Make Your Own Cigarettes: Characteristics of the Product and the Consumer
Battelle Center for Analytics and Public Health, Baltimore, MD Nicotine & Tobacco Research
(Impact Factor: 3.3).
01/2013; 15(8). DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nts271
Despite a worldwide increase in the use of Make Your Own (MYO) cigarettes, there is little research characterizing MYO smokers in the United States and the cigarettes they make.
In a single laboratory visit, exclusive MYO smokers brought 5 MYO cigarettes they prepared at home, completed demographic and smoking history questionnaires, and prepared 25 cigarettes using their own tobacco and materials.
Participants were mostly male (86.7%), average age of 41.3 years, and smoked an average of 19.5 (SD = 7.9) MYO cigarettes per day. They produced two types of cigarettes-by rolling tobacco in a paper leaf (Roll Your Own [RYO, n = 56]) and by injecting tobacco into a tube (Personal Machine Made [PMM, n = 42]). The PMM cigarettes were significantly larger than RYO cigarettes (p < .001). Home- (0.97 g) and laboratory-produced (0.95 g) PMM cigarettes did not differ by weight; however, the RYO cigarettes made at home (0.45 g) were slightly, but significantly, larger than those produced in the laboratory [0.43 g (p < .05)]. There was significant internal consistency in the weight of RYO and PMM cigarettes (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82, 0.84, respectively). Time to produce RYO cigarettes (53 s/cigarette) was significantly longer than that of PMM cigarettes (42 s/cigarette) (p < .01).
By using commercially available tobacco, tubes, and paper, experienced MYO smokers can quickly and consistently prepare cigarettes that may be useful in laboratory smoking topography and exposure experiments. Increasing the regulation of Factory Made (FM) cigarettes may lead to increased use of MYO cigarettes with unknown toxicant exposure and health risks to their consumers.
Available from: Antonio Marcilla Gomis
- "In 2008, the prevalence of the consumption of RYO in Spain was 8.7%, but increased 200% in the 2007–2010 period, with an increase of 60% in 2010, probably because of its lower price and the erroneous argument that it could be less toxicant because it contains fewer additives than FM cigarettes . According to Rosenberry et al. , in 2013 the data about the prevalence of these cigarettes in several countries is as follows: United Kingdom (28.4%), Canada (17.1%), Australia (24.2%); Malaysia (17%), Thailand (58%), and U.S. (6.7%), although the current use in the United States could be greater. "
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ABSTRACT: In this study 11 commercial roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands sold in Spain and the reference tobacco 3R4F have been smoked and several components of the mainstream tobacco smoke have been analyzed. Cigarettes were prepared using commercial tubes, and were smoked under smoking conditions based on the ISO 3308. The gaseous and condensed fractions of the smoke from RYO brands and 3R4F have been analyzed and compared. RYO tobaccos, as opposed to 3R4F, present lower amounts of condensed products in the traps than in the filters. In general, RYO tobaccos also provide lower yields of most of the compounds detected in the gas fraction. The yield of CO is between 15.4 and 20.4 mg/cigarette. In most of the cases studied, RYO tobaccos deliver higher amounts of nicotine than the 3R4F tobacco. On average, the yield of the different chemical families of compounds appearing in the particulate matter retained in the cigarette filters tends to be around three times higher than those obtained from 3R4F, whereas similar values have been obtained in the particulate matter retained in the traps located after the filters. It can be concluded that RYO tobaccos are not less hazardous than the reference tobacco, which may be contrary to popular belief.
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ABSTRACT: Excise duties on roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, which are generally based on RYO cigarettes containing 1 g of tobacco, are lower than duties on factory-made (FM) cigarettes. This provides a price incentive for smokers to switch to RYO, the use of which is increasing across Europe. To effectively approximate duties on the two types of products, accurate data on the weight of RYO cigarettes are required. We provide updated information on RYO use and RYO cigarette weight across Europe. From a representative face-to-face survey conducted in 2010 in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden), we considered data from 5158 current smokers aged 15 years or above, with available information on daily consumption of FM and RYO cigarettes separately. In Europe, 10.4% of current smokers (12.9% of men and 7.5% of women) were 'predominant' RYO users (i.e. >50% of cigarettes smoked). This proportion was highest in England (27.3%), France (16.5%) and Finland (13.6%). The median weight of one RYO cigarette is 0.75 g (based on 192 smokers consuming exclusively RYO cigarettes). The proportion of RYO smokers is substantial in several European countries. Our finding on the weight of RYO cigarettes is consistent with the scientific literature and industry documents showing that the weight of RYO cigarettes is substantially lower than that of FM ones. Basing excise duties on RYO on an average cigarette weight of 0.75 g rather than 1 g would help increase the excise levels to those on FM cigarettes.
Available from: Bartosz Koszowski
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ABSTRACT: There is currently the potential for a great deal of transition and product switching among cigarette smokers. Studies on the transition when cigarette smokers switch from one type of nicotine delivery product to another are needed to understand subsequent toxicant exposure.
A preliminary study was performed to determine the feasibility of experimentally replicating the transition from factory made (FM) to personal machine made (PMM) cigarette smoking. The adaptability and perceptions of the consumer and the consequent exposure to cigarette-delivered toxins were assessed. Six adults (4 men) were recruited for four laboratory visits (V1-V4) on study days 1, 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All of the participants agreed to switch from exclusive FM smoking to exclusive PMM cigarette smoking for the duration of the study.
Compliance was very high among these participants. Participants progressively accepted the PMM cigarettes and became efficient producers of PMMs as evidenced in the reduced time to make 5 PMMs in the laboratory. Participants reported a preference for FM at visit 2 (V2), but had stated no preference by the fourth visit. Compared to the FMs, the PMMs at V3 (p<0.05) and V4 (p<0.10) had lower CO boost (7.3 vs. 4.1 ppm; p<0.05). Over all conditions, nicotine plasma levels averaged 18.0±2.4 ng/ml before smoking (for both FM and PMM) and 34.0±5.3 ng/mL after smoking; there were no significant differences in the plasma nicotine boost (average 17.7 and 15.4ng/ml after FM and PMM smoking, respectively). Although there were differences between individual subjects' filter butt levels of deposited solanesol the within-subject levels were remarkably similar. Puff topography measures did not vary across visits or cigarette type.
Although interpretation of study results must be conservative because of the small sample size, this study demonstrates that experimentally-induced transition from FM to PMM smoking is feasible for laboratory study and the subsequent toxicant exposure is comparable for FM and PMM cigarettes.
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