Article

Overview of Mechanisms and Uses of Trichoderma spp.

Phytopathology (Impact Factor: 3.12). 03/2006; 96(2):190-4. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-96-0190
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fungi in the genus Trichoderma have been known since at least the 1920s for their ability to act as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Until recently, the principal mechanisms for control have been assumed to be those primarily acting upon the pathogens and included mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition for resources and space. Recent advances demonstrate that the effects of Trichoderma on plants, including induced systemic or localized resistance, are also very important. These fungi colonize the root epidermis and outer cortical layers and release bioactive molecules that cause walling off of the Trichoderma thallus. At the same time, the transcriptome and the proteome of plants are substantially altered. As a consequence, in addition to induction of pathways for resistance in plants, increased plant growth and nutrient uptake occur. However, at least in maize, the increased growth response is genotype specific, and some maize inbreds respond negatively to some strains. Trichoderma spp. are beginning to be used in reasonably large quantities in plant agriculture, both for disease control and yield increases. The studies of mycoparasitism also have demonstrated that these fungi produce a rich mixture of antifungal enzymes, including chitinases and beta-1,3 glucanases. These enzymes are synergistic with each other, with other antifungal enzymes, and with other materials. The genes encoding the enzymes appear useful for producing transgenic plants resistant to diseases and the enzymes themselves are beneficial for biological control and other processes.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Gary Harman, Oct 16, 2014
  • Source
    • "Trichoderma spp. have been shown to be effective biocontrol agents of soilborne fungi (Benítez et al. 2004;Harman 2006) and plant-parasitic nematodes (Affokpon et al. 2011). They also have been shown to inhibit the growth of Phytophthora spp. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infested container nursery beds are an important source of soilborne Phytophthora spp. for initiating disease through movement with surface water or splashing onto foliage. We investigated the effects of soil solarization, alone or with subsequent amendment with a Trichoderma asperellum biocontrol agent, on the survival of Phytophthora spp. inoculum. In field trials conducted with Phytophthora ramorum in San Rafael, CA and with P. pini in Corvallis, OR, infested rhododendron leaf inoculum was buried at 5, 15, and 30 cm below the soil surface. Solarization for 2 or 4 weeks during summer 2012 eliminated recovery of Phytophthora spp. buried at all depths in California trial 1, at 5 and 15 cm in California trial 2, but only at 5 cm in Oregon. There was no significant reduction of Phytophthora spp. recovery after T. asperellum application. Although the population densities of the introduced T. asperellum at the 5-cm depth were often two- to fourfold higher in solarized compared with nonsolarized plots, they were not significantly different (P = 0.052). Soil solarization appears to be a promising technique for disinfesting the upper layer of soil in container nurseries under certain conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Plant Disease
  • Source
    • "The growth-free zone is possibly due to Trichoderma spp. producing metabolites such as viridin and its derivatives, which function as antimicrobials (Benitez et al., 2004; Harman, 2006; Hoitink et al., 2006; Vinale et al., 2008). Finally, it was observed in T. harzianum strain HTE810 that the M. phaseolina strain HMP5 has a statistically significantly decreased growth rate, which was the initial impetus of these trials. "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
  • Source
    • "In addition, it has been shown extensively that Trichoderma spp. can increase plant growth by the ability to raise nutrient uptake and optimize photosynthetic rates (Chang et al., 1986; Harman, 2006). In the wild, Trichoderma ssp. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The fungal species Trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. To verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with T. harzianum strain T22, a Q-PCR was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. To develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of T. harzianum could be distinguished. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing of the L-aminoacid oxidase gene (aox1) in T. harzianum was applied to determine the mutations differing between various strains isolated from the Trichoderma collection of Koppert Biological Systems. Based on the sequence information obtained, a set of hydrolysis probes was subsequently developed which discriminated T. harzianum T22 strains varying in only a single nucleotide. Probes designed for two strains uniquely recognized the respective strains in Q-PCR with a detection limit of 12,5ng DNA. Titration assays in which T. harzianum DNA from distinct strains was varied further underscored the specificity of the probes. Lastly, fungal DNA extracted from roots of greenhouse cultured tomato plants was analyzed using the probe-based assay. DNA from T. harzianum strain T22 could readily be identified on roots of greenhouse reared tomato plants inoculated with varying concentrations up to one week after treatment with a detection limit of 3e6 colony forming units of T. harzianum T22. We conclude that the Q-PCR method is a reliable and robust method for assessing the presence and quantity of T. harzianum strain T22 in manually inoculated plant material. Our method provides scope for the development of DNA based strain specific identification of additional strains of Trichoderma and other fungal biological control agents.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of microbiological methods
Show more