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sp. as a potential probiotic for the
prevention of
Paenibacillus larvae
infection in honey bees
Dagmar Mudroňová1*, Juraj Toporčák1, Radomíra Nemcová1, Soňa Gancarčíková1,
Vanda Hajdučková1 and Katarína Rumanovská1
1University of Veterinary Medicine, Komenskeho 73, 041 81, Košice, Slovak Republic.
Received 19 September 2011, accepted for publication 27 September 2011.
*Corresponding author: Email:
, probiotic, honey bee,
Paenibacillus larvae
Journal of Apicultural Research
50(4): 323-324 (2011) © IBRA 2011
DOI 10.3896/IBRA.
American foulbrood (AFB) is amongst the most dangerous of bee
diseases, affecting many honey bee colonies worldwide each year.
This contagious disease is caused by sporulating Gram-positive
Paenibacillus larvae
. In most countries veterinary legislation
requires that any bee colonies testing positive for AFB be destroyed,
with high financial costs. Elsewhere, AFB is fought radically by the
application of antibiotics and sulphonamides, but administration of
drugs has little beneficial effect, merely obscuring clinical symptoms
and risking the accumulation of drug residues in honey bee products.
One of the most progressive treatment possibilities without the use of
drugs is the application of probiotics or other natural substances.
Their beneficial biological influence has no side effects on the
organism or environmental risks. The use of probiotics in the
prevention and therapy of AFB is poorly studied, in particular the use
of autochtonous strains isolated from honey bees. The main aim of
this study was therefore to isolate lactobacilli from the honey bee
digestive tract and select them for potential probiotic use for the
prevention of
P. larvae
Forty digestive tracts (intestine, stomach and rectal sac) were
taken from healthy adult from three full sized honey bee colonies,
which belong to the University of Veterinary Medicine in Košice,
Slovakia. The digestive tracts were homogenized in 10 ml of sterile
physiological solution with 0.5% cysteine. Lactobacilli were isolated in
MRS broth resp. agar (Oxoid; Basingstoke, UK) for 24 and 48 h
respectively at 37°C in 80% CO2 and 20% N2 atmosphere. We
received 40 isolates of lactobacilli which were further selected for
probiotic use based on their ability to survive long term storage, anti-
bacterial activity against
P. larvae
growth properties, and production
of organic acids. From 20 isolates stored at -20°C for 5 months in
glycerine freezing medium 9 isolates (45%) were able to grow in MRS
broth and from 20 isolates stored at -20°C for 5 years 8 isolates
(40%) survived. All surviving isolates (17) were able to auto-
aggregate in MRS broth. Their antibacterial activity against a wild
strain of
P. larvae
, isolated from infected combs from an apiary in
Kožany, Slovakia, was tested by a modified paper disc assay
et al.,
2004). For each isolate of
an arithmetical
mean of zone diameters from three measurements was calculated.
Based on the calculated arithmetical means, the tested strains were
divided into non-inhibiting to weak inhibiting (< 10 mm), middle
inhibiting (10 mm zone 16 mm) and strong inhibiting strains (>
16 mm).
From 17 isolates tested, two were not able to inhibit the growth of
P. larvae
and the inhibitive activity of five strains was only weak.
Seven isolates showed middle inhibitive activity and three (22/C, 50/
C, 12/C) showed strong inhibition. These strains were characterized
based on their biochemical and growth properties and identification
was confirmed by rep-PCR method (Gevers
et al.
, 2001). Concentration
of organic acids in the bacterial cultures was determined by capillary
isotachophoresis (Nemcová
et al.
, 2007). Isolates 22/C and 12/C were
identified as the same strain of
L. brevis
and isolate 50/C as
L. plantarum
. The growth dynamic of both strains was similar
whereby no significant differences were found (Fig. 1). Decrease of
pH was significantly faster in
L. plantarum
from the 8th to 24th hour of
growth (p < 0.001) in comparison to
L. brevis
, in accordance with
significantly higher production of lactic acid by
L. plantarum
L. plantarum
produced high concentration of lactic
acid (269.2 ± 14.30 mmol.l-1) and lower concentrations of acetic
(78.1 ± 4.83 mmol.l-1), acetoacetic (23.4 ± 2.08 mmol.l-1) and
propionic acid (17.9 ± 7.05 mmol.l-1). Heterofermentative
L. brevis
produced in the highest concentrations of acetic (73.9 ± 5.87 mmol.l-1),
lactic (42.9 ± 3.29 mmol.l-1), and acetoacetic acid (27.2 ± 1.69 mmol.l-1).
All these properties are good prerequisites for the use of both strains
for the prevention of
P. larvae
infection in honey bees, but further
studies are necessary.
GEVERS, D; HUYS, G; SWINGS, J (2001) Applicability of rep-PCR
fingerprinting for identification of
Microbiology Letters
205: 31–36. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-
Effects of the administration of lactobacilli, maltodextrins and
fructooligosaccharides upon the adhesion of
E. coli
O8:K88 to the
intestinal mucosa and organic acid levels in the gut contents of
Veterinary Research Communications
31: 791–800. DOI:
as probiotic bacteria.
Iranian Journal of Public Health
33(2): 1–7.
324 Mudroňová, Toporčák, Nemcová, Gancarčíková, Hajdučková, Rumanovská
Fig. 1.
The increase of absorbancy, numbers of lactobacilli and decrease of pH of the growing media during the growth of
L. brevis
L. plantarum
= 3).
... In addition, the antimicrobial activity of LAB for biological control of Melissococcus plutonius and P. larvae, the causative agents of European and American foulbrood, was shown [25,26]. The LAB belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were isolated from different sources including the gut of adult bees, brood, brood comb, and honey, and were demonstrated to be the potential probiotic candidates for the inhibition of P. larvae [27][28][29][30]. Further investigations are necessary to identify bacterial species that inhibit P. larvae, are safe to honey bee larvae, and meet the requirements for probiotic bacteria. ...
... The LAB species with an inhibitory effect against P. larvae were previously isolated from the gut of A. mellifera L. and identified as strains of 11 species in the genus Lactobacillus (L. kunkeei, L. plantatarum, L. apinorum, L. mellis, L. kimbladii, L. kullabergensis, L. mellifer, L. apis, L. helsingborgensis, L. brevis, and L. melliventris) [25,29,30,42,48,49], and strains of two species in genus Bifidobacterium (B. asteroides and B. coryneforme) [42,48]. ...
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Background American foulbrood (AFB) disease caused by Paenibacillus larvae is dangerous, and threatens beekeeping. The eco-friendly treatment method using probiotics is expected to be the prospective method for controlling this pathogen in honey bees. Therefore, this study investigated the bacterial species that have antimicrobial activity against P. larvae. Results Overall, 67 strains of the gut microbiome were isolated and identified in three phyla; the isolates had the following prevalence rates: Firmicutes 41/67 (61.19%), Actinobacteria 24/67 (35.82%), and Proteobacteria 2/67 (2.99%). Antimicrobial properties against P. larvae on agar plates were seen in 20 isolates of the genus Lactobacillus, Firmicutes phylum. Six representative strains from each species (L. apis HSY8_B25, L. panisapium PKH2_L3, L. melliventris HSY3_B5, L. kimbladii AHS3_B36, L. kullabergensis OMG2_B25, and L. mellis OMG2_B33) with the largest inhibition zones on agar plates were selected for in vitro larvae rearing challenges. The results showed that three isolates (L. apis HSY8_B25, L. panisapium PKH2_L3, and L. melliventris HSY3_B5) had the potential to be probiotic candidates with the properties of safety to larvae, inhibition against P. larvae in infected larvae, and high adhesion ability. Conclusions Overall, 20 strains of the genus Lactobacillus with antimicrobial properties against P. larvae were identified in this study. Three representative strains from different species (L. apis HSY8_B25, L. panisapium PKH2_L3, and L. melliventris HSY3_B5) were evaluated to be potential probiotic candidates and were selected for probiotic development for the prevention of AFB. Importantly, the species L. panisapium isolated from larvae was identified with antimicrobial activity for the first time in this study.
... Bakteri menguntungkan yang ditemukan bersimbiosis dengan lebah madu dan berada dalam madu di antaranya beberapa jenis bakteri asam laktat. L. kunkeei, L. plantarum, L. apis, L. Paraplantarum, dan L. helsingborgensis merupakan mikroba utama dari spesies Lactobacillus yang ditemukan pada berbagai madu jenis Apis, bumblebees, sweat bees, dan stingless bees (Endo dan Salminen, 2013, Mudroňová et al., 2011, Olofsson et al., 2014, Parichehreh et al., 2018. Madu memiliki pH rendah yaitu antara pH 3,2 hingga 4,5 yang disebabkan oleh adanya asam organik (Almasaudi, 2021), sehingga BAL yang dapat bertahan dan tumbuh pada madu memiliki potensi untuk bertahan pada saluran pencernaan. ...
... Spesies Lactiplantibacillus diisolasi dari berbagai pangan fermentasi dan juga ditemukan pada habitat insekta atau pada saluran pencernaan vertebrata (Zheng et al., 2020). Keberadaan L. plantarum pada madu juga dilaporkan oleh peneliti lainnya (Mudroňová et al., 2011;Parichehreh et al., 2018). Keberadaan Pediococcus acidilactici pada madu belum pernah dilaporkan oleh peneliti lainnya. ...
Full-text available
Certain strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) especially from the genus of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria have been recognized to have health beneficial effect as probiotics. Honey has been known to have health beneficial effects and contains lactic acid bacteria. However, information pertaining the characteristics of LAB from honey is still limited. The present research aimed to isolate LAB from different types of honey and to evaluate their potency as probiotic. The LAB were enumerated and isolated from honey produced by three different honeybees: Apis cerana, Heterotrigona itama, and Trigona laeviceps. The results showed the count of LAB in three different honey ranged from 5.0x101 to 2.3x107 CFU/mL and affected by different time of sampling. The highest of average LAB count was found in honey of Heterotrigona itama. There were 48 Gram positive catalase-negative bacterial isolates obtained from the three different honey types. Twelve isolates were selected based on their survival in bile salt. The twelve selected isolates were capable of growing in MRSB pH 2.5, and MRSB containing 0.3% bile salt. They also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Identification based on 16S rRNA revealed that of the twelve isolates, nine were identified as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and three others as Pediococcus acidilactici. The twelve isolates showed high survival at low pH dan bile salt and exhibited antimicrobial activity against pathogen, hence they are considered as probiotic candidates.
... nov.), isolated from the honey crop (stomach) and detected mainly in the digestive tracts of 3-day-old honey bees, foraging workers and honey bee drones (Killer et al. 2014), the potent lactic acid producers of L. plantarum and L. brevis (Mudroňová et al. 2011), three L. johnsonii strains (including L. johnsonii CRL1647) (Audisio et al. 2011) and a set of LAB isolated from the gut (from esophagus to rectum) of worker honey bees (Kačániová et al. 2018, 2020, Al-Ghamdi et al. 2020, Iorizzo et al. 2020, Bielik et al. 2021, Zeid et al. 2022, Iorizzo et al. 2022, Enterococcus faecium EFD (Dimov et al. 2020) and Enterococcus durans EDD2 (Lactobacillales, Enterococcaceae) (Gyurova et al. 2021) isolated from freshly collected pollen granules. In addition, metabolites and peptides, produced by LAB in honey, endowed polyfloral honeys with anti-P. ...
Full-text available
American foulbrood (AFB) is a cosmopolitan bacterial disease that affects honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae and causes great economic losses in apiculture. Currently, no satisfactory methods are available for AFB treatment mainly due to the difficulties to eradicate the tenacious spores produced by the etiological agent of AFB, Paenibacillus larvae (Bacillales, Paenibacillaceae). This present review focused on the beneficial bacteria that displayed antagonistic activities against P. larvae and demonstrated potential in AFB control. Emphases were placed on commensal bacteria (genus Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria in particular) in the alimentary tract of honey bees. The probiotic roles lactic acid bacteria play in combating the pathogenic P. larvae and the limitations referring to the application of these beneficial bacteria were addressed.
... Despite many strains with capacity to inhibit spore germination or vegetative growth of P. larvae, their mechanisms of action to confer health benefits remain poorly understood. The intrinsic ability of LAB strains to produce lactic acid (which can lower pH and thereby exclude the growth of many pathogens) has been proposed as a prerequisite for P. larvae inhibition [72]. However, the differential inhibition properties between closely related LAB suggest that other strain-specific factors may also be involved [73]. ...
Paenibacillus larvae is a spore-forming bacterial entomopathogen and causal agent of the important honey bee larval disease, American foulbrood (AFB). Active infections by vegetative P. larvae are often deadly, highly transmissible, and incurable for colonies but, when dormant, the spore form of this pathogen can persist asymptomatically for years. Despite intensive investigation over the past century, this process has remained enigmatic. Here, we provide an up-to-date synthesis on the often overlooked microbiota factors involved in the spore-to-vegetative growth transition (corresponding with the onset of AFB disease symptoms) and offer a novel outlook on AFB pathogenesis by focusing on the 'collaborative' and 'competitive' interactions between P. larvae and other honey bee-adapted microorganisms. Furthermore, we discuss the health trade-offs associated with chronic antibiotic exposure and propose new avenues for the sustainable control of AFB via probiotic and microbiota management strategies.
... In this study, Al. kunkeei EIR/BG-1 exhibited a strong antagonistic activity against P. larvae. Similar to our results, different strains of Al. kunkeei (Vásquez et al. 2012;Lamei et al.2019), various lactic acid bacteria strains and spore-forming bacteria from bee gut, honey, and apiarian sources exhibited very strong antagonistic activity against P. larvae under in vitro conditions (Audisio et al. 2011;Mudronova et al. 2011;Butler et al. 2013;Olofsson et al. 2014;Arredondo et al. 2018). According to the literature, a wide variety of metabolites and peptides secreted by these bacteria such as bacteriocin and bacteriocin-like compounds, deconjugated bile acids, alcohols, organic acids, and H 2 O 2 could be responsible for the inhibition (Lamei et al. 2019). ...
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The significant reduction of honey bee colonies due to the various infectious agents highlights the need for the development of new alternatives and integrated management strategies to keep a hive strong and healthy. The main purpose of this study was to develop an environmentally and friendly microbial feed supplements to prevent honey bee mortality and keep the bee colony population healthy and productive. For this aim, Apilactobacillus kunkeei EIR/BG-1 isolated from honey bee gut microbiota was evaluated for its preventive role against American Foulbrood disease and nosemosis. To test the ability of the strain EIR/BG-1 for suppressing Paenibacillus larvae growth under in vitro conditions, the agar well diffusion method was used and viable cells of the strain EIR/BG-1 inhibited the growth of P. larvae with an efficient inhibition zone (24 ± 0.8 mm) similar to tetracycline antibiotic (30 µg). To determine the preventive role of the strain EIR/BG-1 on infection progression, its viable cells were applied against nosemosis in a laboratory experimental setting. Our results showed that prophylactic supplementation of Al. kunkeei EIR/BG-1 (106 cfu/bee) significantly reduced the spore load (66 ± 6.1%). Besides, gene expression of antimicrobial peptides in gut tissue has been up-regulated and infected midgut epithelium integrity and peritrophic membrane production were improved. In conclusion, our findings suggest that prophylactic supplementation of Al. kunkeei EIR/BG-1 as a natural strategy may enhance the honey bee's response when challenged by pathogens. Field applications towards gaining a better understanding of its biocontrol role will be the main goal of our future researches.
... Then, F77 showed suitable properties that make it good for its use as a probiotic in the honeybee diet. LAB has been shown to be important in controlling this disease by several studies (Daisley et al., 2020;Lamei et al., 2020;Mudroňová et al., 2011). ...
Full-text available
Abstract Weissella strains have been reported to be useful in biotechnological and probiotic determinations, and some of them are considered opportunistic pathogens. Given the widespread interest about antimicrobial susceptibilities, transmission of resistances, and virulence factors, there is little research available on such topics for Weissella. The aim of this study was to assess the safety aspects and antimicrobial potential of 54 Weissella spp. strains from different environmental sources. Antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity, horizontal transfer, and antibacterial activity were studied, as well as the detection of biogenic amine BA production on decarboxylase medium and PCR was performed. All the strains were nonhemolytic and sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin. Several strains were classified as resistant to fusidic acid, and very low resistance rates were detected to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, streptomycin, lincomycin, erythromycin, and rifampicin, although all strains had intrinsic resistance to vancomycin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, and teicoplanin. Two BA‐producing strains (W. halotolerans FAS30 and FAS29) exhibited tyrosine decarboxylase activity, and just one W. confusa FS077 produced both tyramine and histamine, and their genetic determinants were identified. Ornithine decarboxylase/odc gene was found in 16 of the Weissella strains, although 3 of them synthesize putrescine. Interestingly, eight strains with good properties displayed antibacterial activity. Conjugation frequencies of erythromycin from Bacillus to Weissella spp. varied in the average of 3 × 10−9 transconjugants/recipient. However, no tetracycline‐resistant transconjugant was obtained with Enterococcus faecalis JH2‐2 as recipient. The obtained results support the safe status of Weissella strains, derived from environmental sources, when used as probiotics in animal feed.
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European foulbrood (EFB), a serious disease affecting honey bee larvae, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apididae), is caused by the Gram‐positive bacterium Melissococcus plutonius corrig. (ex White) Bailey & Collins. In this in‐vitro study, we evaluated the inhibitory potential of microbial metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from the honey bee gut, against M. plutonius. Several LAB species were identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. Their filtered cell‐free supernatant (CFS) fluids were evaluated individually and in combination against growth and survival of three concentrations of M. plutonius (104–106 colony‐forming units mL‐1), for various time intervals (24–96 h), in agar‐well diffusion and broth micro‐dilution assays. We also assessed whether the bioactive metabolites from selected LAB isolates consisted of acids, bacteriocins, and/or hydrogen peroxide, and quantified the presence of short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA; i.e., acetic, butyric, lactic, and propionic acid) by means of high‐performance liquid chromatography. Six LAB isolates inhibited M. plutonius growth: Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro) Hansen & Mocquot, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (Hansen) Zheng et al., Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (Orla‐Jensen) Zheng et al. (two isolates), Lactobacillus apis Killer et al., and Pediococcus acidilactici Lindner. The inhibitory effects on M. plutonius were larger at the lowest than at the highest M. plutonius concentration, and P. acidilactici showed the strongest antibacterial activity. Exposure to a mixture of CFS fluids of the four most potent isolates could reduce M. plutonius survival to 0% within 96 h. The antagonistic activity in the CFS of L. rhamnosus and L. apis appeared to be related to the presence of acids, whereas the antagonistic activity in L. plantarum and P. acidilactici appeared to be related to the presence of bacteriocins or bacteriocin‐like inhibitory substances (BLIS). Hydrogen peroxide did not seem to play a role. Total SCFA levels were highest in L. rhamnosus CFS fluid. These results can serve as a basis for in vivo studies on the use of LAB isolates as potential biocontrol agents against EFB in honey bees.
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Background Objective of this work was to investigate the impact of isolated honeybee-specific-lactic acid bacteria (Hbs-LAB) that isolated from worker's bee intestinal tracts on bee health as well as bee colony activity parameters. Independent assays were conducted from February to July, 2021 in apiary yard of Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Colonies were allocated to 2 experimental groups each of 10 colonies, Control colonies were fed with sugar syrup, while the treated colonies were fed with sugar syrup supplemented with mixture of Hbs-LAB ( Lactobacillus brevis- HBE2, Lactobacillus casei -HBE5, and Enterococcus Faecalis -HBE1, 3 gm bacterial belts (1:1:1) mixed with 1.5 L of sugar syrup. Results The treated colonies recorded high significant differences in all activity parameters (worker's and drone's brood areas, amount of honey and pollen stored, and no. of combs covered with bees) than controlled colonies. In addition, total protein in workers hemolymph samples of treated colonies showed more number of protein bands and the hemolymph molecular low weight protein bands was 99.24 ± 0.3, whereas the high weight protein bands reached 183.87 ± 0.3 KDa, while for untreated colonies the hemolymph molecular low weight protein bands (KDa) were 70.99 ± 0.3 and the high weight protein bands reached 171.57 ± 0.2 KDa. Conclusions The Hbs-LAB proved to be a natural protocol that will positively impact the beekeepers’ economy by providing a higher yield of bee products as well as improve the protein values in worker’s hemolymph which is a superior tool for colonies resistance against several diseases that attack their hives.
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Honey bees are a very important species in terms of economy, agriculture, and environment. In recent years, there has been a significant reduction in honey bee colonies in some parts of the world. Honeybee losses are not an unusual event, but there has been a significant reduction in honey bee colonies in many countries around the world. Due to the different social behaviors of honey bees, it is difficult to identify the main factors causing colony losses. According to the latest research, colony losses are mainly caused by parasites, diseases, bee keeping practices, and bee management including reproduction, changes in climatic conditions, agricultural practices and pesticide use, pesticides, nutrition, and beekeeping practices. In this review, the structure of prebiotic, probiotic, climate change, and vitollegen, which causes colony losses, is emphasized, and the potential solutions of these factors that will shed light on colony losses in honey bees from a different point of view are emphasized. In addition, bibliometric analysis was performed using the SCOPUS database to emphasize the importance of probiotic microorganisms and vitellogen.
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Because of inhibitory effect, selected probiotic lactobacilli may be used as biological preservative, so, the aim of this study was to present some data on lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sausage. Each isolate of lactobacillus species was identified by biochemical tests and comparing their sugar fermentation pattern. Antibacterial activities were done by an agar spot, well diffusion and blank disk method. Enzyme sensitivity of supernatant fluid and concentrated cell free culture after treatment with α-amylase, lysozyme and trypsin was determined. The isolated bacteria were Lacto. plantarum, Lacto delbruekii, Lacto. acidophilus, Lacto. brevis. The isolated bacteria had strong activity against indicator strains. The antibacterial activity was stable at 100ºC for 10 min and at 56ºC for 30 min, but activity was lost after autoclaving. The maximum production of plantaricin was obtained at 25 - 30ºC at pH 6.5. Because, lactobacilli that used to process sausage fermentation are producing antimicrobial activity with heat stability bacteriocin, so, these bacteria may be considered to be a healthy probiotic diet. Lactobacilli originally isolated from meat products are the best condidates as probiotic bacteria to improve the microbiological safety of these foods.
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The influence of the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum, maltodextrin Maldex 150 and Raftifeed IPX fructooligosaccharides on the inhibition of adhesion of E. coli O8:K88 to the mucosa of the jejunum, ileum and colon as well as on the organic acid levels was investigated in 33 conventional piglets. The counts of E. coli K88 adhering to the jejunal mucosa were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in Lact. plantarum + Maldex 150 and Lact. plantarum + Maldex 150 + Raftifeed IPX groups. The counts of E. coli K88 adhering to the colonic mucosa of Lact. plantarum + Maldex 150 + Raftifeed IPX and Lact. plantarum + Raftifeed IPX groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in Lact. plantarum and Lact. plantarum + Maldex 150 animals. The acetic acid levels in the ileum and colon of the Lact. plantarum + Maldex 150 + Raftifeed IPX group and Lact. plantarum + Raftifeed IPX group were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in the Lact. plantarum and Lact. plantarum + Maldex 150 group. The combination of Lact. plantarum, maltodextrin Maldex 150 and Raftifeed IPX proved to be the most effective one to inhibit the counts of E. coli O8:K88 adhering to the intestinal mucosa of the jejunum and colon of conventional piglets.
PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements fingerprinting using the (GTG)5 primer ((GTG)5-PCR) was proven to be useful for differentiation of a wide range of lactobacilli (i.e. 26 different (sub)species) at the species, subspecies and potentially up to the strain level. Using this rapid and reproducible genotypic technique, new Lactobacillus isolates recovered from different types of fermented dry sausage could be reliable identified at the (sub)species level. In conclusion, (GTG)5-PCR was found to be a promising genotypic tool for rapid and reliable speciation and typing of lactobacilli and other lactic acid bacteria important in food-fermentation industries.
Rumanovská Fig. 1. The increase of absorbancy, numbers of lactobacilli and decrease of pH of the growing media during the growth of L
  • Mudroňová
  • Toporčák
  • Nemcová
  • Hajdučková Gancarčíková
Mudroňová, Toporčák, Nemcová, Gancarčíková, Hajdučková, Rumanovská Fig. 1. The increase of absorbancy, numbers of lactobacilli and decrease of pH of the growing media during the growth of L. brevis and L. plantarum (n = 3).
Effects of the administration of lactobacilli, maltodextrins and fructooligosaccharides upon the adhesion of E. coli O8:K88 to the intestinal mucosa and organic acid levels in the gut contents of piglets Study of Lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria
  • J Jonecová
  • Z Sciranková
  • Ľ Bugarský
  • J Mirzaii
  • M Norouzi
KOŠČOVÁ, J; JONECOVÁ, Z; SCIRANKOVÁ, Ľ; BUGARSKÝ, A (2007) Effects of the administration of lactobacilli, maltodextrins and fructooligosaccharides upon the adhesion of E. coli O8:K88 to the intestinal mucosa and organic acid levels in the gut contents of piglets. Veterinary Research Communications 31: 791–800. DOI: 10.1007/s11259-007-0048-x NOWROOZI, J; MIRZAII, M; NOROUZI, M (2004) Study of Lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Iranian Journal of Public Health 33(2): 1–7.