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Tomato powder in laying hen diets: Effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation



1. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance, egg quality, serum and egg yolk carotenoids, vitamins and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in were investigated in laying hens in mid-lay. 2. A total of 90 laying hens, 49 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate cages, 5 birds per cage. Birds were randomly fed on one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet added with 5 or 10 g tomato powder per kg diet. 3. As tomato powder concentration increased, there were linear increases in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk colour and a linear decrease in feed conversion. Shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh unit remained unchanged in response to dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, β-carotene, lutein and vitamin A increased for both diets including tomato powder, whereas MDA decreased linearly with increasing supplemental tomato powder concentration. 5. Tomato powder supplementation increased egg production persistency and increased carotenoids and vitamin A contents in egg yolk, accompanied by reduced yolk lipid peroxidation.
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British Poultry Science
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Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on
concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid
F. Akdemir a , C. Orhan b , N. Sahin b , Dr K. Sahin a & A. Hayirli c
a Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dicle University,
21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey
b Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, 23119
Elazig, Turkey
c Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Atatürk University,
25240 Erzurum, Turkey
Accepted author version posted online: 24 Sep 2012.Version of record first published: 03
Jan 2013.
To cite this article: F. Akdemir , C. Orhan , N. Sahin , Dr K. Sahin & A. Hayirli (2012): Tomato powder in laying hen diets:
effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation, British Poultry Science, 53:5, 675-680
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British Poultry Science Volume 53, Number 5 (October 2012), pp. 675
Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk
carotenoids and lipid peroxidation
Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey,
Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig, Turkey, and
Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Atatu¨rk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
Abstract 1. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance, egg quality, serum and
egg yolk carotenoids, vitamins and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in were investigated in
laying hens in mid-lay.
2. A total of 90 laying hens, 49 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate cages, 5
birds per cage. Birds were randomly fed on one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet added with 5 or
10 g tomato powder per kg diet.
3. As tomato powder concentration increased, there were linear increases in feed intake, egg
production, egg weight and yolk colour and a linear decrease in feed conversion. Shell weight, shell
thickness and Haugh unit remained unchanged in response to dietary treatments.
4. Concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, -carotene, lutein and vitamin A increased for both
diets including tomato powder, whereas MDA decreased linearly with increasing supplemental tomato
powder concentration.
5. Tomato powder supplementation increased egg production persistency and increased carotenoids
and vitamin A contents in egg yolk, accompanied by reduced yolk lipid peroxidation.
Carotenoids are pigmented phytochemicals
responsible for red, yellow and orange colours
of fruits and vegetables (Mangels et al., 1993; Rao
and Agarwal, 1999). Tomato, one of the carote-
noid-rich fruits, contains large quantities of
lycopene (80
90% of total carotenoids), -caro-
tene (7
10%) and smaller quantities of lutein,
-carotene, g-carotene, -carotene, violaxanthin,
zeaxanthin, neoxanthin, -cryptoxanthin, -cryp-
toxanthin, neurosporene, phytoene, phytofluene,
cyclolycopene and some other beneficial mole-
cules such as vitamin E, vitamin C and flavonoids
(Bourne and Rice-Evans, 1998; Nguyen and
Schwartz, 1999; Khachik et al., 2002; Burns
et al., 2003). Lycopene possesses a powerful
antioxidant activity, protects cells/tissues from
the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen
species (Di-Mascio et al., 1989; Rao and Shen,
2002). In association with these properties, lyco-
pene has been shown to play an important role in
preventing certain types of cancer, cardiovascular
and degenerative diseases, improving gene regu-
lation, gap-junction communications, immune
functions and hormonal and metabolic pathways
(Zhang et al., 1991; Gerster, 1993; Meydani et al.,
1995; Mayne, 1996; Aust et al., 2003; Rao et al.,
2006). Other useful compounds present in
tomato such as -carotene, lutein and flavonoids
also exert antioxidant effects (Hertog et al., 1993;
Khachik et al., 1995; Mayne, 1996).
Acceptability of foods of animal origin is a
very important factor in human nutrition
(Angelo, 1992; Flachowsky et al., 2002). Some
phytochemicals, such as isoflavones, polyphenols
Correspondence to: Dr Kazim Sahin, Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Firat University, 23119 Elazig, Turkey.
Accepted for publication 30th May 2012.
ISSN 0007–1668(print)/ISSN 1466–1799 (online)/12/050675
6ß2012 British Poultry Science Ltd
Downloaded by [Inonu Universitesi] at 22:26 03 January 2013
and carotenoids, are added to animal diets to
improve product quality with respect to colour,
tenderness, oxidative stability and storage prop-
erties (Hertog et al., 1993; Adlercreutz, 1995;
Rock et al., 1996; McCall and Frei, 1999). These
beneficial phytochemicals can easily pass into
and accumulate in the animal food product
(Leeson and Caston, 2004; Cachaldora et al.,
2008; Sahin et al., 2008a; Akdemir and Sahin,
2009; Sahin et al., 2010). Therefore, the objective
in this study was to determine the effect of
dietary tomato powder supplementation on per-
formance, egg quality and lipid peroxidation in
mid-lay hens.
A total of 90 49-week-old white laying hens
(Lohman LSL, hybrid) were used in accordance
with animal welfare regulations at the Umut
Tavukculuk of Elazig, Turkey. Hens were
assigned randomly to one of three groups. Each
treatment consisted of 6 replicate cages of 5 birds
per cage. The birds were housed in wire cages
and exposed to a 16 L:8D illumination cycle.
Feed and fresh water were offered ad libitum
throughout the experiment.
After a 10-d adaptation period, birds were
given diets containing 0, 5 or 10 g tomato powder
per kg diet for a period of 90 d. Tomato powder
(Natural Carotenoid Biomass with Lycopene
Vitan Ltd., Dneprovsky, Ukraine) contained 11%
protein and 6% lycopene. Experimental diets
(Table 1) were stored in black plastic containers
at 4C to avoid photo-oxidation. Feed consump-
tion was measured weekly and egg production
rate and egg weights were recorded daily. At the
end of the study, egg quality parameters (egg
weight, yolk colour, yolk weight, shell weight,
shell thickness and Haugh unit) were measured
on two eggs collected randomly from each of 6
replicates per group. Egg yolk colour was deter-
mined by using the Roche Color Fan according to
the CIE standard colorimetric system. Haugh
units were calculated using following formula:
Haugh unit ¼100x log (H þ757
17x W
where H ¼albumen height, mm and W ¼egg
weight, g (Eisen et al., 1962) after determining
albumen height by a micrometer (Saginomiya,
TLM-N1010, Japan) and egg weight.
Feed samples were analysed in triplicate for
crude protein (#98805), ether extract (#93206),
crude fibre (#96209), crude ash (#93607), Ca
(#96808) and P (#96517) (AOAC, 1990). Energy
and amino acid (methionine and lysine) contents
were calculated from tabular values listed for the
feedstuffs (Jurgens, 1996). A total of 12 eggs from
each group were collected randomly and yolks
were separated from albumen. For serum
analysis, blood samples were collected from the
axillary vein of two hens from each of 6 cages per
group. Yolk and serum samples were subjected to
duplicate analyses for carotenoids (lycopene,
-carotene and lutein) (Stahl and Sies, 1992),
vitamins (A and E) (Mori et al., 2003) and MDA
(Karatepe, 2004) using high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC, Shimadzu, Kyoto,
Japan). All-trans-retinol and -tocopherol were
used as standards (Sigma Chemical Co., St Louis,
MO). The equipment for HPLC consisted of a
pump (LC-20AD), a Diode Array Detector (SPD-
M10A) for carotenoids, vitamins and MDA, a
column oven (CTO-10ASVP), an autosampler
(SIL-20 A) a degasser unit (DGU-20A5), column
(Inertsil ODS-3, 250x 46 mm, 5 mm) and a com-
puter system with LC solution Software
(Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan).
In sample size calculation, 10% improvement
in egg lycopene concentration was considered to
be significant at type I error of 005 with the
power of 085. Data were subjected to one-way
ANOVA using the PROC MIXED procedure of
Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 1999). Linear
model to test effects of dietary tomato powder
supplementation on animal performance and
egg quality was y
, where
y¼response variable, m¼population mean,
Table 1. Ingredient and nutrient composition of the
basal diet
Ingredient g/kg
Maize 6300
Soybean meal 1958
Meat-bone meal 500
Soy oil 227
Limestone 890
Dicalcium phosphate 25
Vitamin-mineral premix
Sodium chloride 20
Sodium bicarbonate 20
Chemical analyses (g/kg, dry matter basis)
Metabolisable energy, MJ/kg 1176
Crude protein 170275
Crude fat 45024
Crude fibre 35213
Crude ash 120860
Calcium 40017
Phosphorus 35018
Methionine 46
Lysine 91
Tomato powder was added into diets at expense of maize.
Supplied per kg of diet: retinyl acetate, 4128 mg; cholecalciferol, 60 mg;
dl--tocopheryl acetate, 30 mg; menadione sodium bisulphite, 25 mg;
thiamine-hydrochloride, 3 mg; riboflavin, 7mg; niacin, 40 mg; d-pantothe-
nic acid, 8 mg; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 4 mg; vitamin B
,0015 mg;
vitamin C, 50 mg; folic acid, 1 mg; D-biotin, 0045 mg; choline chloride,
125 mg; Mn (MnSO
O), 80 mg; Fe (FeSO
O), 30 mg; Zn (ZnO),
60 mg; Cu (CuSO
O), 5 mg; Co (CoCl
O), 01 mg; I as KI, 04 mg;
Se (Na
), 015 mg.
Metabolisable energy, methionine and lysine are calculated based on
tabular values for feedstuffs (Jurgens, 1996). Others are mean of 3
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¼covariate, L¼tomato powder supplementa-
tion and e¼residual error being N(0, 1). Egg
production and egg weight data during the
adaptation period were used as covariates for
corresponding response variables. The model
also included orthogonal and polynomial con-
trasts to determine tomato powder supplemen-
tation effects and changes in response variable
with increasing dietary tomato powder
supplementation. Statistical significance was
declared at P<005.
The mean egg production (9333 034%) and
egg weight (6210 013 g) was similar in all
groups during the adaptation period. Hens
receiving diets supplemented with tomato
powder had greater feed intake, egg production
and egg and yolk weights, darker yolk colour and
more efficient feed conversion than hens not
supplemented with tomato powder (Table 2).
As dietary tomato powder concentration
increased, feed intake (P<001), egg production
(P<0001) and egg (P<001) and yolk (P<001)
weights and yolk colour (P<00001) linearly
increased and feed efficiency (P<005) linearly
increased (Table 2; Figure). The dietary
treatments did not affect shell weight, shell
thickness or Haugh units.
Serum and egg yolk lycopene and -carotene
concentrations were influenced by tomato
powder concentrations (Table 3). Serum and
egg yolk lycopene, -carotene, lutein and vitamin
A concentrations increased for hens given diets
supplemented with tomato powder (Table 3).
The same was true for serum vitamin E concen-
trations whereas yolk vitamin E concentration
did not differ between treatments (Table 3).
Table 2. Effects of tomato powder supplementation to hen diets on performance and egg quality (ls-means over a 90-d period)
Variable Tomato powder, g/kg SEM Statistical significance, P<
0 5 10 S L Q
Feed intake, g/d 1149 1155 116302001 0001 NS
Egg production
,% 8994 9139 9311 035 0001 00001 NS
Feed consumption
202 196 186 002 005 001 NS
Egg weight
,g 6373 6455 6659 042 001 001 NS
Shell weight, g 649 679 697 010 014 005 NS
Shell thickness, mm 0398 0399 0393 0004 NS NS NS
Haugh unit
8792 8940 8808 087 NS NS NS
Egg yolk colour 1125 1308 1358 026 00001 00001 NS
Egg yolk weight, g 1638 1659 1711 016 001 001 NS
Statistical contrast: S ¼Tomato powder supplementation effect (hen supplemented with tomato powder vs hen not supplemented with tomato powder);
L¼Linear effect of increasing dietary tomato powder; Q ¼Quadratic effect of increasing dietary tomato powder. NS ¼not significant.
n¼6 cages, 5 birds per cage.
g feed consumed per g egg mass (egg number x egg weight).
n¼12 eggs per group.
Haugh unit ¼100x log(Hþ757
17x W
) where H¼albumen height, mm and W¼egg weight, g.
Covariate 1-15 days 16-30
Time relative to ex
eriment, two weeks
Egg production, %
Figure. Effects of tomato powder (f, 0 g/kg; #, 5 g/kg; m, 10 g/kg) supplementation on egg production. Covariate is average initial
egg production of all birds first 10 d prior to the experimental period at the age of 49 weeks.
Downloaded by [Inonu Universitesi] at 22:26 03 January 2013
Hens fed on a diet with tomato powder had
lower serum and egg yolk MDA concentrations
than hens on a diet without tomato powder.
There were linear increases in serum and yolk
lycopene, -carotene, lutein and vitamin A con-
centrations and decreased MDA concentrations
in serum and yolk as tomato powder concentra-
tion in the diet increased. Despite no changes in
yolk vitamin E concentration, its concentration
in serum linearly increased with increasing die-
tary tomato powder concentration.
This experiment tested whether tomato powder
supplementation to mid-lay hens improve per-
formance and egg quality in terms of reducing
lipid peroxidation through enriching it with
vitamins and carotenoids possessing antioxidant
properties. Acceptability of foods of animal
origin by consumers is influenced by quality
factors such as colour, tenderness, oxidative
stability and storage properties (Angelo, 1992;
Herber and Van Elswyk, 1998; Flachowsky et al.,
2002). It is well known that enrichment of poultry
diets with carotenoids results in increased con-
centration in the egg yolk. Pure lycopene or
lycopene-rich vegetables such as tomato or
tomato by-products have been studied to obtain
the darkest egg yolk colour and stable eggs
resulting from their increased antioxidant ability
against lipid peroxidation (Knoblich et al., 2005;
Karadas et al., 2006a; Olson et al., 2008; Sahin
et al., 2008a). Lycopene is a predominant
carotenoid that gives red colour to tomatoes
(Rao and Agarwal, 1999). It is a strong antioxi-
dant and potently reduces oxidative damages of
lipids, proteins and DNA (Di-Mascio et al., 1989;
Rao and Agarwal, 1999). In agreement with the
present data, other studies in which lycopene or
lycopene-rich tomato byproducts were supple-
mented to poultry diets resulted in increased egg
yolk colour darkness (Knoblich et al., 2005;
Karadas et al., 2006a; Mansoori et al., 2008;
Olson et al., 2008). Moreover, in response to
tomato powder supplementation, increased egg
yolk lycopene concentration was associated with
decreased egg yolk MDA concentrations, sug-
gesting that enrichment of diets with vitamins
and carotenoids reduced egg yolk lipid peroxi-
dation (Karadas et al., 2006a,b; Olson et al., 2008;
Sahin et al., 2008a). It is well documented that
lycopene and vitamin E synergistically inhibit
TBARS formation, another lipid peroxidation
indicator (Shixian et al., 2005; Sahin et al., 2006b).
Furthermore, Alshatwi et al. (2010) declared that
tomato powder was more protective than lyco-
pene against lipid peroxidation in rats. An
inverse association between serum lycopene
and MDA was also shown in this study and
others (Sahin et al., 2006a, 2007, 2008b).
Other carotenoids in tomato powder such as
lutein and -carotene also exert biological and
antioxidant activities (Khachik et al., 1995;
Mayne, 1996). In the present study, lutein and
-carotene concentrations in serum and egg yolk
of hens given feed supplemented with tomato
powder were significantly higher than control
group. Other studies also noted that serum lutein
and -carotene concentrations increased when
quails were given feed supplemented with
Table 3. Effects of tomato powder supplementation to hen diets on serum-egg yolk carotenoid, vitamin and MDA levels (ls-means over
a 90-day period)
Variable Tomato powder, g/kg SEM Statistical significance, P<
0 5 110 S L Q
Lycopene ND 1389 1669 051 00001 00001 00001
-carotene 3721 1230 152912000001 00001 005
Lutein 166 301 323 020 0001 0001 NS
Vitamin A 154 257 334 038 005 001 NS
Vitamin E 599 830 1017 071 001 0001 NS
Malondialdehyde 0198 0150 0121 0017 001 001 NS
Egg yolk
Lycopene ND 653 805 0195 00001 00001 00001
-carotene 1720 3310 551323600001 00001 NS
Lutein 685 723 903 032 0001 00001 NS
Vitamin A 1043 1081 1211 039 005 001 NS
Vitamin E 1372 1412 1434105NS NS NS
Malondialdehyde 0335 0248 0211 0015 00001 00001 NS
Statistical contrast: S ¼Tomato powder supplementation effect (hen supplemented with tomato powder vs hen not supplemented with tomato powder);
L¼Linear effect of increasing dietary tomato powder; Q ¼Quadratic effect of increasing dietary tomato powder. NS ¼not significant.
n¼12 hens per group.
n¼12 eggs per group.
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tomato powder (Karadas et al., 2006a,b; Sahin
et al. 2007). Tomato powder supplementation to
diets increased serum and yolk carotenoids and
vitamin A concentrations. Vitamin E concentra-
tions were increased in serum, but not yolk
(Table 3). Previous studies investigating tomato
powder or pure lycopene supplementation
showed increase in both vitamins in serum and
egg yolk (Karadas et al., 2005, 2006b; Sahin et al.,
2006a,b, 2007, 2008b; Olson et al., 2008).
In disagreement with the present study
(except for egg weight), Jafari et al. (2006) and
Mansoori et al. (2008) achieved the improve-
ments in quality parameters (Haugh unit, shell
weight, shell thickness and egg weight) in laying
hen supplemented with diets containing dried
tomato pomace and tomato pulp. Sahin et al.
(2008a), however, reported that egg weight and
feed conversion were not affected by lycopene
In conclusion, carotenoids were effectively
transferred from the diet to the egg yolk via
tomato powder supplementation to mid-lay hen
diets, which resulted in improvements in egg yolk
colour and oxidative stability. That is, natural
supplements rich in beneficial phytochemicals
can be added at up to 10 g per kg to poultry diets
to improve egg quality.
The authors thank Vitan Ltd. (Dneprovsky, Ukraine)
for providing tomato powder and the Umut
Tavukculuk San. Tic. A.S. for allowing us to use
their facility.
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... In addition, astaxanthin from the bacterium Paracoccus marcusii contributed to egg weight increase compared with the control group (Conradie et al., 2018). Moreover, there were linear changes in egg weight and yolk color as tomato powder content increased in laying hens' diet (Akdemir et al., 2012). On the other hand, some research presented positive effects on the internal quality of eggs. ...
... Moreover, antioxidant activity evaluation revealed that bacterial lycopene had a 100% scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) at 4.65 mg/mL concentration, which was more efficient than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and industrial lycopene (Hsu et al., 2015). In a study including diets supplemented with tomato powder, concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, lutein, b-carotene, and vitamin A improved, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased linearly with the increase of supplementary tomato powder concentrations (Akdemir et al., 2012). ...
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The emergence of safe and functional eggs for consumer acceptance has gained focus. The production of carotenoid-enriched eggs has received attention due to its multifunctional biological properties. Nutritional modification of laying hens' diet can be a strategy to produce such eggs. This review presents the chemistry of carotenoids in nature and eggs, the accumulation process of carotenoids into eggs, and the functions of carotenoids in eggs. Our findings showed that carotenoids can be deposited into the egg and contribute to improving its nutritive value. The biosynthesis, chemical structure, and metabolism pathways of carotenoids lead to the deposition of carotenoids into eggs in their original or metabolized forms. Also, some factors modulate the efficiency of carotenoids in fowls before accumulation into eggs. Carotenoid-enriched eggs may be promising, ensuring the availability of highly nutritive eggs. However, further studies are still needed to comprehend the full metabolism process and the extensive functions of carotenoids in eggs.
... Furthermore, lycopene (a hydrocarbon carotenoid) has been shown to have powerful antioxidant properties that can help reduce the risk of prostate cancer [103,104]. Egg lycopene enrichment can be achieved by fortifying feed with tomato powder (5-10 g/kg diet) [33]. ...
... is supplementation increased egg production and improved egg yolk color. In addition, lycopene can potentially reduce yolk lipid peroxidation [33]. ...
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The global demand for table eggs has increased exponentially due to the growing human population. To meet this demand, major advances in hen genetics, nutrition, and husbandry procedures are required. Developing cost-effective and practically applicable strategies to improve egg production and quality is necessary for the development of egg industry worldwide. Consumers have shown a strong desire regarding the improvement of hens’ welfare and egg quality. They also become interested in functional and designer foods. Modifications in the nutritional composition of laying hen diets significantly impact egg nutritional composition and quality preservation. According to previous scientific research, enriched egg products can benefit human health. However, producers are facing a serious challenge in optimizing breeding, housing, and dietary strategies to ensure hen health and high product quality. This review discussed several practical strategies to increase egg production, quality, and hens’ welfare. These practical strategies can potentially be used in layer farms for sustainable egg production. One of these strategies is the transition from conventional to enriched or cage-free production systems, thereby improving bird behavior and welfare. In addition, widely use of plant/herbal substances as dietary supplements in layers’ diets positively impacts hens’ physiological, productive, reproductive, and immunological performances.
... The secondary metabolites of medicinal plants are the form of active ingredients or bioactive components that have an important role in livestock survival. The compounds of phytogenic are considered to be easy to use, safe and environmentally friendly (Akdemir et al., 2012). One plant usually has more than one pharmacological effect due to producing more than one type of secondary metabolite (organic acids, phytoalexins, essential oils, etc.) (Brewer, 2011). ...
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Feed additives from medicinal plants can be used as alternative antibiotics to optimize productivity, growth and health in livestock. Medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri Linn (Meniran) and Melaleuca cajuput (Kajuput) as alternative growth promoters contain antioxidants and antimicrobials to improve the quality of animal products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant leaf meals as phytogenic feed additives on broilers' productivity and internal organ parameters. For 21 days feeding, 80 1-day-old Loughmann broilers (MB202) unisex were distributed in 4 treatments with 4 pens per treatment and 5 birds per pen. The dietary treatments were: T1 (antibiotics), T2 (2% Meniran), T3 (2% Kajuput) and T4 (1% Meniran + 1 % Kajuput). There were no significant differences (P<0.05) in body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, average weights of the carcass and internal organ weight by feed additive supplementation. However, the bursa fabricius weight increased significantly (P<0.05) with the feed additive. In conclusion, medicinal plant leaf meal supplementation compared to commercial antibiotics has the same effect on growth performance, carcass and internal organ weight. The combination of meniran and kajuput leaf meal as phytogenic feed additives increases the weight of the bursa fabricius which indicates improved health status.
... +523). Moreover, the findings of egg production in our study are in accordance with the previous findings reported by Akdeimar [17][18][19][20][21] . Typically, commencement of lay is a prolonged stress factor in young layers which might alter their hormonal system thereby compromising the immunity and making them vulnerable to any infection [22] . ...
... Similarly, supplementation with carotenoids at various doses resulted in considerably decreased lipid oxidation in laying hens [93,105,125,126]. According to Liang et al. [50], nutritional supplementation of Goslings with 9000 IU/kg improved antioxidant status via the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and lowered MDA concentration in blood. ...
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Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained through diet. Despite being one of the earliest vitamins identified, a complete range of biological actions is still unknown. Carotenoids are a category of roughly 600 chemicals that are structurally related to vitamin A. Vitamin A can be present in the body in the form of retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. Vitamins are required in minute amounts, yet they are critical for health, maintenance , and performing key biological functions in the body, such as growth, embryo development, epithelial cell differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin A deficiency induces a variety of problems , including lack of appetite, decreased development and immunity, and susceptibility to many diseases. Dietary preformed vitamin A, provitamin A, and several classes of carotenoids can be used to meet vitamin A requirements. The aim of this review is to compile the available scientific literature regarding the sources and important functions, such as growth, immunity, antioxidant, and other biological activities of vitamin A in poultry.
... Phytogenic feed additives in poultry diets are often considered as safe, easy to use and environmentally friendly (Akdemir et al., 2012). There are different kinds of herbs which can be used as phytogenic feed additive in poultry. ...
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240 day-old cobb 500 broiler chickens was used to determine the organoleptic attributes and tibia bone mineral retention of broiler chicken fed Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP) and Allium sativum bulb powder (ABP) based diet. The birds were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were T1 = control diet, T2 = MLP replaced with soya bean meal at 1%, T3 = MLP replaced with soya bean meal at 3%, T4 = MLP replaced with soya bean meal at 1% + 0.1% ABP and T5 = MLP replaced with soya bean meal at 3% + 0.3% ABP. The feeding trial lasted for a 28-day starter phase and another 28-day finisher phase. Data were collected on organoleptic attributes and tibia bone retention. Data collected were subjected to General Linear Model Procedure of SAS v13. Significant means were separated using Tukey’s Procedure tested at a 5% level of significance. At the starter phase, the results show that colour, taste and juiciness were significantly (P < 0.05) difference, while colour, taste, aroma, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability in the finisher phase were comparable (P > 0.05) to those fed the control diet. Weight and length of the bone were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the dietary treatment, while calcium content was progressively higher with T5 showing the highest value (752.50 mg/100g). In finisher phase, weight, length, diameter and calcium revealed an improvement in their response to the dietary treatment. The treatments ensure meat acceptability and strong tibia bone formation.
... Egg yolk color is influenced by the natural pigments from the feed [81,82]. The yolk enrichment in carotenoids led to a higher yolk color intensity (p < 0.05) in quail groups fed lupine-based diets. ...
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Lupine seeds are a valuable nutritive source for animal feeding, but for poultry nutrition, the content in crude fiber and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) have an antinutritional factor. The aim of this research was to highlight the effect of partial soybean meal replacement with L. albus seeds and enzyme addition in the laying quail diets on productive performance, digestion, blood biochemical indices and egg quality. A total of 210 homogenous female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) at 24 week of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, with the standard diet based on soybean meal unsupplemented (−) and supplemented with enzyme (+) (S−/S+) and the experimental diets on which the soybean meal was based partially substituted by including lupine in the amount of 200 g/kg and 250 g/kg, unsupplemented and supplemented with enzymes (L20−/L20+; L25−/L25+).The use of enzymes in the lupine-based diets allowed increasing the proportion of lupine in the diet of laying quails by up to 25% (% of feed) without changing egg production, egg weight, feed conversion rate and physical–chemical quality parameters of the eggs. In addition, the use of lupine (−/+) improved (p < 0.001) the carotenoid content of the egg yolk, as well as the quality of the yolk fats by decreasing the cholesterol content and the level of fatty acids (FA) with an atherogenic effect, in favor of omega-3 FA. Enzyme supplementation of the lupine-based diets had a negative effect on the health lipid indices of the fats in the yolk (ratio of the hypocholesterolemic/Hypercholesterolemic FA—h/H, atherogenic index—AI, thrombogenic index—TI and health promotion index—HPI). The use of exogenous enzymes increased the nutrients’ efficiency of the quails’ feed, which is supported by the improvement of the blood metabolic indices and a decrease of intestinal digesta viscosity and feces moisture. In conclusion, white lupine can be used up to 25% in the laying quail feed in association with specific enzymes without affecting the productive performance and egg quality; moreover, lupine use has improved the quality of the eggs, increasing humans’ health.
... In laying hens, dried TP up to 10% in the diet was demonstrated to improve egg quality traits without posing adverse effects on growth performance or other egg characteristics [176,182,183]. Dried TP at increasing concentrations from 5 to 10 g/kg induced a linear increase in feed intake and favored egg performance and egg quality characteristics [184]. The addition of 5% dried tomato waste in hen diets also reduced lipid peroxidation of eggs and enriched them with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but absorption and deposition of n-3 PUFA in egg yolk decreased with increasing dietary levels from 2.5% to 7.5% of tomato waste [185]. ...
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Agro-industrial by-products (AIBPs) that are not intended for human consumption can be used as alternatives to conventional feedstuffs in animal nutrition to produce animal products without competing for land or triggering the food-feed competition, thus leading to environmental, social, and economic sustainability. These by-products are also known to contain several bioactive compounds and have a potential to become nutraceuticals that can promote the health and well-being of poultry. The potentials of some AIBPs (e.g., fruit juice industry leftovers, oilseed industrial by-products, distillers’ grain by-products, vinification by-products, olive oil industry by-products, pomegranate by-products, tomato processing by-products) and their derivative products as functional feeds for poultry, but also potential limitations of utilizing AIBPs in poultry nutrition are elaborated in the present review. The possible mechanisms through which AIBPs may improve the health status and productivity of poultry are also discussed. We suggest that nutrient variability across countries should be stabilized and potential hazards such as mycotoxins and pesticides should be eliminated, and the potential hazards present in AIBPs (e.g., mycotoxins) should be better controlled through appropriate legislation and proper application of control measures. Modern processing methods, new types/classifications, and proper developmental strategies foster the utilization of AIBPs in animal nutrition. This review focuses on the AIBPs as feeds, not only for their nutritional value but also for their contribution to sustainable practices.
In the past few decades, the spray drying technique has gained wide acceptance as an alternative drying technique for transferring liquid forms into stable dry powder forms with application in the food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industry. Spray drying technique enables short operation time, drying of heat sensitive materials, desirable moisture content and desirable particle size of obtained powder. For the centuries, medicinal plants are considered as one of the most important sources of bioactive compounds. Different plant parts including leaves, flowers, stalks, fruits, seeds and roots but also whole plants are used for producing herbal pharmaceuticals, herbal cosmetic and dietary supplements. One of the most common used form are herbal extracts, produced with different extraction techniques (conventional and green novel techniques). Herbal extracts are highly concentrated in bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, pigments, vitamins, bioactive polysaccharides, peptides and volatile compounds with different biological properties. Liquid form of herbal extracts suffers from many disadvantages, such as short shelf life, higher cost of transport and storage. This chapter provides an overview on the principal applications related to encapsulation of bioactive compounds from herbal extracts with special attention on the choice of encapsulation agent on the quality of final dry extract. The application of spray drying represents a new promising drying technique for the production of dry extracts rich in bioactive compounds, which can be easily incorporated into new highly-valuable, bioactive compounds-rich products
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Ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde levels are two important parameters for the measurement of oxidative stress in biological systems. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant from dietary sources. Malondialdehyde, one of the major secondary oxidation products of peroxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, has been shown to be of biological significance. A new method for measurement of ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde was tested with the same analysis conditions in human serum from diabetic patients and healthy individuals. Ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde levels of patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly different from the controls. The detection limits for ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were 1.3 × 10-8 mol/L and 1.02 × 10-8 mol/L, respectively. This simple, rapid, and sensitive method is useful for clinical measurements.
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THE PROBLEM of improving the egg albumen quality in the fowl has been extensively studied. Vital to a statistical study of any trait is an objective definition and a simple, accurate, normally distributed, quantitative measurement. Although a definition of albumen quality known to satisfy all of these requirements has not been provided, many methods of measuring albumen quality have been reported in the literature. Brant, Otte and Norris (1951) have reviewed the relative merits and disadvantages, in relationship to market grades, of the various albumen quality measurements, which include: the percentage of thick albumen (Holst and Almquist, 1931, 1932), the albumen height (Wilgus and Van Wagenen, 1936), the albumen index (Heiman and Carver, 1936; Heiman and Wilhelm, 1937), the albumen area index (Parsons and Mink, 1937), the Van Wagenen visual score (Van Wagenen and Wilgus, 1934), and the Haugh unit score (Haugh, 1937). The use of Haugh unit scores has . . .
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Laying hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with increasing levels of retinyl acetate and α-tocopheryl acetate to investigate the effects of vitamin A and E supplementation upon egg yolk retinol and tocopherol concentrations. The high concentration of added vitamin E caused a decline in egg production and poor feed conversion. Egg quality was not affected by vitamin A and E levels. Yolk retinol concentration was enhanced by added vitamin A, from 24.6 IU/g for eggs from the control group, to 33.6 and 37.7 IU/g of yolk when hens were fed 15,000 and 30,000 IU/kg of diet. Yolk α-tocopherol was significantly increased by dietary tocopherol supplementation, ranging from 10.9 µg/g (control group) to 160.6, 264.1, and 383.2 µg/g of yolk, respectively, when 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of ration were added, respectively. Yolk α-tocopherol was increased by 24.9 and 44.0% with increasing vitamin A supplementation at 15,000 and 30,000 IU/kg of diet, respectively. When correlation coefficients and regression equations were calculated, it was found that yolk α-tocopherol decreased (P < 0.05) as supplemental vitamin A increased, indicating the adverse effect of dietary vitamin A on yolk tocopherol deposition. The nutritional value of eggs, related to retinol and tocopherol, can be improved by dietary manipulation of hens diet, but attention must be focused on their inter-relationship.
The test of the association between dietary intake of specific carotenoids and disease incidence requires the availability of accurate and current food composition data for individual carotenoids. To generate a carotenoid database, an artificial intelligence system was developed to evaluate data for carotenoid content of food in five general categories, namely, number of samples, analytic method, sample handling, sampling plan, and analytic quality control. Within these categories, criteria have been created to rate analytic data for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in fruits and vegetables. These carotenoids are also found in human blood. Following the evaluation of data, acceptable values for each carotenoid in the foods were combined to generate a database of 120 foods. The database includes the food description; median, minimum, and maximum values for the specific carotenoids in each food; the number of acceptable values and their references; and a confidence code, which is an indicator of the reliability of a specific carotenoid value for a food. The carotenoid database can be used to estimate the intake of specific carotenoids in order to examine the association between dietary carotenoids and disease incidence.
Consumption of tomatoes and tomato products has been shown to provide nutritional and health benefits.
Japanese Quails were used to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E (dl-a-tocopheryl-acetate), lycopene, and their combination on egg production, egg quality, concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E, A and cholesterol in serum and egg yolk. Quails (n = 120; 55 d old) were divided into four groups (n = 30/group) and fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with lycopene (100 mg/kg diet), vitamin E (250 mg dl-α-tocopheryl-acetate/kg diet) or a combination of lycopene and vitamin E (100 mg/kg lycopene plus 250 mg dl-α-tocopheryl-acetate/kg diet). Vitamin E and lycopene did not affect (p>0.05) body weight, feed intake or egg weight. Egg production and Haugh unit were greater (p<0.05) in each supplemental group compared with the control group (p0.05). Serum and liver MDA levels were decreased in supplemented groups compared with the control group. Separately or as a combination, supplemental lycopene and vitamin E increased serum and egg yolk vitamin E and A but decreased cholesterol concentrations (p<0.05). In general, when a significant effect was found for a parameter, the magnitude of the responses to vitamin and lycopene supplements was greatest with the combination of the lycopene and vitamin E, rather than that observed with each supplement separately. Results of the present study indicate that supplementing with a combination of dietary lycopene and vitamin E reduced serum and yolk cholesterol concentrations and improved antioxidant status.
Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family, which has more than 700 members. In human serum, only 14 caroteinoids have been identified, and, among these, lycopene was the most abundant. Lycopene is regarded as one of the most efficient singlet oxygen quencher and peroxyl radical scavenger of all the carotenoids and may represent an important defense mechanism in the human body. Singlet oxygen and free radicals can cause biological damage to important macromolecules and membrane constituents, and the presence of natural antioxidants may help to control these degradative reactions.The oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis which makes the antioxidants that protect LDL potential antiatherogenic agents. There is growing evidence that certain combinations of natural antioxidants have synergistic antioxidant activity, that is, the actual inhibitory activity of the mixture is greater than the additive activities of the individual antioxidants. Lycopene on its own can retard the oxidation of LDL, but in combination with vitamin E, a synergistic effect is observed. There is clear evidence that lycopene in association with α-tocopherol synergistically inhibits the proliferation of two prostate carcinoma cell lines. Polyphenols are very potent antioxidants found in tomatoes and many other fruits, vegetables, and herbs. The polyphenols glabridin, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid, when used in combination with lycopene, inhibited the oxidation of LDL to a greater extent than the additive values by 32%, 32%, and 15%, respectively. Extracts and powders containing mixtures of antioxidants also showed synergism. Tomato oleoresin produced a 5-fold increase in antioxidant activity against LDL oxidation when compared to pure lycopene at the same concentration. A 33% increase in LDL inhibition was observed when lycopene was used with garlic powder. Of the six major carotenoids found in human blood and tissue, lycopene plus lutein produced the greatest synergistic effect against oxidation of multilamellar liposomes. It also has been shown that low concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxylvitamin D3 and lycopene synergistically inhibit cell proliferation and differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the synergistic effects between lycopene and other natural antioxidants. It has been suggested that the synergistic effects may be related to their physicochemical properties and or their location within the biomembrane or LDL particle; that one antioxidant is able to regenerate the second antioxidant; or that vitamin E and lycopene affect different signal transduction pathways leading to the synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation.
Yolk fat fatty acid (FA) concentrations, sensory quality and firmness of eggs and laying hen performance were evaluated with respect to the combined inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), high n-3 oil sources and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three levels of n-3 FA supplementation (2.9, 3.7 and 4.5g/kg) from three different sources (two fish oils highly concentrated in eicosapentanoic (EPA) or docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and one algae oil with a very high-DHA content) in diets added with fixed amounts of CLA (2.5g/kg) and HOSO (30g/kg). A commercial feed with no CLA, n-3 or HOSO added, and another one containing 4.5g/kg of high-DHA fish oil but not CLA or HOSO were also formulated. An increase in n-3 FA supplementation had little effect on proportions of CLA, monounsaturated FA, saturated FA or total polyunsaturated FA in yolk fat, but increased (P