance, it may have a detrimental effect on endurance performance if it causes a significant increase in thermoregulatory strain. The addition of a brief, task-specific burst of activity has been reported to provide further ergogenic benefits for some tasks. By manipulating intensity, duration and recovery, many different warm-up protocols may be able to achieve similar physiological and performance changes. Finally, passive warm-up techniques may be important to supplement or maintain temperature increases produced by an active warm up, especially if there is an unavoidable delay between the warm up and the task and/or the weather is cold. Further research is required to investigate the role of warm up in different environmental conditions, especially for endurance events where a critical core temperature may limit performance.
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that a prior bout of high-intensity exercise has the potential to enhance performance during subsequent high-intensity exercise by accelerating the O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) on-response. However, the optimal combination of prior exercise intensity and subsequent recovery duration required to elicit this effect is presently unclear. Eight male participants, aged 18-24 yr, completed step cycle ergometer exercise tests to 80% of the difference between the preestablished gas exchange threshold and maximal Vo(2) (i.e., 80%Delta) after no prior exercise (control) and after six different combinations of prior exercise intensity and recovery duration: 40%Delta with 3 min (40-3-80), 9 min (40-9-80), and 20 min (40-20-80) of recovery and 70%Delta with 3 min (70-3-80), 9 min (70-9-80), and 20 min (70-20-80) of recovery. Overall Vo(2) kinetics were accelerated relative to control in all conditions except for 40-9-80 and 40-20-80 conditions as a consequence of a reduction in the Vo(2) slow component amplitude; the phase II time constant was not significantly altered with any prior exercise/recovery combination. Exercise tolerance at 80%Delta was improved by 15% and 30% above control in the 70-9-80 and 70-20-80 conditions, respectively, but was impaired by 16% in the 70-3-80 condition. Prior exercise at 40%Delta did not significantly influence exercise tolerance regardless of the recovery duration. These data demonstrate that prior high-intensity exercise ( approximately 70%Delta) can enhance the tolerance to subsequent high-intensity exercise provided that it is coupled with adequate recovery duration (>or=9 min). This combination presumably optimizes the balance between preserving the effects of prior exercise on Vo(2) kinetics and providing sufficient time for muscle homeostasis (e.g., muscle phosphocreatine and H(+) concentrations) to be restored.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of prior heavy exercise on the spatial heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation kinetics and the relationship to the pulmonary O(2) uptake (pVO(2)) kinetics during subsequent heavy exercise. Seven healthy men completed two 6-min bouts of heavy work rate cycling exercise, separated by 6 min of unloaded exercise. The changes in the concentration of deoxyhemoglobin/myoglobin (Delta deoxy-[Hb+Mb]) were assessed simultaneously at 10 different sites on the rectus femoris muscle using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. Prior exercise had no effect on either the time constant or the amplitude of the primary component pVO(2), whereas it reduced the amplitude of the slow component (SC). Delta deoxy-[Hb+Mb] across all 10 sites for bout 2 displayed a shorter time delay (mean and SD for subjects: 13.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 9.3 +/- 1.4 s; P < 0.01) and slower primary component time constant (tau: 9.3 +/- 1.3 vs. 17.8 +/- 1.0 s; P < 0.01) compared with bout 1. Prior exercise significantly reduced both the intersite coefficient of variation (CV) of the tau of Delta deoxy-[Hb+Mb] (26.6 +/- 11.8 vs. 13.7 +/- 5.6%; P < 0.01) and the point-by-point heterogeneity [root mean square error (RMSE)] during the primary component in the second bout. However, neither the change in the CV for tau nor RMSE of Delta deoxy-[Hb+Mb] correlated with the reduction in the SC in pVO(2) kinetics during subsequent heavy exercise. In conclusion, prior exercise reduced the spatial heterogeneity of the primary component of muscle deoxygenation kinetics. This effect was not correlated with alterations in the pVO(2) response during subsequent heavy exercise.
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesized that the elevated primary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) amplitude during the second of two bouts of heavy cycle exercise would be accompanied by an increase in the integrated electromyogram (iEMG) measured from three leg muscles (gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis). Eight healthy men performed two 6-min bouts of heavy leg cycling (at 70% of the difference between the lactate threshold and peak VO(2)) separated by 12 min of recovery. The iEMG was measured throughout each exercise bout. The amplitude of the primary VO(2) response was increased after prior heavy leg exercise (from mean +/- SE 2.11 +/- 0.12 to 2.44 +/- 0.10 l/min, P < 0.05) with no change in the time constant of the primary response (from 21.7 +/- 2.3 to 25.2 +/- 3.3 s), and the amplitude of the VO(2) slow component was reduced (from 0.79 +/- 0.08 to 0.40 +/- 0.08 l/min, P < 0.05). The elevated primary VO(2) amplitude after leg cycling was accompanied by a 19% increase in the averaged iEMG of the three muscles in the first 2 min of exercise (491 +/- 108 vs. 604 +/- 151% increase above baseline values, P < 0.05), whereas mean power frequency was unchanged (80.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 80.6 +/- 1.0 Hz). The results of the present study indicate that the increased primary VO(2) amplitude observed during the second of two bouts of heavy exercise is related to a greater recruitment of motor units at the onset of exercise.
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesized that the metabolic acidosis resulting from the performance of multiple-sprint exercise would enhance muscle perfusion and result in a speeding of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2)kinetics during subsequent perimaximal-intensity constant work rate exercise, if O2 availability represented a limitation to VO2 kinetics in the control (i.e., no prior exercise) condition. On two occasions, seven healthy subjects completed two bouts of exhaustive cycle exercise at a work rate corresponding to approximately 105% of the predetermined Vo2 peak, separated by 3 x 30-s maximal sprint cycling and 15-min recovery (MAX1 and MAX2). Blood lactate concentration (means +/- SD: MAX1: 1.3 +/- 0.4 mM vs. MAX2: 7.7 +/- 0.9 mM; P < 0.01) was significantly greater immediately before, and heart rate was significantly greater both before and during, perimaximal exercise when it was preceded by multiple-sprint exercise. Near-infrared spectroscopy also indicated that muscle blood volume and oxygenation were enhanced when perimaximal exercise was preceded by multiple-sprint exercise. However, the time constant describing the primary component (i.e., phase II) increase in VO2 was not significantly different between the two conditions (MAX1: 33.8 +/- 5.5 s vs. MAX2: 33.2 +/- 7.7 s). Rather, the asymptotic "gain" of the primary Vo2 response was significantly increased by the performance of prior sprint exercise (MAX1: 8.1 +/- 0.9 ml.min(-1).W(-1) vs. MAX2: 9.0 +/- 0.7 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P < 0.05), such that VO2 was projecting to a higher "steady-state" amplitude with the same time constant. These data suggest that priming exercise, which apparently increases muscle O2 availability, does not influence the time constant of the primary-component VO2 response but does increase the amplitude to which VO2 may rise following the onset of perimaximal-intensity cycle exercise.
Article
Full-text available
Prior heavy exercise markedly alters the O2 uptake (VO2) response to subsequent heavy exercise. However, the time required for VO2 to return to its normal profile following prior heavy exercise is not known. Therefore, we examined the VO2 responses to repeated bouts of heavy exercise separated by five different recovery durations. On separate occasions, nine male subjects completed two 6-min bouts of heavy cycle exercise separated by 10, 20, 30, 45, or 60 min of passive recovery. The second-by-second VO2 responses were modeled using nonlinear regression. Prior heavy exercise had no effect on the primary VO2 time constant (from 25.9 +/- 4.7 s to 23.9 +/- 8.8 s after 10 min of recovery; P = 0.338), but it increased the primary VO2 amplitude (from 2.42 +/- 0.39 to 2.53 +/- 0.41 l/min after 10 min of recovery; P = 0.001) and reduced the VO2 slow component (from 0.44 +/- 0.13 to 0.21 +/- 0.12 l/min after 10 min of recovery; P < 0.001). The increased primary amplitude was also evident after 20-45 min, but not after 60 min, of recovery. The increase in the primary VO2 amplitude was accompanied by an increased baseline blood lactate concentration (to 5.1 +/- 1.0 mM after 10 min of recovery; P < 0.001). Baseline blood lactate concentration was still elevated after 20-60 min of recovery. The priming effect of prior heavy exercise on the VO2 response persists for at least 45 min, although the mechanism underpinning the effect remains obscure.
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesized that the performance of prior heavy exercise would speed the phase 2 oxygen consumption (VO2) kinetics during subsequent heavy exercise in the supine position (where perfusion pressure might limit muscle O2 supply) but not in the upright position. Eight healthy men (mean +/- SD age 24 +/- 7 yr; body mass 75.0 +/- 5.8 kg) completed a double-step test protocol involving two bouts of 6 min of heavy cycle exercise, separated by a 10-min recovery period, on two occasions in each of the upright and supine positions. Pulmonary O2 uptake was measured breath by breath and muscle oxygenation was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The NIRS data indicated that the performance of prior exercise resulted in hyperemia in both body positions. In the upright position, prior exercise had no significant effect on the time constant tau of the VO2 response in phase 2 (bout 1: 29 +/- 10 vs. bout 2: 28 +/- 4 s; P = 0.91) but reduced the amplitude of the VO2 slow component (bout 1: 0.45 +/- 0.16 vs. bout 2: 0.22 +/- 0.14 l/min; P = 0.006) during subsequent heavy exercise. In contrast, in the supine position, prior exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the phase 2 tau (bout 1: 38 +/- 18 vs. bout 2: 24 +/- 9 s; P = 0.03) but did not alter the amplitude of the VO2 slow component (bout 1: 0.40 +/- 0.29 vs. bout 2: 0.41 +/- 0.20 l/min; P = 0.86). These results suggest that the performance of prior heavy exercise enables a speeding of phase 2 VO2 kinetics during heavy exercise in the supine position, presumably by negating an O2 delivery limitation that was extant in the control condition, but not during upright exercise, where muscle O2 supply was probably not limiting.
Article
• We hypothesized that either the recruitment of additional muscle motor units and/or the progressive recruitment of less efficient fast-twitch muscle fibres was the predominant contributor to the additional oxygen 1uptake ( V˙O2 ) observed during heavy exercise. Using surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques, we compared the V˙O2 response with the integrated EMG (iEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) response of the vastus lateralis with the V˙O2 response during repeated bouts of moderate (below the lactate threshold, LT) intensity cycle ergometer exercise. • Seven male subjects (age 29 ± 7 years, mean ±s.d.) performed three transitions to a work rate (WR) corresponding to 90 % LT and two transitions to a work rate that would elicit a V˙O2 corresponding to 50 % of the difference between peak V˙O2 and the LT (i.e. Δ50 %, >LT1 and >LT2). • The V˙O2 slow component was significantly reduced by prior heavy intensity exercise (>LT1, 410 ± 196 ml min−1; >LT2, 230 ± 191 ml min−1). The time constant (), amplitude (A) and gain ( ΔV˙O2/ΔWR ) of the primary V˙O2 response (phase II) were not affected by prior heavy exercise when a three-component, exponential model was used to describe the V˙O2 response. • Integrated EMG and MPF remained relatively constant and at the same level throughout both >LT1 and >LT2 exercise and therefore were not associated with the V˙O2 slow component. • These data are consistent with the view that the increased O2 cost (i.e. V˙O2 slow component) associated with performing heavy exercise is coupled with a progressive increase in ATP requirements of the already recruited motor units rather than to changes in the recruitment pattern of slow versus fast-twitch motor units. Further, the lack of speeding of the kinetics of the primary V˙O2 component with prior heavy exercise, thought to represent the initial muscle V˙O2 response, are inconsistent with O2 delivery being the limiting factor in V˙O2 kinetics during heavy exercise.
Article
Metabolic transitions from rest to high-intensity exercise were divided into two discrete steps (i.e., rest-to-moderate-intensity (R-->M) and moderate-to-high-intensity (M-->H)) to explore the effect of prior high-intensity 'priming' exercise on intramuscular [PCr] and pulmonary VO₂ kinetics for different sections of the motor unit pool. It was hypothesized that [PCr] and VO₂ kinetics would be unaffected by priming during R-->M exercise, but that the time constants (tau) describing the fundamental [PCr] response and the phase II VO₂ response would be significantly reduced by priming for M-->H exercise. On three separate occasions, six male subjects completed two identical R-->M/M-->H 'work-to-work' prone knee-extension exercise bouts separated by 5min rest. Two trials were performed with measurement of pulmonary VO₂ and the integrated electromyogram (iEMG) of the right m. vastus lateralis. The third trial was performed within the bore of a 1.5-T superconducting magnet for (31)P-MRS assessment of muscle metabolic responses. Priming did not significantly affect the [PCr] or VO₂ tau during R-->M ([PCr] tau Unprimed: 24+/-16 vs. Primed: 22+/-14s; VO₂ tau Unprimed: 26+/-8 vs. Primed: 25+/-9s) or M-->H transitions ([PCr] tau Unprimed: 30+/-5 vs. Primed: 32+/-7s; VO₂ tau Unprimed: 37+/-5 vs. Primed: 38+/-9s). However, it did reduce the amplitudes of the [PCr] and VO₂ slow components by 50% and 46%, respectively, during M-->H (P<0.05 for both comparisons). These effects were accompanied by iEMG changes suggesting reduced muscle fiber activation during M-->H exercise after priming. It is concluded that the tau for the initial exponential change of muscle [PCr] and pulmonary VO₂ following the transition from moderate-to-high-intensity prone knee-extension exercise is not altered by priming exercise.
Article
The tolerable duration (t) of high-intensity cycle ergometry is well characterized by a hyperbolic function of power output (P) with an asymptote (termed the critical power (CP)) and a curvature constant (denoted W'). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prior heavy exercise (W-up) that specifically engenders an acidosis on CP and W'. Eight healthy subjects performed 2 sets of 4 high-intensity square-wave exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer to estimate CP and W', with (W-up) and without (control) prior exercise, respectively. Exercise intensities of the 4 main bouts were selected in the range of 90% to 135% peak oxygen uptake so as to reach the limit of tolerance between approximately 1.5 and 10 min. The W-up bout was preceded by 6 min cycling at a work rate halfway between the lactate threshold and peak oxygen uptake (mean +/- SD of 153.8 +/- 29.8 W) starting 12 min before the main bout. Blood lactate levels ([La]b) just before the main exercise bouts in W-up conditions were significantly higher than those of the control (4.7 +/- 1.1 and 1.4 +/- 0.4 mEq.L(-1), respectively; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in end-exercise [La]b. W-up increased significantly the tolerable duration at every work rate compared with the control, which was attributable exclusively to increased CP (176.5 +/- 34.3 and 168.7 +/- 31.3 W, respectively; p < 0.05), without any significant change in W' (11.0 +/- 3.2 and 11.0 +/- 3.1 kJ, respectively). It is concluded that the prior heavy exercise improved performance mainly because of an enhanced aerobic component of exercise energetics, as indicated by a higher CP and lower increment in the [La]b.
Article
It is well known that physiological variables such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), exercise economy, the lactate threshold, and critical power are highly correlated with endurance exercise performance. In this review, we explore the basis for these relationships by explaining the influence of these ‘‘traditional’’ variables on the dynamic profiles of the VO2 response to exercise of different intensities, and how these differences in VO2 dynamics are related to exercise tolerance and fatigue. The existence of a ‘‘slow component’’ of VO2 during exercise above the lactate threshold reduces exercise efficiency and mandates a greater consumption of endogenous fuel stores (chiefly muscle glycogen) for muscle respiration. For higher exercise intensities (above critical power), steady states in blood acid-base status and pulmonary gas exchange are not attainable and VO2 will increase with time until VO2max is reached. Here, we show that it is the interaction of the VO2 slowcomponent, VO2max, and the ‘‘anaerobic capacity’’ that determines the exercise tolerance. Essentially, we take the view that an appreciation of the various exercise intensity ‘‘domains’’ and their characteristic effects on VO2 dynamics can be helpful in improving our understanding of the determinants of exercise tolerance and the limitations to endurance sports performance. The reciprocal effects of interventions such as training, prior exercise, and manipulations of muscle oxygen availability on aspects of VO2 kinetics and exercise tolerance are consistent with this view.
Article
The effects of a priming exercise bout on both muscle energy production and the pattern of muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent exercise bout are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a prior exercise bout which is known to increase O(2) supply and to induce a residual acidosis could alter energy cost and muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent heavy-intensity knee-extension exercise. Fifteen healthy subjects performed two 6 min bouts of heavy exercise separated by a 6 min resting period. Rates of oxidative and anaerobic ATP production, determined with (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and breath-by-breath measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake were obtained simultaneously. Changes in muscle oxygenation and muscle fibre recruitment occurring within the quadriceps were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography. The priming heavy-intensity exercise increased motor unit recruitment (P < 0.05) in the early part of the subsequent exercise bout but did not alter muscle energy cost. We also observed a reduced deoxygenation time delay, whereas the deoxygenation amplitude was increased (P < 0.01). These changes were associated with an increased oxidative ATP cost after approximately 50 s (P < 0.05) and a slight reduction in the overall anaerobic rate of ATP production (0.11 +/- 0.04 mM min(-1) W(-1) for bout 1 and 0.06 +/- 0.11 mM min(-1) W(-1) for bout 2; P < 0.05). We showed that a priming bout of heavy exercise led to an increased recruitment of motor units in the early part of the second bout of heavy exercise. Considering the increased oxidative cost and the unaltered energy cost, one could suggest that our results illustrate a reduced metabolic strain per fibre.
Article
This study was designed to determine the effects of prior exercise on energy supply and performance in a laboratory-based 4000-m time trial. After one familiarization trial, eight well-trained cyclists (mean +/- SD; age = 30 +/- 8 yr, body mass = 78.7 +/- 8.6 kg, stature = 181 +/- 5 cm, .VO2 peak = 63.7 +/- 6.7 mL.kg.(-1)min(-1), peak power output (PPO) = 366 +/- 39 W) performed three 4000-m laboratory-based cycling time trials each preceded by one of three prior exercise regimens in randomized order: no prior exercise (control), prior heavy exercise, and self-selected prior exercise. Cyclists adopted a wide range of self-selected prior exercise regimens: duration ranged = 11-80 min, intensity = 48-120% PPO, and recovery = 2-11 min. Relative to control, pre-time-trial blood lactate was raised by 2.5 +/- 1.9 and 1.4 +/- 1.5 mmol.L(-1) after prior heavy and self-selected exercise, respectively. The 4000 m was completed 2.0 +/- 2.3% and 2.2 +/- 1.9% faster after prior heavy and self-selected exercise regimens, respectively, and mean power output was 5.4 +/- 3.6% and 6.0 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively. The overall aerobic contribution (.VO2) and oxygen deficit were not different between conditions (approximately 323 +/- 23 and approximately 64 +/- 22 mL.kg,(-1) respectively), although .VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in the prior heavy (by 2.1-5.8 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) and self-selected (2.5-4.3 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) regimens compared with the control throughout the first half of the time trial. Very high intensity cycling performance was improved after both self-selected and prior heavy exercise. Such priming increased the early aerobic contribution but did not change overall aerobic contribution or oxygen deficit. Thus, athletes seem to manage their energy potential to exploit the available anaerobic capacity, independent of the aerobic contribution. Athletes are advised to perform a bout of heavy exercise as part of their prior exercise regimen.
Article
Prior heavy exercise (above the lactate threshold, LT) reduces the amplitude of the pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) slow component during heavy exercise, yet the precise effect of prior heavy exercise on the phase II VO2 response remains to be established. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) prior heavy exercise increases the amplitude of the phase II VO2 response independently of changes in the baseline VO2 value and (2) the effect of prior exercise depends on the amount of external work done during prior exercise, irrespective of the intensity of the prior exercise. Nine subjects performed two 6 min bouts of heavy cycling exercise separated by 6 min baseline pedalling recovery (A), two 6 min heavy exercise bouts separated by 12 min recovery (6 min rest and 6 min baseline pedalling, B), and a bout of moderate exercise (below the LT) in which the same amount of external work was performed as during the prior heavy exercise, followed by 6 min heavy exercise (C). In both tests A and B, prior heavy exercise significantly increased the absolute VO2 amplitude at the end of phase II (by approximately 150 ml x min(-1)), and reduced the amplitude of the VO2 slow component by a similar amount. Following 12 min of recovery (B), baseline VO2, but not blood [lactate], had returned to pre-exercise levels, indicating that these effects occurred independently of changes in baseline VO2. Prior moderate exercise (C) had no effect on either the VO2 or blood [lactate] responses to subsequent heavy exercise. The VO2 response to heavy exercise was therefore dependent on the intensity of prior exercise, and the effects on the amplitudes of the phase II and slow VO2 components persisted for at least 12 min following prior heavy exercise.
Article
1. The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. 2. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 +/- 5 W (mean +/- S.E.M.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. 3. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 +/- 0.12 degrees C and it increased 0.97 +/- 0.08 degrees C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 +/- 0.05 degrees C) and EX3 (0.77 +/- 0.06 degrees C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 +/- 8 during the first 15 s to 157 +/- 7 J s(-1) during the last 15 s of EX1. 4. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. 5. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise is repeated muscle heat production is not changed, but muscle aerobic energy turnover is elevated and anaerobic energy production is reduced during the first minutes of exercise.
Article
1. A prior bout of high-intensity square-wave exercise can increase the temporal adaptation of pulmonary oxygen uptake (.V(O2)) to a subsequent bout of high-intensity exercise. The mechanisms controlling this adaptation, however, are poorly understood. 2. We therefore determined the dynamics of intramuscular [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) simultaneously with those of .V(O2) in seven males who performed two consecutive bouts of high-intensity square-wave, knee-extensor exercise in the prone position for 6 min with a 6 min rest interval. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transmit-receive surface coil under the quadriceps muscle allowed estimation of [PCr]; .V(O2) was measured breath-by-breath using a custom-designed turbine and a mass spectrometer system. 3. The .V(O2) kinetics of the second exercise bout were altered compared with the first such that (a) not only was the instantaneous rate of .V(O2) change (at a given level of .V(O2)) greater but the phase II tau was also reduced - averaging 46.6 +/- 6.0 s (bout 1) and 40.7 +/- 8.4 s (bout 2) (mean +/- S.D.) and (b) the magnitude of the later slow component was reduced. 4. This was associated with a reduction of, on average, 16.1% in the total exercise-induced [PCr] decrement over the 6 min of the exercise, of which 4.0% was due to a reduction in the slow component of [PCr]. There was no discernable alteration in the initial rate of [PCr] change. The prior exercise, therefore, changed the multi-compartment behaviour towards that of functionally first-order dynamics. 5. These observations demonstrate that the .V(O2) responses relative to the work rate input for high-intensity exercise are non-linear, as are, it appears, the putative phosphate-linked controllers for which [PCr] serves as a surrogate.
Article
In humans, pulmonary oxygen uptake (.V(O2)) kinetics may be speeded by prior exercise in the heavy domain. This "speeding" arises potentially as the result of an increased muscle O(2) delivery (.Q(O2)) and/or a more rapid elevation of oxidative phosphorylation. We adapted phosphorescence quenching techniques to determine the.Q(O2)-to-O(2) utilization (.Q(O2)/.V(O2)) characteristics via microvascular O(2) pressure (P(O2,m)) measurements across sequential bouts of contractions in rat spinotrapezius muscle. Spinotrapezius muscles from female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6) were electrically stimulated (1 Hz twitch, 3-5 V) for two 3 min bouts (ST(1) and ST(2)) separated by 10 min rest. P(O2,m) responses were analysed using an exponential + time delay (TD) model. There was no significant difference in baseline and DeltaP(O2,m) between ST(1) and ST(2) (28.5 +/- 2.6 vs. 27.9 +/- 2.4 mmHg, and 13.9 +/- 1.8 vs. 14.1 +/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively). The TD was reduced significantly in the second contraction bout (ST(1), 12.2 +/- 1.9; ST(2), 5.7 +/- 2.2 s, P < 0.05), whereas the time constant of the exponential P(O2,m) decrease was unchanged (ST(1), 16.3 +/- 2.6; ST(2), 17.6 +/- 2.7 s, P > 0.1). The shortened TD found in ST(2) led to a reduced time to reach 63 % of the final response of ST(2) compared to ST(1) (ST(1), 28.3 +/- 3.0; ST(2), 20.2 +/- 1.8 s, P < 0.05). The speeding of the overall response in the absence of an elevated P(O2,m) baseline (which had it occurred would indicate an elevated.Q(O2)/.V(O2) or muscle blood flow suggests that some intracellular process(es) (e.g. more rapid increase in oxidative phosphorylation) may be responsible for the increased speed of P(O2,m) kinetics after prior contractions under these conditions.
Article
We examined whether lactic acidemia-induced hyperemia at the onset of high-intensity leg exercise contributed to the speeding of pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) after prior heavy exercise of the same muscle group or a different muscle group (i.e., arm). Six healthy male subjects performed two protocols that consisted of two consecutive 6-min exercise bouts separated by a 6-min baseline at 0 W: 1) both bouts of heavy (work rate: 50% of lactate threshold to maximal VO(2)) leg cycling (L1-ex to L2-ex) and 2) heavy arm cranking followed by identical heavy leg cycling bout (A1-ex to A2-ex). Blood lactate concentrations before L1-ex, L2-ex, and A2-ex averaged 1.7 +/- 0.3, 5.6 +/- 0.9, and 6.7 +/- 1.4 meq/l, respectively. An "effective" time constant (tau) of VO(2) with the use of the monoexponential model in L2-ex (tau: 36.8 +/- 4.3 s) was significantly faster than that in L1-ex (tau: 52.3 +/- 8.2 s). Warm-up arm cranking did not facilitate the VO(2) kinetics for the following A2-ex [tau: 51.7 +/- 9.7 s]. The double-exponential model revealed no significant change of primary tau (phase II) VO(2) kinetics. Instead, the speeding seen in the effective tau during L2-ex was mainly due to a reduction of the VO(2) slow component. Near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the degree of hyperemia in working leg muscles was significantly higher at the onset of L2-ex than A2-ex. In conclusion, facilitation of VO(2) kinetics during heavy exercise preceded by an intense warm-up exercise was caused principally by a reduction in the slow component, and it appears unlikely that this could be ascribed exclusively to systemic lactic acidosis.
Article
In previous studies decreases in the VO(2) slow component were observed after prior heavy exercise. The observed effects after prior low-intensity exercise were rather controversial. The purpose of the present study was to more thoroughly examine the effects of prior low-intensity exercise on the VO(2) slow component. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the VO(2) slow component may be a determinant of exercise tolerance. Therefore we tested the hypothesis whether an attenuated VO(2) slow component induced by prior exercise could affect the time to exhaustion. Ten subjects performed four exercise protocols consisting of heavy cycling exercise (95 % VO(2)peak) until exhaustion. This constant-load exercise was performed without prior exercise (protocol NPE), or was preceded by 6 min heavy cycling exercise (protocol 6HPE), 12 min low-intensity cycling exercise (protocol 12LPE) or 6 min low-intensity cycling exercise (protocol 6LPE). The VO(2) slow component quantified as Delta VO(2 (end-2)) (669 +/- 90 ml x min (-1) in NPE) was significantly reduced after heavy as well as low-intensity exercise (respectively 47 %, 29 % and 17 % in 6HPE, 12LPE and 6LPE). This reduction lead to a significantly lower end VO(2) in 6HPE and 12LPE. The time to exhaustion (594 +/- 139 s in NPE), however, was unaffected by prior exercise rejecting our hypothesis that the attenuated VO(2) slow component could improve the capability to sustain exercise performance.
Article
Prior heavy exercise (above the lactate threshold, Th(la)) increases the amplitude of the primary oxygen uptake (VVO(2)) response and reduces the amplitude of the VO(2) slow component during subsequent heavy exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects required the prior performance of an identical bout of heavy exercise, or if prior short-duration sprint exercise could cause similar effects. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of elevating muscle temperature (through passive warming) on VO(2) kinetics during heavy exercise. Nine male subjects performed a 6-min bout of heavy exercise on a cycle ergometer 6 min after: (1) an identical bout of heavy exercise; (2) a 30-s bout of maximal sprint cycling; (3) a 40-min period of leg warming in a hot water bath at 42 degrees C. Prior sprint exercise elevated blood [lactate] prior to the onset of heavy exercise (by aproximately 5.6 mM) with only a minor increase in muscle temperature (of approximately 0.7 degrees C). In contrast, prior warming had no effect on baseline blood lactate concentration, but elevated muscle temperature by approximately 2.6 degrees C. Both prior heavy exercise and prior sprint exercise significantly increased the absolute primary VO(2) amplitude (by approximately 230 ml x min(-1) and 260 ml x min(-1), respectively) and reduced the amplitude of the VO(2) slow component (by approximately 280 ml x min(-1) and 200 ml x min(-1), respectively) during heavy exercise, whereas prior warming had no significant effect on the VO(2) response. We conclude that the VO(2) response to heavy exercise can be markedly altered by both sustained heavy-intensity submaximal exercise and by short-duration sprint exercise that induces a residual acidosis. In contrast, passive warming elevated muscle temperature but had no effect on the VO(2) response.
Article
'Warm-up' activity is almost universally performed by athletes prior to their participation in training or competition. However, relatively little is known about the optimal intensity and duration for such exercise, or about the potential mechanisms primed by warm-up that might enhance performance. Recent studies demonstrate that vigorous warm-up exercise that normally results in an elevated blood and presumably muscle lactate concentration has the potential to increase the aerobic energy turnover in subsequent high-intensity exercise. The reduced oxygen deficit is associated with a reduction in both the depletion of the intramuscular phosphocreatine stores and the rate at which lactic acid is produced. Furthermore, the oxygen uptake 'slow component' that develops during high-intensity, ostensibly submaximal, exercise is attenuated. These factors would be hypothesised to predispose to increased exercise tolerance. Interestingly, the elevation of muscle temperature by prior exercise does not appear to be implicated in the altered metabolic and gas exchange responses observed during subsequent exercise. The physiological mechanism(s) that limit the rate and the extent to which muscle oxygen uptake increases following the onset of exercise, and which are apparently altered by the performance of prior heavy exercise, are debated. However, these mechanisms could include oxygen availability, enzyme activity and/or availa