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Natural products in treatment of ulcerative colitis and peptic ulcer

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Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory chronic disease that affects the mucosa and submu-cosa of the colon and rectum. Several types of drugs are available such as aminosalicylates. Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide and it can be considered one of the most important common diseases in the world. Treatment of peptic ulcers depends on using a number of synthetic drugs that reduce the rate of stomach acid secretion (Anti-acids), protect the mucous tissues that line the stomach and upper portion of the small intestine (Demulcents) or to eliminate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In most cases, incidence of relapses and adverse reactions is seen in the following synthetic antiulcer therapy. Accordingly, the main concern of the current article is to introduce a safe drug (or more) of natural origin, to be used for the management of gastric ulcers without side effects. A widespread search has been launched to identify new anti-ulcer therapies from natural sources. Herbs, medicinal plants, spices, vegetables and crude drug substances are considered to be a poten-tial source to control various diseases including gastric ulcer and ulcerative colitis. In the scientific literature, a large number of medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites with potential anti-ulcer (anti-peptic ulcer and antiulcerative colitis) activities have been reported. Treatment with nat-ural products produces promising results and fewer side effects. Our goal is to collect the published
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... Earlier, it was demonstrated that the aerial parts of Solanum nigrum were reported to decrease the ulcer index significantly [17]. In addition, Awaad et al. reported that oral treatment with the methanol extract of Solanum nigrum significantly inhibited the gastric lesions [24]. Earlier, it has been reported earlier that Solanum nigrum could offer an anti-ulcer action as it significantly inhibited the gastric lesions induced by cold restraint, indomethacin, pyloric-ligation, and ethanol. ...
... Data of the current work demonstrated that Solanum nigrum extract significantly decreased histamine content. Similar results were obtained demonstrating that the extract offers anti-ulcer activity by blocking acid secretion through inhibition of H + /K + -ATPase [1,24]. Furthermore, Solanum nigrum significantly decreased gastrin content. ...
... Furthermore, Solanum nigrum significantly decreased gastrin content. Similarly, results of previous studies have reported that the gastro-protective effect of Solanum nigrum caused suppression of gastrin release thereby decreasing the acidity of the gastric juice [1,24]. ...
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Recently, an alternative disease treatment approach is the research of medicaments from traditional medicine. Plants with anti-oxidant capabilities are used as herbal treatments for ulcer diseases. Medicinal/herbal extracts containing phytoconstituents have significant anti-ulcer activities in in vivo experiments on animal models, compared to reference drugs. The current study aims to inspect gastro-protective as well as in vitro and in vivo anti-oxidant potential of Althaea officinalis and Solanum nigrum extracts on pyloric-ligation/indomethacin-induced gastric-ulceration in rats. Rats were divided into six groups: normal control, gastric ulcer control, two standard pretreatment groups receiving omeprazole and misoprostol, and two test pretreatment groups receiving Althaea officinalis and Solanum nigrum. Pretreatments were administrated orally for 14 days. On the 15th day, animals, excluding the normal control group, were exposed to pyloric-ligation followed by indomethacin injection. After four hours, the rat’s stomachs were removed and gastric juice and blood samples were collected. Pyloric-ligation/indomethacin administration caused considerable elevation in ulcer number, ulcer index, acid and pepsin productivity, aggressive factors, and gastric mucosal lipid-peroxide contents. Moreover, reduction in titratable acidity, gastric mucosal nitric-oxide, anti-oxidant contents, and protective factors accompanied gastric-ulceration. Additionally, elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokines content and reduction in cystathionine-β-synthase and heme-oxygenase-1 expression was witnessed. Omeprazole, misoprostol, Althaea officinalis, and Solanum nigrum pretreatments fixed blood and tissue biomarkers, thereby protecting them from pyloric-ligation/indomethacin-induced gastric-ulceration in rats, which is hopeful for clinical examinations.
... Flavonoidler, polifenoller, terpenoidler (Inas, 2011), saponinler (Awaad, 2013), alkaloitler (De Sales, 2018) ve müsilajın lipolisakaritler (Hage-Sleiman, 2011) dahil olmak üzere şifalı bitkilerden elde edilen doğal ürünler, antiinflamatuar, antimikrobiyal, antiülser, antioksidan ve antikanser gibi büyük farmakolojik öneme sahiptir. Bitki özleri yüksek konsantrasyonlarda bile genellikle güvenlidir. ...
... Fenolik bileşiklerin anti-ülserojenik aktiviteler gösterdiği bildirildi. PG sentezini arttırdıkları için, salgı önleyici etkiler veya sitoprotektif etkiler gibi farklı mekanizmalarla etki ederler (Awaad, 2013). Polifenoller doğal antioksidan bileşikler olarak kabul edilir, çünkü serbest radikallerin neden olduğu doku hasarına karşı ciddi bir koruma potansiyeline sahiptir (Ahmed, 2016). ...
... Polifenoller doğal antioksidan bileşikler olarak kabul edilir, çünkü serbest radikallerin neden olduğu doku hasarına karşı ciddi bir koruma potansiyeline sahiptir (Ahmed, 2016). Flavonoidler mast hücrelerinden histamin salgılanmasını azaltabilir ve lipid peroksidasyonunu da inhibe edebilir (Inas, 2011;Awaad, 2013). Ek olarak, flavonoidler mide mukozal glikoprotein parçasını korur ve nitrik oksit (NO) etkisinde bir artışa neden olabilir (Inas, 2011). ...
... Herbs represent excellent resources for cost-effective and readily available gastro-protective remedies without significant side effects [14][15][16][17]. Medicinal/herbal plants and extracts represent some of the most attractive resources of new drugs and have shown promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. The natural products obtained from medicinal plants, including flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids [18], saponins [24], alkaloids [12], and mucilaginous polysaccharides [25], show immense pharmacological significance such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities [24,26,27]. ...
... Medicinal/herbal plants and extracts represent some of the most attractive resources of new drugs and have shown promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. The natural products obtained from medicinal plants, including flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids [18], saponins [24], alkaloids [12], and mucilaginous polysaccharides [25], show immense pharmacological significance such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities [24,26,27]. In in vivo experiments on animal models showed that many plants and their extracts have considerable antiulcerogenic properties [16] through anti-oxidant, mucoprotective, and gastric anti-secretory activity in comparison with that of reference drugs [28]. ...
... Medicinal/herbal plants and extracts represent some of the most attractive resources of new drugs and have shown promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. The natural products obtained from medicinal plants, including flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids [18], saponins [24], alkaloids [12], and mucilaginous polysaccharides [25], show immense pharmacological significance such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities [24,26,27]. In in vivo experiments on animal models showed that many plants and their extracts have considerable antiulcerogenic properties [16] through anti-oxidant, mucoprotective, and gastric anti-secretory activity in comparison with that of reference drugs [28]. ...
... Gastric ulcers are characterized by lesions of the gastric mucosa caused by alterations in the balance between aggressive factors and local protection of the gastric mucosa [12]. Tobacco smoking, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the consumption of alcohol are the principal risk factors for gastric ulcers [13]. Since current treatments for this disorder ...
... Gastric ulcers are characterized by lesions of the gastric mucosa caused by alterations in the balance between aggressive factors and local protection of the gastric mucosa [12]. Tobacco smoking, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the consumption of alcohol are the principal risk factors for gastric ulcers [13]. Since current treatments for this disorder lead to serious side effects, great efforts have been made to find less toxic alternatives. ...
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Peptic ulcer disease, the most common gastrointestinal disorder, is currently treated with several types of drugs, but all have severe side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of juanislamin, isolated from Calea urticifolia, in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Thirty minutes after orally administering a given dose of juanislamin (from 1 to 30 mg/kg) or carbenoxolone (the reference drug, at 1–100 mg/kg) to rats, 1 mL of ethanol was applied, and the animals were sacrificed 2 h later. The stomachs were removed and opened to measure the total area of lesions in each. To examine the possible participation of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and/or sulfhydryl groups in the mechanism of action of juanislamin, the rats received indomethacin, NG-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) or N-ethylmaleimide pretreatment, respectively, before being given juanislamin and undergoing the rest of the methodology. Juanislamin inhibited gastric lesions produced by ethanol in a non-dose-dependent manner, showing the maximum gastroprotective effect (100%) at 10 mg/kg. The activity of juanislamin was not modified by pretreatment with indomethacin, l-NAME or N-ethylmaleimide. In conclusion, juanislamin protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced damage, and its mechanism of action apparently does not involve prostaglandins, nitric oxide or sulfhydryl groups.
... An ulcer is the condition of corrosion in the linings of the stomach and the duodenum. Thus, ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract are subdivided into ulcerative colitis (lower) and peptic ulcers (upper) depending on the location of the infection [28,29]. Peptic ulcers, also known as gastric and duodenal ulcers, can be characterized as submucosal damage of the digestive tract caused by the disruption of the balance between the hostile factors (i.e., gastric acid, Helicobacter pylori, and anti-inflammatory drugs) and protective factors (i.e., mucus, bicarbonate, prostaglandins, and blood flow towards the mucosa) [30]. ...
... The common symptoms of peptic ulcers include a burning sensation and pain in the middle or upper stomach, bloating, heartburn, nausea or vomiting, and weight loss [31]. Excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, chewing tobacco, serious illness, and the intake of NSAIDs increase the risk of ulcer development [28,32]. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers, which are more prevalent in the Eastern and Western countries, cause morbidity and mortality worldwide [33], and H. pylori are considered as one of the most important factors in the development of this disease [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
When functioning properly, the stomach is the center of both physical and mental satisfaction. Gastrointestinal disorders, or malfunctioning of the stomach, due to infections caused by various biological entities and physiochemical abnormalities, are now widespread, with most of the diseases being inflammatory, which, depending on the position and degree of inflammation, have different names such as peptic or gastric ulcers, irritable bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis, and so on. While many synthetic drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are now extensively used to treat these diseases, their harmful and long-term side effects cannot be ignored. To treat these diseases safely and successfully, different potent medicinal plants and their active components are considered game-changers. In consideration of this, the present review aimed to reveal a general and comprehensive updated overview of the anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory activities of medicinal plants. To emphasize the efficacy of the medicinal plants, various bioactive compounds from the plant extract, their experimental animal models, and clinical trials are depicted.
... An ulcer is the condition of corrosion in the linings of the stomach and the duodenum. Thus, ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract are subdivided into ulcerative colitis (lower) and peptic ulcers (upper) depending on the location of the infection [28,29]. Peptic ulcers, also known as gastric and duodenal ulcers, can be characterized as submucosal damage of the digestive tract caused by the disruption of the balance between the hostile factors (i.e., gastric acid, Helicobacter pylori, and anti-inflammatory drugs) and protective factors (i.e., mucus, bicarbonate, prostaglandins, and blood flow towards the mucosa) [30]. ...
... The common symptoms of peptic ulcers include a burning sensation and pain in the middle or upper stomach, bloating, heartburn, nausea or vomiting, and weight loss [31]. Excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, chewing tobacco, serious illness, and the intake of NSAIDs increase the risk of ulcer development [28,32]. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers, which are more prevalent in the Eastern and Western countries, cause morbidity and mortality worldwide [33], and H. pylori are considered as one of the most important factors in the development of this disease [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
When functioning properly, the stomach is the center of both physical and mental satisfaction. Gastrointestinal disorders, or malfunctioning of the stomach, due to infections caused by various biological entities and physiochemical abnormalities, are now widespread, with most of the diseases being inflammatory, which, depending on the position and degree of inflammation, have different names such as peptic or gastric ulcers, irritable bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis, and so on. While many synthetic drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are now extensively used to treat these diseases, their harmful and long-term side effects cannot be ignored. To treat these diseases safely and successfully, different potent medicinal plants and their active components are considered game-changers. In consideration of this, the present review aimed to reveal a general and comprehensive updated overview of the anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory activities of medicinal plants. To emphasize the efficacy of the medicinal plants, various bioactive compounds from the plant extract, their experimental animal models, and clinical trials are depicted.
... An ulcer is the condition of corrosion in the linings of the stomach and the duodenum. Thus, ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract are subdivided into ulcerative colitis (lower) and peptic ulcers (upper) depending on the location of the infection [28,29]. Peptic ulcers, also known as gastric and duodenal ulcers, can be characterized as submucosal damage of the digestive tract caused by the disruption of the balance between the hostile factors (i.e., gastric acid, Helicobacter pylori, and anti-inflammatory drugs) and protective factors (i.e., mucus, bicarbonate, prostaglandins, and blood flow towards the mucosa) [30]. ...
... The common symptoms of peptic ulcers include a burning sensation and pain in the middle or upper stomach, bloating, heartburn, nausea or vomiting, and weight loss [31]. Excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, chewing tobacco, serious illness, and the intake of NSAIDs increase the risk of ulcer development [28,32]. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers, which are more prevalent in the Eastern and Western countries, cause morbidity and mortality worldwide [33], and H. pylori are considered as one of the most important factors in the development of this disease [34]. ...
... This deleterious effect of ethanol is often used in laboratory animals to develop gastric ulcer models. [4][5][6] The antiulcerogenic effects of many natural compounds have been attributed to their antioxidant properties and regulation of oxidative stress enzymes and protein expression. The leaves of Clausena excavata (Rutaceae) are traditionally used in the treatment of malaria, stomachache, abdominal pain, cold, headache, pulmonary tuberculosis, wound, dysentery, snakebite, poisoning, and diarrhea. ...
... Other plant extracts have been shown to produce similar antioxidant effects in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models by decreasing LPO and increasing CAT, SOD and GPX activities. 4,5,33 The gastric mucosa serves as a physical barrier against external and internal ulcerative agents through several mechanisms of protection. 34 One of these mechanisms is the production of mucus lining the mucosa. ...
... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). obtained by extraction with solvents or as individual isolated compounds (Awaad et al., 2013). Flavonoids are among the molecules of greatest interest in biological assays due to their antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties (Serafim et al., 2020). ...
... ex Willd.) A. Juss. (Euphorbiaceae) reduced gastric lesions induced by HCl/ethanol and indomethacin/bethanechol in mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg (Awaad et al., 2013). Results obtained from in vivo experiments that involved quercetin, as a gastroprotective agent, inhibit the production of ROS and act as an anti-apoptotic during gastric injury (Brito et al., 2018) and suggest a blockage of the synthesis and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), as well as, of the oxidative damage and infiltration of inflammatory cells, regulation of apoptosis and the cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPx) and the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor related to erythroid 2 (Nrf 2 ), inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interleukin-1b (IL-1 b) reduction (Serafim et al., 2020). ...
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Background The drumstick tree Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), distributed in many parts of the world, is an important food plant with high nutritional value and used in medical applications and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to highlight the gastroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera in hydrochloric acid/Ethanol (HCl/EtOH) in a rat model. Methods Moringa phytocompounds were characterized by infrared spectra (FTIR). Rats were induced for gastric ulcer with 150 mmol/L HCl/60% EtOH solution and pretreated orally with the edible infusion extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera at a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (bw). Antioxidant parameters and lipid peroxide levels were measured and the pathological damage was histologically analysed. Results The FTIR analysis showed the presence of several chemical biocompounds. The methanolic extract is the potent radical-scavengers with an estimated value of 87.54% at the higher concentration used (500 µg/ml) and antibacterial agent. Further, the DPPH inhibition value of the M. oleifera infusion was 80.58%. For in vivo analysis, mucus was highly produced in gastric mucosa of plant-treated rats, thereby pH were elevated in rats pretreated with M. oleifera compared to ulcerated animals. Whereas, lesion index was markedly reduced (79%) in stomach protected with plant. Interestingly, oral administration of M. oleifera protected gastric mucosa through decreasing MDA levels as well as increasing antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD, GPx). Conclusion Overall, the therapeutic value against acidified ethanol induced gastric and ulcer ability of M. oleifera might be due to its biocompounds.
... Many researches were conducted to find out alternative treatments of peptic ulcer from natural sources to substitute the currently used medications of dubious efficacy and safety [3]. Medicinal plants and crude substances are regarded as an important source for the control of many diseases, including gastric ulcer and ulcerative colitis [3]. ...
... Many researches were conducted to find out alternative treatments of peptic ulcer from natural sources to substitute the currently used medications of dubious efficacy and safety [3]. Medicinal plants and crude substances are regarded as an important source for the control of many diseases, including gastric ulcer and ulcerative colitis [3]. Curcumin is the most important natural polyphenol in the rhizome of Curcuma longa [4]. ...
... It is a common disease that affects millions of individuals all over the world and can be considered one of the most common diseases in the world. (Awaad et al., 2013). ...
... Therefore, different types of chemicals, as well as phytomedicines, are used frequently to reduce the complications of inflammatory and immunomodulatory diseases including colitis [11][12][13]. Many natural extracts have been announced to be effective in ulcerative colitis [14,15]. Cirsium japonicum (CJ) has antioxidative, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory characteristics [16], but its effectiveness in ulcerative colitis has rarely been studied. ...
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a severe inflammatory disease that has spread throughout the world. Cirsium japonicum (CJ) and Aralia elata (AE) are natural herbs with potent antioxidative antidiabetics and anti-inflammatory effects. In this investigation, we studied the defensive role of the combination of CJ and AE against LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, and acetic acid-induced colitis in dogs. MTT assay was performed to identify the toxic effect of CJ and AE extracts. NO, and MDA level was also measured by NO and MDA assay. To measure the pro-inflammatory protein expression, a western blot was performed. To induce colitis, 3% DSS was used for mice and 6% acetic acid was used for dogs. Histopathology and colonoscopy were executed to detect the effect of extracts. CJ and AE pretreatment reduced the level of NO, MDA, and the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor ne-crosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7. Compared to the separate doses of CJ and AE, the combined dose of CJ and AE significantly reduced clinical symptoms induced by DSS in mice and acetic acid in dogs including weight loss, bloody stool, shortening of the colon, and the severity of colitis and degree of histological damage in the colon. Therefore, these results indicated that a combined dose of CJ and AE has a protective effect against LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, DSS-mediated colonic inflammation in mice, and acetic acid-induced colitis in dogs.
... The most clinically used drugs for management of gastric ulcers include antacids, acid inhibitory agents, cytoprotective agents, histamine (H 2 ) receptors antagonist, muscarinic receptors (M 1 ) antagonists, H. pylori eradication drugs and triple therapy regimen [4]. Most of these drugs are chemical and/or synthetic drugs with known adverse effects such as bowel upset, damage of the gastric mucosal tissues, stimulation of the gastro-intestinal tract, gynaecomastia and other adverse effects [5]. Natural products as vegetables, fruits, spices, medicinal plants and crude drug materials are provides a potential source of active constituents to manage gastric ulcers in an in vitro, in vivo and clinical ulcer models that mediated by different mechanisms of action with less adverse effects and relative low cost [6]. ...
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Green banana (Musa cavendishii) is used in the traditional medicine in Sudan to treat peptic ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastro-protective effect of aqueous extract of green banana pulp powder on aspirin-induced ulcer in albino rats. The effect was studied using aspirin-induced gastric damage in rats and compared between groups which were: group 1 (negative control) received water only, group 2 (positive control) received aspirin. Groups 3 and 4 were received 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of banana extract before aspirin 100 mg/kg, respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were received 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of banana extract of banana extract after aspirin 100 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in ulcer index between M. cavendishii extract treated groups 3, 4, 5, 6 with ulcer index (15.0 ± 1.31), (09.5 ± 0.64), (09.0 ± 0.79) and 0 respectively when compared to the control group with ulcer index (25.5 ± 1.45). The histopathological assessment showed significant improvement as partial erosion of mucosa with groups 3 and 4, while group 5 and 6 showed total gastric aspirin induced-ulcer protection. The study concluded that banana pulp powder suspension showed significant gastro-protective effect in all groups of rats, promotes ulcer healing and strengthens the mucosa. This study confirmed the use banana in folk medicine for the management of gastric ulcer. The mechanism of protection afforded by bananas has to be further elucidated.
... However, these drugs have unacceptably high incidence of adverse effects and linked to ulcer recurrence (Kangwan et al., 2014). Therefore, exploring more effective antigastric ulcer products with little or even without side effects from natural resources has attracted much attention (Awaad et al., 2013;Jain et al., 2010). Now many medicinal resources have been proven to be conducive to improving gastric ulcers in humans and many animal models (Boylan et al., 2014;Gargano et al., 2017). ...
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Five complex extracts (CEs) of seven Chinese herbs (Astragalus, Poria cocos, Alpinia officinarum Hance, Radix Puerariae, Ginseng, Licorice, Hericium erinaceus) were prepared by hot water extraction and evaluated for their effect on gastric ulcer in rats. In rats with acetic acid‐induced chronic gastric ulcer, gross and microscopic appearance showed that gastric mucosal injury index and lesion inhibition rate were improved after CEs gavage for 21 days. Pretreatment with CEs for 21 days in rats with acute gastric ulcer could also improve the gastric mucosal injury by ethanol. CE1, CE4, and CE5 showed more obvious effect in two models. The cell experiments results showed that CE1, CE4, and CE5 effectively inhibited Wnt signaling activity. Thus, they could protect gastric mucosa through inhibiting Wnt signaling pathway. These results indicated that CE1, CE4, and CE5 had significant protective effects on gastric mucosal injury by inhibiting Wnt signalling pathway and could be developed into safe functional products. Five complex extracts of seven Chinese traditonal herbs have protective effects on acetic acid‐induced and ethanol‐induced gastric mucosal injury by inhibiting Wnt signalling pathway.
... Currently, there is no effective therapy to cure UC. The mainstream treatment depends on reduction of the inflammation in the colon, which relieves the symptoms of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal pain (Awaad et al. 2013). According to Naganuma et al. (2016), mucosal healing is the main therapeutic goal during the treatment of UC (Naganuma et al. 2016). ...
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Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used worldwide in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. This study describes the synthesis of new glucocorticoid derivatives and evaluates anti-inflammatory activity in rat models with ulcerative colitis (UC). Six compounds (5a–f) were synthetized using the molecular hybridization strategy with yields of 40–80%. The compounds 5e and 5f showed a total regression of ulceration in 83.3% and 75% of treated animals, respectively. Moreover, 5e improved several clinical signs, such as weight gain and survival rates. The compounds 5a and 5c showed total regression of ulceration in 33.3% of the rats. This is higher than prednisolone. Glucocorticoid derivatives showed potential anti-inflammatory intestinal activity with regression of ulceration in colitis.
... The oral administration of most active sub-fraction (F4) of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic leaf extract of B. lanzan Spreng produced significant antiulcer activity 20 . Several scientific studies revealed that the phytoconstituents like flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins were responsible for gastro protective agents 21,22 . Tannins have astringent activities, precipitating proteins of mucosal membranes and skin. ...
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The present study deals with the phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antibacterial activity of hydroalcohol, acetone, and hexane extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The antimicrobial activity was measured by the agar well diffusion method. Gastric volume, pH, total and free acidity and the ulcerative index was also measured in hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava on gastric ulcer pyloric ligation in rat. Glycosides, terpenoids, and tannins are only present in the hydro alcohol extract. The extracts are tested against gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains. The zone of inhibition against microorganisms is direct proportional to the concentration of extract. Maximum zone of inhibition (24mm) against Staphylococcus aureus except hexane extract was seen. Psidium guajava leaves show maximum phytochemicals compounds and inhibition of microorganisms in hydroalcoholic extract. So the hydroalcoholic extraction was used for anti-ulcer activity. The present study was performed in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model in albino rats in which the ability of hydroalcoholic extracts of Psidium guajava was tested at a dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight orally and compared with Ranitidine (10 mg/kg) as standard. From the results it is concluded hydro alcohol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava 400 mg/kg dose level showed significant anti-ulcer activity when compared to that of standard drug.
... According to Moon and Kim [124], hesperidin 39 showed anti-inflammatory activity, because of decreased formation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and TNFa, which were induced by hydrogen peroxide in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). The antiulcerogenic activity of apigenin 12, naringenin 33 and aromadendrin 40, isolated from Euphorbia cuneata, was demonstrated in the gastric ulcer ethanol model [125]. ...
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This review highlights the progress in the development of ruthenium(II)/(III) complexes with flavone derivatives as potential therapeutic agents. We focused on natural hydroxyflavone derivatives and their synthetic amino analogues as ligands in ruthenium(II)/(III) complexes which demonstrate antimicrobial, antitumor activity and/or enzyme inhibition. Some enzymes targeted by flavone derivatives are important for the development and progression of cancer cells which underpins the design concept for the Ru complexes as multitargeted compounds consisting of a bioactive ligand and a ruthenium center.
... pylori. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids also promote prostaglandin synthesis, stress defense, and antioxidant enzymes synthesis, and wound healing properties [38][39][40][41][42]. Moreover, flavonoids increase capillary resistance and improve microcirculation. ...
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Background: Peptic ulcer disease causes significant mortality and morbidity. Plant kingdom provides a useful source for the development of new antiulcer agents. Croton macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat peptic ulcer in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of C. macrostachyus root extracts in rodents using different models. Methods: The crude extract was obtained by cold maceration in 80% methanol and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and distilled water. The antiulcer activity was evaluated using pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model in Sprague Dawley rats and acidified ethanol-induced ulcer model in Swiss albino mice. The test groups received three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of the crude extract and fractions for 7 days before induction of ulcer. Positive controls received omeprazole 30 mg/kg for the pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model and sucralfate 100 mg/kg for the acidified ethanol-induced ulcer model. Negative controls received vehicle (2% tween 80). Results: The crude hydromethanolic extract of C. macrostachyus showed significant (p < 0.05) antiulcer activity on both pyloric ligation and HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer in rats and mice. It has antisecretary effect (p < 0.001) as well. All three administered doses of chloroform fraction (p < 0.05) and only higher doses of ethyl acetate fraction (p < 0.05) possessed significant antiulcer activity. In contrast, the aqueous fraction did not have significant antiulcer effect at all tested doses. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the crude extract, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fractions possessed significant dose-dependent antiulcer activity.
... So, the present study aimed to evaluate a natural product, which has potential anti-ulcer activity, used especially in Indonesia. According to several investigations, the use of natural product sources in the experimental animals has shown promising results in the treatment of gastric ulcers [11][12][13][14]. Mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa Scheff. ...
... Gastric ulcer disease is an illness which affects large number of people worldwide. It will develop when there is an imbalance between the protective factors like (bicarbonate, mucus layer, mucosal blood flow), and aggressive factors like (Helicobacter pylori, HCl, pepsins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), bile acids, ischemia, hypoxia, smoking and alcohol) at the luminal surface of the epithelial cells (Awaad et al., 2013). Gastric ulcers are caused either by using NSAIDs or infection with H. pylori, NSAIDs works via inhibition of COX enzymes and thus inhibition of the production of prostaglandins which is a gastro-intestinal cell protective agent (Papadakis and McPhee, 2019). ...
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Hypericum perforatum (HP) is a plant native to Asia and Europe. It has been documented to enclose medical effects against many disorders such as anxiety, depression and burns. This experiment was performed to evaluate the gastro-protective effect of Hypericum perforatum leaf extract in ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats as compared to esomeprazole (the drug of choice for stomach ulcers). The mechanism of action was performed by Auto Dock Vina method. Ethanol ingestion up regulated the inflammatory reaction as demonstrated by rise of gastric proinflammatory TNF-α with a decline of IL-1β. On the other hand, the phytochemical screening of HP revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, steroids and saponins. The high dose of HP group shows mild injuries to the gastric mucosa which is comparable to the esomeprazole group, in contrast, severe damages are observed in the gastric mucosa of the ulcer control rats group. In silico results revealed that Amentoflavone and Quercitrin have highest affinity and very good interactions with Hþ/Kþ ATPase α active site. This study showed that HP is nearly as effective as esomeprazole to prevent ethanol induced gastric ulcer the plant extract and it has more binding affinity than esomeprazole to gastric proton pumps.
... However, due to the high toxicity and/or limited efficacy, they were unable to be marketed 17,18 , making the development and bioactivity studies of dual inhibitors are still in urgent need. As it is noted that natural products and their semi-synthetic derivatives are potentially safer and more active than the synthetic compounds 19,20 , the metabolites from natural sources are extensively screened for their dual inhibitor properties. Several previous studies 21,22 have demonstrated good in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Polyalthia longifolia (Family: Annonaceae) extracts. ...
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Natural metabolites with their specific bioactivities are being considered as a potential source of materials for pharmacological studies. In this study, we successfully isolated and identified five known clerodane diterpenes, namely 16-oxo-cleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (1), 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (2), 16-hydroxy-cleroda-4(18),13-dien-16,15-olide (3), 3α,16α-dihydroxy-cleroda-4(18),13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (4), and 16α-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5) from the methanolic extract of seeds of Polyalthia longifolia. Initially, all the isolated metabolites were investigated for COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX inhibitory activities using the standard inhibitory kits. Of which, compounds 3, 4, and 5 exhibited to be potent COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX inhibitors with the IC50 values similar or lower to those of the reference drugs. To understand the underlying mechanism, these compounds were subjected to molecular docking on COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX proteins. Interestingly, the in silico study results were in high accordance with in vitro studies where compounds 3, 4, and 5 hits assumed interactions and binding pattern comparable to that of reference drugs (indomethacin and diclofenac), as a co-crystallized ligand explaining their remarkable dual (COX/LOX) inhibitor actions. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that compounds 3, 4, and 5 functioned as dual inhibitors of COX/5-LOX and can contribute to the development of novel, more effective anti-inflammatory drugs with minimal side-effects.
... Peptic ulcer affects an average of 4 million people around the world annually (Zelickson et al. 2011;Thorsen et al. 2013;Azhari et al. 2018), a disease characterized by necrotizing lesions, hemorrhagic spots, redness, and severe inflammation in the gastrointestinal mucosa of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, extending from mucosa to the muscular layers of gastrointestinal tract (Tarnawski 2000(Tarnawski , 2005Nieto 2012). The development of peptic ulcer disease occurs due to an imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors of gastric mucosa (Awaad et al. 2013). The aggressive factors include the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, Helicobacter pylori infection (Konturek et al. 2005;Lanas and Chan 2017), stress, alcohol intake, and the continued use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). ...
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Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a secondary metabolite present in several plant species that has already demonstrated antioxidant, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects experimentally. Due to the promising pharmacological properties found previously, this study aimed to assess the oral acute toxicity and the gastroprotective effect of RA using animal models. Acute toxicity was assessed according to OECD guide 423. Ethanol, stress, NSAIDs, and pylorus ligature-induced gastric ulcer models were used to investigate antiulcer properties. The related mechanisms of action were also evaluated from ethanol-induced gastric lesions protocol. RA (300 and 2000 mg/kg) showed no changes in behavioral, water and food intake, body and organs weight parameters with LD50 set around 2500 mg/kg. RA presented gastroprotective activity in all assessed doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) using different animal models. Besides, it was observed that this effect is not related to the modulation of gastric juice parameters (pH, volume, and [H+]), the participation of nitric oxide, mucus, and prostaglandins. However, increased sulfhydryl groups, GSH and IL-10 levels as well as reduced of proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels were found for RA-treated groups. RA presents low acute toxicity and gastroprotective activity, preventing ulcer formation via cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Graphical abstract
... 1,2 It most commonly affects people between 15 and 30 years of age but can occur in any age group and in both sexes. 3 The etiology and pathophysiology of UC are still unclear and depend on a number of factors such as environmental factors, genetic, reactive oxygen species and gastrointestinal infections. 4 Mesalazine formulations (Asacol, Pentasa, Salofalk, Mesasal, Claversal) are the drug of choice for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. ...
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Purpose: Mesalazine formulations are the drug of choice in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). They are released at alkaline pH in order to deliver 5-aminosalicylic acid to the colon. The colonic pH is significantly lower in UC patients than in normal patients. This study was conducted for the first time to evaluate the clinical efficacy of co-administration of pantoprazole and Asacol in the treatment of ulcerative colitis patients who excrete intact Asacol tablets in the feces. Patients and methods: Thirty patients with mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis who reported passing intact Asacol tablets in stools received oral Asacol plus pantoprazole for 2 weeks. The demographic characteristics of the patients and the body mass index were collected through interviews. For each patient, the stool frequency, visible blood, and presence of intact Asacol tablets in the stool were compared before and pantoprazole treatment. Results: There was a significant difference in the stool frequency (number of daily stools) before and after pantoprazole treatment (mean ± sd, 6.06 ± 1.04 vs 1.5± 0.5; P<0.001). In addition, pantoprazole administration statistically reduced visible blood in the stool (100%; P<0.001). Co-administration of pantoprazole and Asacol was effective in all age groups and both sexes. None of the patients reported the presence of intact Asacol tablets in their stools. Conclusions: Co-administration of pantoprazole and Asacol would be useful for symptom management UC patients that excrete intact Asacol tablets in their feces through increasing the gastric pH and releasing the maximum concentration of the drug in the proximal gastrointestinal tract.
... (Apple), Persea Americana Mill. (Avocado), and Centella Asiatica (Gotu kola) were reported (18)(19)(20)(21)(22). In this context, Lippia citriodora known as Lemon verbena is a popular medicinal herb in South America and the Mediterranean region (23), and possesses antioxidant (24), gastroprotective (25), and anti-inflammatory (26) properties. ...
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Objective(s): Regarding Lemon verbena gastroprotective effects, we investigated the protective effects of Lemon verbena extracts on reducing gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin. Materials and Methods: Rats received aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lemon verbena (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), zileuton (100 mg/kg), montelukast (10 mg/kg), or 1% Tween 80 in presence or absence of indomethacin (100 mg/kg). Results: Indomethacin produced stomach ulcer and increased neutrophils percentage and MDA level compared with the control group (P<0.001). Co-administration of indomethacin and zileuton, montelukast and ethanolic (200 mg/kg) (P<0.001), aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) (P<0.05) reduced ulcer compared with the indomethacin group (P<0.001). Ethanolic extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) reduced the MDA level (P<0.001). Ethanolic (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased neutrophils percentage compared with the indomethacin group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Aqueous and particularly ethanolic extracts of Lemon verbena have protective effects on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer.
... Tannins also help to reduce the inflammatory process through the formation of a protective layer on the damaged skin or mucosa, with processes of epithelial restructuring and vessel formation. [27][28][29][30][31] Colitis is related to oxidative damage by increasing FRs of oxygen and nitrogen that cause cell destruction, inflammatory infiltrate and the release of mediators, such as cytokines, potentiating stress. The oxygen FRs induce the LPO process, which is a chain reaction, acting on the membrane lipids with an initiation, propagation, and termination phase. ...
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Due to the ethnopharmacological use of Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularly known as Acapurana, to treat wounds and ulcers, associated with the lack of alternative treatments for intestinal inflammations such as ulcerative colitis (UC), the present work sought to characterize its phytochemical and antioxidant activities, and to evaluate remedial action in experimental colitis with acetic acid. Phytochemical analyzes were performed through qualitative and quantitative colorimetric tests of the main secondary metabolites. In the colitis model, 24 male Wistar rats aged ± 60 days old were used, divided into 4 groups: Control (CO) control + aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CO + A50); Colitis (CL); and Colitis + aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CL + A50). Measurement of sphincter anal pressure and histological tests of the large intestine, lipoperoxidation (LPO), enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of glutathione (GSH) were performed. For statistical analysis, the oxidative stress (OS) results were expressed as means ± standard error, adopting a significance level of p < 0.05. The screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in the extract, with high levels of phenolic compounds and tannins, and was related to high antioxidant capacity. In the histological analysis, the CL group presented loss of the crypts, edema and inflammatory infiltrate. The use of C. laurifolia extract restructured the crypts, decreased edema and increased sphincter anal pressure, with a decrease in LPO, SOD, and an increase in GSH. It is suggested that the use of C. laurifolia extract reduces OS due to its antioxidant power conferred by the phenolic compounds present in the extract. Resumo Devido ao uso etnofarmacológico de Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularmente conhecida como Acapurana, para tratar feridas e úlceras, associado à falta de alternativas de tratamentos para as inflamações intestinais como a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), o presente trabalho buscou caracterizar sua constituição fitoquímica, sua atividade antioxidante, e avaliar sua ação reparadora na colite experimental com ácido acético. As análises fitoquímicas foram realizadas por meio de ensaios colorimétricos qualitativos e quantitativos dos principais metabólitos secundários. No modelo de colite, foram utilizados 24 ratos machos Wistar de ± 60 dias de idade, divididos em 4 grupos: Controle (CO), controle + extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CO + A50); Colite (CL); e Colite + extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia (CL + A50). Foram realizadas aferições da pressão anal esfincteriana e avaliações histológicas do intestino grosso, lipoperoxidação (LPO), atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (SOD) e níveis da glutationa (GSH). Para a análise estatística, resultados do estresse oxidativo (EO) foram expressos em médias ± erro padrão, adotando um nível de significância de p < 0,05. O screening indicou no extrato a presença de flavonoides, saponinas e taninos com altos teores de compostos fenólicos e taninos, relacionando-os a uma elevada capacidade antioxidante. Na análise histológica, o grupo CL apresentou perda das criptas, do edema e do infiltrado inflamatório. O uso do extrato de C. laurifolia reestruturou as criptas, diminuiu o edema e aumentou a pressão anal esfincteriana, com diminuição da LPO, da SOD, e aumento da GSH. Sugere-se que o uso do extrato de C. laurifolia diminui o EO por seu poder antioxidante, conferido pelos compostos fenólicos presentes no extrato.
... Medicinal plants play a beneficial role in healthcare. According to Amani et al. (2013) treatment with products of natural origin produces promising results and fewer side effects. One such plant known for its beneficial effects is Dissotis roundifolia (Sm.) ...
... The exact cause of UC is not known to date. It is multifaceted disorder where genetic factors, infective agents, oxidative stress, dysfunction of immune regulation, overproduction of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and the loss of tolerance of the luminal microbiota are key contributors to the development of this disease (Awaad et al. 2013;De Almeida et al. 2013;Fruet et al. 2012;Zhang et al. 2006). Among all, oxidative stress contributes the most, in which interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is responsible for many physiological functions and colorectal pathological processes. ...
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Several conventional treatments for UC such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, tumor necrosis factor antagonist, integrin blockers, and interleukin antagonist, and salicylates are available but are associated with the various limitations and side-effects. None of the above treatments helps to achieve the ultimate goal of the therapy, i.e., maintenance of remission in the long-term. Natural remedies for the treatment of UC show comparatively less side effects as compared to conventional approaches, and affordable. The current review presents details on the role of herbal drugs in the treatment and cure of UC. Google, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus portals have been searched for potentially relevant literature to get the latest developments and updated information related to use of natural drugs in the treatment of UC. Natural products have been used over centuries to treat UC. Some of the essential herbal constituents exhibiting antiulcerogenic activity include gymnemic acid (Gymnema sylvestre), shagoal (Zingiber officinale), catechin (Camellia sinensis), curcumin (Curcuma longa), arctigenin (Arctium lappa), and boswellic acid (Boswellia serrata). Although many plant-derived products have been recommended for UC, further research to understand the exact molecular mechanism is still warranted to establish their usefulness clinically.
... 5,6 There are numerous classes of modern therapy available for the management of PU which include antibiotics, antacids, anticholinergics, antisecretory agents (proton pump H + /K + ATPase inhibitors), cytoprotective agents and antihistaminics (H 2 receptor antagonist). 7 But their therapeutic uses are limited due to side effects, the incidence of relapses and multidrug resistance. Thus, herbal medicine can be used as a safe and alternative drug for the treatment of PU. ...
... The World Health Organization scientifically recommends reliable medicinal plants therapeutically for the treatment of diseases. Natural products derived from medicinal plants, including flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids [2], saponins [3], alkaloids [4,5] and mucilage lipolysaccharides [4], anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer It has great pharmacological importance as antioxidant and anticancer. Plant extracts are generally safe, even at high concentrations. ...
Article
Coriander is a small aromatic perennial herbaceous plant that grows widely in western Asia, India, Pakistan, the Mediterranean basin, and the United States. Although all parts of the plant can be eaten, its fresh leaves and dry seeds are used more. fructose, sucrose), alkaloids, flavones, resins, tannins, anthroquinones, sterols (β-stesterol and β-cytosterelin), and fixed oils. Has a small amount of carminative agent. Coriander plant samples were collected by a specialist pharmacist and phytotherapist (Muammaer Şen). Cultured medicinal marshmallow herb flower was harvested and dried. The dried plant was sorted and packed in packages of 50 grams using precision scales. 100gr of randomly selected samples. It was sent to BATAM laboratory for analysis. The essential oil analysis of the coriander plant of the Konya region has been found in accordance with the pharmacopoeia standards. Coriander plant is used to take advantage of its heavy metal removal feature. Many factors can affect the essential oil ratio of the plant. It is possible to make maximum use of the essential oils of the coriander plant by making the environmental factors suitable.
... [36] The etiology of peptic ulcer is unknown in most of the cases, yet it is generally accepted that it results from an imbalance between aggressive factors and the maintenance of mucosal integrity through the endogenous defense mechanisms. [37] To regain the balance, different therapeutic agents are used to inhibit the gastric acid secretion or to boost the mucosal defense mechanisms by increasing mucosal production, stabilizing the surface epithelial cells, or interfering with the prostaglandin synthesis. [38] The ability of the gastric mucosa to resist injury by endogenous secretions (acid, pepsin, and bile) and ingested irritants (eg, alcohol, non -steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) can be attributed to a number of factors that have been collectively referred to as -mucosal defense. ...
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ASTRACT Picralima nitida leaf is a rich source of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. The leaf of Picralima nitida has been used ethanomedicinally used in the treatment of ulcers, diabetes, sexual impotence and hypertension. To evaluate the pharmacognostic properties and anti-ulcer activity of the ethanol crude extract and fractions of Picralima nitida leaves. The Pharmacognistic properties of the dry leaves were determined using standard method. The leaves were extracted using ethanol, the acute toxicity was determined. The crude ethanol extract was then fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity (n-Hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) fraction. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents and the antiulcer evaluation were performed on ethanol induced in wister rats using standard method. Picralima nitida leaf shows the presence of saponins, terpenoids, Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids. The crude ethanol extract has high safety margin. A significant reduction in antiulcer activity was found in 500mg ethanol crude extract and butanol fraction when compared to the standard drug (Famotidine). The Pharmacognostic properties can act as a reliable tool for standardization and quality evaluation of the plant. The ethanol extract and butanol fraction produce a significant reduction in the effect of ulcer in the rats. This claim confirms the ethnomedicinal use of the plant.
... In Ethiopia, traditional medicine is an indigenous health care delivery system for 80% of the population, and more than 95% of traditional medicinal preparations originate from plant sources [7]. Previous studies have showed a large number of medicinal plants and their phytochemicals possess antiulcer activity [8][9][10][11][12]. Thus, medicinal plants may serve as a useful source of new medications for PUD. . ...
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Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of hydromethanol extracts of Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) leaves and roots in mice. Methods The antiulcerogenic activity of the plant extracts were evaluated using Pylorus ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers in fasted mice. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, and P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result:Pylorus ligation-induced ulcer Single dose and repeated daily dose administration of the leaf and root extracts for 10 days didn't significantly (P > 0.05) affect pH, total acidity and volume of gastric secretion. Single dose of both extracts significantly reduced ulcer score (P = 0.036) and ulcer index (leaf, P = 0.037; root, P = 0.041) at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Similarly, significant reduction in ulcer score was observed after repeated daily treatment with 200 mg/kg (P = 0.030) and 400 mg/kg (P = 0.005) of the leaf extract and 400 mg/kg (P = 0.005) of the root extract. In addition, repeated administration of 400 mg/kg of the leaf (P = 0.004) and root (P = 0.005) extracts significantly reduced ulcer index. Ethanol-induced ulcer Single dose of both extracts significantly reduced ulcer score at the dose of 200 mg/kg (leaf, P = 0.017; root, P = 0.036) and 400 mg/kg (leaf, P = 0.001; root, P = 0.001). Similarly, 200 mg/kg (leaf, P = 0.002; root, P = 0.018) and 400 mg/kg (leaf, P = 0.001; root, P = 0.001) of the extracts significantly reduced ulcer index after single dose treatment. Repeated daily treatment with leaf and root extracts for ten days caused a significant (P = 0.037, 0.001 and 0.001 for 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg leaf extract; P = 0.026, 0.018 and 0.001 for 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg root extract, respectively) reduction in ulcer score. In addition, both extracts significantly (P = 0.041, 0.004 and 0.000 for 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg leaf extract; P = 0.038, 0.008 and 0.000 for 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg root extract, respectively) reduced ulcer index after 10 days of treatment. Conclusion This study has revealed hydromethanol extracts of Solanum incanum leaves and roots have antiulcerogenic activity using in vivo models. The antiulcer activity of the plant is not related to acid anti-secretory action, suggesting the plant may have cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa.
... The presence of tannins in A. aficana supports the traditional medicinal use of this plant in the treatment of different ailments [47,50]. AbdulHamid et al. [51] and Amani et al. [52] revealed the importance of tannins for the treatment of inflamed or ulcerated tissues. Brian, et al. [53] and Li et al. [54] reviewed the biological activities of tannins and observed that tannins (whether total or pure compound) have remarkable activity in cancer prevention and as anticancer agent [55]. ...
... En outre, cette fine herbe facilite également le transit intestinal, très pratique dans le cas des pathologies inflammatoires digestives [44,72]. Certains travaux scientifiques ont mis en exergue les propriétés thérapeutiques des essences végétales de verveine odorante citronnée (Aloysia triphylla), de menthe poivrée (Mentha piperita) ou encore de nigelle (Nigella sativa), principalement leurs vertus antispasmodiques, anti-inflammatoires et apaisantes, capables de favoriser une bonne flore intestinale [41,42]. Elles contribuent à apaiser les douleurs abdominales, lutter contre le stress et réguler le transit intestinal. ...
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Les maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin (MICI) regroupent la rectocolite hémorragique (RCH) et la maladie de Crohn qui sont considérées comme des pathologies multifactorielles, résultant de l'inflammation chronique le long de la muqueuse digestive ou sur des zones précises. Ces maladies s'imposent aujourd'hui comme un véritable problème de santé publique. Les symptômes digestifs de la RCH sont principalement constitués d'une diarrhée sanglante, douloureuse et fréquemment accompagnée de glaires mélangées ou non aux selles. Et si de nombreuses recherches scientifiques s'intéressent à ces maladies, aucune thérapeutique n'offre, actuellement, des possibilités de guérison aux patients. Pourtant, de nombreuses pistes naturelles se dessinent pour apporter des réponses en complément ou en lieu et place des traitements pharmacologiques. Les patients atteints de MICI sont classés parmi les plus grands consommateurs de thérapies complémentaires et alternatives. Ces dernières deviennent actuellement très populaires y compris dans les pays développés. C'est pourquoi, afin d'améliorer la qualité de vie, patients et médecins sont de plus en plus nombreux à se pencher sur des approches complémentaires aux traitements classiques. De nombreuses études ont montré, sur des modèles animaux d'inflammation intestinale, les effets protecteurs des fines herbes et certaines plantes aromatiques et médicinales. Notre travail se veut une revue de synthèse avec comme objectif de faire le point sur les données de la littérature concernant l'apport préventif de la phyto-aromathérapie sur terrain des MICI, et de les discuter par rapport aux tests in vivo et aux études cliniques réalisées, et ce pour leur éventuelle intégration dans l'arsenal préventif-thérapeutique des pathologies inflammatoires digestives. ABSTRACT Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease which are considered to be multifactorial pathologies, resulting from chronic inflammation along the digestive mucosa or in specific areas. These diseases are emerging as a real public health problem. The digestive symptoms of UC are mainly bloody, painful diarrhea that is frequently accompanied by mucus. While several studies are interested in these diseases, no potent therapy BOUKHATEM & BELKADI. (Maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin : Quelle place pour la phyto-aromathérapie ?) Page 60 currently offers a cure for patients. However, many natural products are emerging to provide answers instead of pharmacological drugs. Patients with IBD are classified among the highest consumers of complementary and alternative medicines. These are currently becoming very popular, including in Western countries. In order to improve the quality of life, patients and doctors are trying to test complementary and alternative medicines. Different reports and investigations have shown the protective effects of aromatic herbs and medicinal plants, in vivo, using animal models of intestinal inflammation. Our article is intended to be a comprehensive review with the objective of taking stock of the data in the literature concerning the preventive-therapeutic effects of phytomedicine and aromatherapy against IBD, and to discuss them in relation to in vivo assays and clinical studies.
... In conclusion, the etiology of PUD is multifactorial. Tobacco smoking, H. pylori infection, and the use of minor tranquilizers but not NSAID are the main determinants of PUD [36][37][38]. ...
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Peptic ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which, if not addressed, can increase mortality in different communities. As regards the results of various studies around the world that have reported different prevalence, the aim of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of peptic ulcer in the world through systematic review and meta-analysis. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, articles focused on the prevalence of peptic ulcer were searched in the Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and Science Direct, Google Scholar, Magiran, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database databases, without time limit until April 2020. To analyze the eligible studies, the random effects model was used, and the heterogeneity of the studies was investigated using the I2 index. The prevalence of peptic ulcer in the world in 21 studies with total sample size 788,525 in age range of 17–82 years was obtained as 8.4% (95% CI 5–13.7). According to the results from meta regression, the prevalence of peptic ulcer in the world decreased with an increase in sample size and increased with an increase in study years and age of participants in the study of the prevalence of peptic ulcer in the world. It was found that these differences were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it is stated that due to the 8.4% prevalence of peptic ulcer, health system policy makers need to prevent and treat this disease through investigating the effective factors.
... Ethanol induces gastric mucosal damage by promoting disturbances of mucosal microcirculation, ischemia, endothelin release, degranulation of mast cells, inhibition of prostaglandins and decrease of gastric mucus production 51,52 . Ethanol rapidly penetrates the gastric mucosa causing injury characterized by membrane damage, erosive hemorrhagic lesions with diffuse coagulative cell necrosis, cell exfoliation, multiple superficial erosions, marked vascular congestion and ulcer formation 53 Histological examination of the stomach of rats pretreated with negative control showed irregularity in gastric mucosa, such as severe desquamation (Red arrow) and loss of surface epithelial cell (blue arrow), necrosis, vacuolization, edema and dilated gastric glands along with infiltration of inflammatory cells (yellow arrow). ...
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Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenal mucosa. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (black seed) and its constitutents. The pharmacognostic properties of the dry seeds were determined. The seeds were extracted using two methods digestion and hydro-distillation. The acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and the antiulcer evaluation were performed on ethanolinduced ulcer in wistar rats using a standard method. FTIR and GC-MS analysis of the aqueous seed extract was also determined using standard methods. Nigella sativa seed shows the presence of starch grains, lignified tissues, tannins, cellulose, protein and oil globules. The aqueous extract has a high safety margin. The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, fats and oil. The black seed aqueous and oil extract at 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the acidity, total acidity, and ulcer index, and pH of gastric content when compared with the positive control (Famotidine). The FTIR analysis identified the presence of the following functional groups chloro, ether, amine, carboxylic acid, nitriles, methylene, alcohol, while the GC-MS identified five compounds such as glycerin, nHexadecanoic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid and 9, 12-octadecadienoyl chloride. The pharmacognostic properties can act as a reliable tool for the standardization of the plant part. This study suggests that aqueous and oil extract possess antiulcer properties. Thus the aqueous and oil extract of black seed can be considered as antiulcer medication traditionally
... Multiple aetiologic factors abound in ulcer pathogenesis and the ability of the extract to protect against indomethacin-induced gastric erosion points to its potential to inhibit one or more inciting stimuli in ulcerogenesis. 33 The extract and fractions protected rats against gastric ulcers induced by indomethacin and ethanol, inhibited gastrointestinal motility by reducing small intestinal propulsion and exhibited spasmolytic effects by inhibiting jejunal contractions and antagonizing the contractions of the isolated intestinal tissues evoked by acetylcholine and histamine. In this study, the extracts of Cucumismetuliferus potently inhibited ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. ...
... Ethanol induces gastric mucosal damage by promoting disturbances of mucosal microcirculation, ischemia, endothelin release, degranulation of mast cells, inhibition of prostaglandins and decrease of gastric mucus production 51,52 . Ethanol rapidly penetrates the gastric mucosa causing injury characterized by membrane damage, erosive hemorrhagic lesions with diffuse coagulative cell necrosis, cell exfoliation, multiple superficial erosions, marked vascular congestion and ulcer formation 53 Histological examination of the stomach of rats pretreated with negative control showed irregularity in gastric mucosa, such as severe desquamation (Red arrow) and loss of surface epithelial cell (blue arrow), necrosis, vacuolization, edema and dilated gastric glands along with infiltration of inflammatory cells (yellow arrow). ...
Article
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Abstract Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenal mucosa. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (black seed) and its constitutents. The pharmacognostic properties of the dry seeds were determined. The seeds were extracted using two methods digestion and hydro-distillation. The acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and the antiulcer evaluation were performed on ethanol-induced ulcer in wistar rats using a standard method. FTIR and GC-MS analysis of the aqueous seed extract was also determined using standard methods. Nigella sativa seed shows the presence of starch grains, lignified tissues, tannins, cellulose, protein and oil globules. The aqueous extract has a high safety margin. The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, fats and oil. The black seed aqueous and oil extract at 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the acidity, total acidity, and ulcer index, and pH of gastric content when compared with the positive control (Famotidine). The FTIR analysis identified the presence of the following functional groups chloro, ether, amine, carboxylic acid, nitriles, methylene, alcohol, while the GC-MS identified five compounds such as glycerin, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid and 9, 12-octadecadienoyl chloride. The pharmacognostic properties can act as a reliable tool for the standardization of the plant part. This study suggests that aqueous and oil extract possess antiulcer properties. Thus the aqueous and oil extract of black seed can be considered as antiulcer medication traditionally. Keywords: Nigella sativa, Black seed, Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical, Acute toxicity (LD50), Antiulcer
... Peptic ulcer treatment involves using a number of chemically produced drugs with aim to reduce the rate of stomach acid secretion, protection of the mucosa that line the stomach and upper portion of the small intestine or to eliminate H. pylori infestation [7]. The existing drugs cause several adverse effects; conversely, indigenous herbal drugs are devoid of side effects which might better treat peptic ulcers [8]. Medicinal plants possess numerous active phytoconstituents that are responsible for several biological activities [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
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Peptic ulcer is a frequent disease of the Gastro Intestinal tract. It is mostly an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. When there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance ulceration occurs. Divergent to trendy belief, ulcer is not caused by spicy food but instead is most usually due to either an infection or long term use of medications. A combination of drugs like antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors is standard treatment of the peptic ulcer. However these drugs are expensive and are probable to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines Nevertheless, many studies revealed that Botanicals and their phytoceuticals can efficiently treat peptic ulcer in humans and a range of animal models. In the present review, attempts have been made to recognize about some of the common Indian medicinal plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers.
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Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Oken (Euphorbiaceae) roots are used in folk medicine to treat gastric ulcers. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanol extract (JER) and hexane fraction (ERH) of J. elliptica roots in mice, as well as to analyze the acute toxicity of the extract and identify the potential active compounds. No signs of toxicity were observed in JER. In both acidified ethanol and indometacin-induced gastric ulcer models, all doses tested of JER and ERH significantly reduced gastric lesions. Dereplication of JER was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and resulted in the annotation of compounds fraxetin, propacin, jatrophone and jatropholones A and B. GC–MS analysis of ERH revealed the diterpenes jatrophone, jatropholone A and jatropholone B as the major components. The chemical study of this fraction has led to the isolation of these compounds, in addition to the sequiterpene cyperenoic acid and the diterpene 2β-hydroxyjatrophone, both reported for the first time in J. elliptica. The isolated compounds were tested against L929 cells and only cyperenoic acid and the mixture of jatropholones A and B did not show toxicity, being then selected as good candidates for bioassays using acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Cyperenoic acid significantly decreased gastric lesions and preserved gastric mucus layer. The mixture of jatropholones A and B caused a smaller reduction of gastric lesions, without preservation of the gastric mucus layer. The study showed that J. elliptica roots present gastroprotective activity in mice, without causing acute toxic effects. The activity is related, at least in part, to the occurrence of terpenes, mainly the sesquiterpene cyperenoic acid.
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The study aimed to investigate the potential in vitro antihelicobacter activity of selected Egyptian plants, focusing on the determination of the main component responsible for such activity. The main objective is to obtain a natural product have antihelicobacter activity. Antimicrobial screening for wild Egyptian medicinal plant extracts, revealed that five methanolic extracts have good antihelicobacter activity. Determination of MICs, revealed that the wild plant, Desmostachya bipinnata (DEM) extract proved to be the most active one, where its MIC was 40 μg/ml. After fractionation of the DEM extract, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited excellent antihelicobacter activity. By further fractionation and purification, using TLC and column chromatography, a flavonoid compound was isolated, with MIC value of 62 μg/ml. The isolated compound was spectroscopically identified as 4'-methoxy quercetin-7-O-glucoside. DEM plant (available as a wild plant in Egypt) containing a flavonoid compound which possesses a good in vitro antihelicobacter activity. The isolated compound (Quercetin) might be useful as a chemo-preventive agent for peptic ulcer in H. pylori-infected individuals, after its clinical valuation.
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The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.
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The genus Indigofera (Fabaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal pain. In this study, we investigated the antiulcerogenic properties of Indigofera truxillensis Kunth. Oral administration of MeOH extract did not produce any signals of acute toxicity. The antiulcerogenic activity was assessed in different models of acute gastric ulcers (100% ethanol, piroxicam 30 mg.kg-1, hypothermic restraint stress and pylorus ligature) in mice and rats. The animals were treated with the drugs lanzoprazole (30 mg.kg-1) or cimetidine (100 mg.kg-1) as positive controls depending on the performed model. In another experiment with ethanol-induced ulcers in rats, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a sulfhydryl group blocker, was also used. The MeOH extract, at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg.kg-1, inhibited the gastric lesions in all experiments: a) by 62%, 69% and 32%, respectively, in piroxicam-induced lesions, b) by 43%, 71% and 98%, in ethanol-induced lesions, c) by 69%, 64 and 89%, in hypothermic-restraint stress-induced lesions, d) by 73%, 82% and 84%, in pylorus ligature lesions. Significant changes in the total gastric acid levels were also found after intraduodenal administration of the MeOH extract in the ligated pylorus model. Pre treatment with NEM reduced partially the antiulcerogenic activity of the MeOH extract in ethanol-induced gastric lesions. This result indicates an increase in the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl groups by MeOH extract in the gastric mucosa. These results indicate that the MeOH extract has antisecretory and citoprotective effects that may be related to the presence of flavonoids detected by phytochemical analysis.
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Three lignan compounds namely 3'-demethyl arctigenin (compound 1), arctigenin (compound 2) and arctigenin glucoside (compound 3) were isolated from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) by bioassay-guided fractionation. From 500 g of dried seeds, the yields of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were 26.2, 38.4 and 22.1 mg, respectively. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive NMR studies. Crude extracts and isolated compounds showed a strong antibacterial activity against a clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strain. Specifically, at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, compounds 1 and 2 each exerted a 100% inhibition against H. pylori compared to a standard amoxicillin (5 μg/mL) and clarithromycin (1 μg/mL), while compound 3 and crude extract showed a 95% and 86% inhibition, respectively. In summary, these lignans may be useful as lead compounds in the development of a new class of anti-H. pylori agents.
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Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, which affects approximately 5-10% of people during their life. In recent years, plentiful works have been carried out on herbal medicine to clarify their potential efficacy in gastric ulcer prevention or management. Tripleuro-spermum disciforme is one of the indigenous plants that is readily available and has been traditionally used to improve GI disorders. We decided to study its anti-ulcer effects in pylorus-ligated rats. Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers (125, 500, 2000 mg/kg), vehicle and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) to separated groups of Wistar rats of either sex (n=8). Other groups received extract (500 mg/kg), ranitidine and vehicle intraperitoneally (i.p.). Volume of contents, pH, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area and finally ulcer index were assessed and compared with control groups. Volume of gastric contents as well as pH (in reverse with acidity) increased in extract groups but the difference was not significant. In treatment groups, regardless of the changes in ulcer number and scores, the differences were not significant for both parameters compared to control groups. Both the extract and reference drug (ranitidine) resulted in significant reduction in ulcer area and ulcer index and for latter the range of reduction was 21.8-39.1%. The least dose of extract (125 mg/kg) was not effective. We conclude that hydroalcoholic extract of T. disciforme was effective to protect against ulcer formation in pylorus-ligated rats and the action is not likely to be mediated through acid reduction.
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Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including: dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhea. Aromatic, spasmolytic, carminative and absorbent properties of ginger suggest that it has direct effects on the GI tract and anti-ulcerogenic potential. In the present study, the effects of this herbal remedy on an acute model of experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine was evaluated. Hydroalcoholic extract ofgginger with doses of 100, 350, 700 mg/kg, ranitidine (50 mg/kg), sucralfate (500 mg/kg) and 5 ml/kg of vehicle were administered orally (p.o.) to separate groups of male Wistar rats. Other groups received vehicle (5 ml/kg), extract (300 mg/kg) and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.). After ulcer induction, the number, scoring, area and finally ulcer index were assessed for each duodenum. Administration of extract by i.p. or at chronic doses (350 mg/kg) and ranitidine (p.o. and i.p.) resulted in significant reduction in mucosal damage for the entire ulcer factors which were assessed. Larger doses of extract given p.o. (350 and 700 mg/kg) were effective to reduce both the ulcer area and index but the lowest dose of extract (100 mg/kg) was not effective. Taken together, we conclude that ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective to protect against duodenal ulceration and for i.p. injection as well as chronic administration, the efficacy was comparable with ranitidine as reference drug.
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Research advances during recent years offer new insight into therapy and the prevention of gastrointestinal ulcers by using medicinal plants. Flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, fatty acids and essential oils are among the most effective herbal constituents that have potential antiulcerogenic properties, and most of them could be found in Zataria multiflora. Z. multiflora is one of the indigenous plants of Iran, which is readily available and traditionally used to improve gastrointestinal disorders. In a recent trial, we decided to study the potential antiulcerogenic effects of the plant on an animal model of duodenal ulcer. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant with doses of 200, 400, 800 and 1200 mg/kg, ranitidine (50 mg/kg), sucralfate (2 g/kg) and 1 ml of the vehicle were administered orally to different groups of male Wistar rats. Two other groups received (i.p.) vehicle (1 ml) and extract (800 mg/kg). Duodenum ulcers were induced by cysteamine HCl and the number of ulcers, area, and finally ulcer index were assessed. Ranitidine and sucralfate resulted in significant reduction in the duodenal mucosal damage for the entire ulcer factors assessed. Increasing doses of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in ulcerated area and index in a dose dependent manner. We concluded that Z. multiflora extract was effective in protecting against duodenal ulceration, and for the larger doses used, the efficacy was comparable with the reference drugs. The mechanism of action couldn't be clearly proposed for the plant extract, however; the local mucosal enhancement and cytoprotection may be involved.
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Rhizophora mangle L. is a vegetal species widely distributed in Cuba and other Caribbean countries. This species is characterized by several ethnobotanical activities as antiseptic, astringent, as well for treating skin ulcers. In the present work, we describe a pharmacological, toxicological and chemical evaluation of this plant by its use in human medicine for the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers. The acute gastric ulcer's models were: acute gastric ulcers induced by ethanol; indomethacin; pyloric ligation; stress and immobility in cool in mice. The antisecretor effect of the extract was evaluated by pyloric ligation model. Other pharmacological tests were planned with the freeze -dried extract of R. mangle, as part of the evaluation on other systems to known secondary or adverse effects. These tests included the activity of the antiulcer active extract on intestinal transit, activity over arterial pressure, ileum activity and absorption of glucose in gut. The chemical profile of this extract by fatty acids was studied by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Some toxicological studies (genotoxicity) were carried out. The aqueous extract of R. mangle bark showed gastroprotective, antisecretor effects, and it induced a recovery of PGE 2 levels in doses-dependence manner comparable of knowledge antiulcerogenic medicaments. No effect was observed by arterial pressure in rats and the intestinal transit was inhibited by R. mangle. The intestinal motility was stimulated. Antiulcer active extract inhibit the glucose absoprtion in gut. This extract presented 4% of saturated and not saturated long chain's fatty acids (C10:0 at C24:0). No toxicological signs were obtained by this extract.
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a Department of P harmaceutical E ngineering, Sangji Univ ersity, Woosan-dong, W onju 660, Gangw on-do 220-702, Korea, b Highland A griculture Ins titute, R ural De velopment A dministration, P yongchang 232-95 0, K orea, Abstract: The heartwood of Acer tegmentosum (Acereaceae) has been used as a Korean traditional medicinal drug against alcohol poisoning and hepatitis. To find the biologically active substance in A. tegmentosum heartwood, we investigated the protective effects of the heartwood extract and its constituents on pain and gastropathy in mouse. In these experiments, salidroside, a major compound, significantly reduced gastric lesion and pain in mice. Oral administration of salidroside at the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses greatly reduced the gastric lesion induced by HCl/ethanol (inhibitory effect, 51.5 and 68.8%, respectively) and by indomethacin/bethanechol (inhibitory effect, 31.3 and 38.8%, respectively). Salidroside also stabi-lized pH of gastric juice and the increase of gastric juice secretion and total acid output. Taken together, these results demonstrated that salidroside is the main ingredient of A. tegmentosum heartwood to prevent gastric lesion and pain that can be caused by drinking alcohol.
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This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-ulcerogenic effects of Morus alba ethanolic extracts on ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in animals. Four groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. 10% Tween 80 was given orally to Group I rats as 2 negative control group. Group 2 and 3 animals received alcoholic extract of Morus alba orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses, respectively. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg body weight) were given orally to Group 4 rats as a positive control. 60 minutes after their pretreatment, all rats were administered with 5 ml/kg absolute ethanol orally. One hour later, all animals were sacrificed. Grossly, Group I animals showed sever mucosal injury of gastric mucosa. However, a statistically significant reduction of gastric mucosal damage (p<0.05) was seen in animals pretreated with either plant extracts (250 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg body weight) or Omeprazole compared to negative control animals. Rats pretreated with 500mg/kg plant extract or omeprazole have significantly (p<0.05) protected gastric mucosa compared to animals pretreated with 250mg/kg plant extract. Microscopically, animals (Group 1) pretreated with 10% Tween 80 and administered absolute alcohol showed severe gastric mucosal damages, submucosal edema, and leucocytes infiltration. Animals pretreated with plant extracts or omeprazole showed marked reduction of gastric mucosal damage, reduction or edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. These results indicate that M. alba extract exhibits significant anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats.
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The effect of methanolic extract of Pausinystalia macroceras stem-bark on experimentally induced ulceration and diarrhoea was investigated in rats. The extract (17.5 - 350 mg/kg) dose dependently, reduced significantly (p < 0.001) the ulcer indices induced by indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine in a dose related manner. Cimetidine (100mg/kg), a H2 receptor blocker reduced the ulcer indices (p< 0.001) induced by indomethacin and reserpine. The extract also reduced the intestinal propulsive movement, castor oil induced diarrhoea and intestinal fluid accumulation. Yohimbine (1mg/kg), an α2 adrenoceptor blocker attenuated the anti-diarrhoeal effect of the extract. The results indicated that its antiulcerogenic and antidiarrhoeal effects might in part be due to its blocking effect on H2 receptor, protection from oxygen derived free that radicals damage on rat gastric mucosa and its α2 adrenoceptor stimulation respectively.
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Objective: Butyrate enemas may be effective in the treatment of active distal ulcerative colitis. Because colonic fermentation of Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) yields butyrate, the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Plantago ovata seeds as compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. Methods: An open label, parallel-group, multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted. A total of 105 patients with ulcerative colitis who were in remission were randomized into groups to receive oral treatment with Plantago ovata seeds (10 g b.i.d.), mesalamine (500 mg t.i.d.), and Plantago ovata seeds plus mesalamine at the same doses. The primary efficacy outcome was maintenance of remission for 12 months. Results: Of the 105 patients, 102 were included in the final analysis. After 12 months, treatment failure rate was 40% (14 of 35 patients) in the Plantago ovata seed group, 35% (13 of 37) in the mesalamine group, and 30% (nine of 30) in the Plantago ovata plus mesalamine group. Probability of continued remission was similar (Mantel-Cox test, p = 0.67; intent-to-treat analysis). Therapy effects remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding variables with a Cox’s proportional hazards survival analysis. Three patients were withdrawn because of the development of adverse events consisting of constipation and/or flatulence (Plantago ovata seed group = 1 and Plantago ovata seed plus mesalamine group = 2). A significant increase in fecal butyrate levels (p = 0.018) was observed after Plantago ovata seed administration. Conclusions: Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) might be as effective as mesalamine to maintain remission in ulcerative colitis.
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Different extracts of Butea frondosa was assayed for Anti-ulcer activity in Experimental albino mice. Gastric ulcers were induced using 0.6M Hcl and the induced ulcers treated after half an hour, using oral doses of (250 and 500mg/kg) the extract. The extracts reduced ulcers moderately for the mice receiving 250 and 500mg/kg body wt of the extract. The dose of Chloroform extract (250mg/kg) showed a high reduction of ulceration with a corresponding healing rate of 46.08%.No apparent toxicity signs were observed through food, fluid intakes, animal behavior and stool texture. The above results indicates that different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform, Ethanol and aqueous) extracts of Butea frondosa leaves posses potent chemical components for the healing of Gastric ulcers. INTRODOCTION Numerous plants and herbs are used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in traditional medicine. There has been renewed interest in identifying new antiulcer drugs from natural sources [1].Before Introduction of potent Antiulcerogenic agents such as H2-receptor antagonists. Proton pump inhibitors etc. Plant remedies were widely employed for the treatment of various symptoms of peptic ulcer [2]. Butea frondosa(Roxb.) is commonly known as flame of the forest, belongs to the family Fabaceae [3]. It is locally called as palas, muttuga, common throughout India[ 4].Almost all the parts of the plant are being used since decades in medicine and for other purposes [5].These days herbal medicines are more popular than modern medicine because of their effectiveness, easy availability, low cost and for comparatively devoid of side effects [6]. Butea frondosa Roxb is a small tree which grows to a height of 12 to 15 meters. In the summer months, when most of the trees and shrubs are dry due to the scorching heat of the sun, Butea frondosa synonemous to Butea monosperma (Lam.) truly stands out like a flame in the forest with its orange coloured flowers . The leaves of this tree are collected by the local people and a few of them are oven together with small twigs to make circular disposable biodegradable leaf plates to serve food. These plates are then used by small large groups of people during specific occasions like marriages, picnics [7]. This plant is used to treat night blindness, to check elephantiasis and as a laxative and for expelling the worms from the body, in fractures of bones, in dysentery, piles, ulcers, tumors and menstrual disorders, in cough, stromatities and early stages of leprosy can be cured[8]. Because of its wide medicinal use and availability, this study was set-out to investigate the Antiulcerogenic activity of the plants. The search for novel non-toxic,antiulcer preparations medicinal plants is currently in vogue in order to obtain alternative sources of medicine for the management of gastric hyper secretion and gastroduodunal ulcers. In the developing nations, this turn of events has been prompted in by the high cost of modern antiulcer medication as well as the multiple side effects that result from their prolonged use. In Cameroon, a nation wide OAU/STRC sponsored Ethano botanical survey revealed the presence of many plants purported by traditional practitioners to be efficient for the management of complaints symptomatic of peptic ulcer disease [1, 20]. No report has been available on the antiulcer activity of leaves of Butea frondosa .Hence, the present study is aimed to investigate the healing effect of the B.f. extracts on chronic experimental ulcers induced mice by treating 0.6M Hcl to mice following pyloric ligation ulcer model at four different solvent extracts like Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts with two different concentration 250mg and 500mg/kg body wt.