KIR3DL1 is a polymorphic, inhibitory NK cell receptor specific for the Bw4 epitope carried by subsets of HLA-A and HLA-B allotypes. The Bw4 epitope of HLA-B*5101 and HLA-B*1513 is determined by the NIALR sequence motif at positions 77, 80, 81, 82, and 83 in the alpha(1) helix. Mutation of these positions to the residues present in the alternative and nonfunctional Bw6 motif showed that the functional activity of the Bw4 epitopes of B*5101 and B*1513 is retained after substitution at positions 77, 80, and 81, but lost after substitution of position 83. Mutation of leucine to arginine at position 82 led to loss of function for B*5101 but not for B*1513. Further mutagenesis, in which B*1513 residues were replaced by their B*5101 counterparts, showed that polymorphisms in all three extracellular domains contribute to this functional difference. Prominent were positions 67 in the alpha(1) domain, 116 in the alpha(2) domain, and 194 in the alpha(3) domain. Lesser contributions were made by additional positions in the alpha(2) domain. These positions are not part of the Bw4 epitope and include residues shaping the B and F pockets that determine the sequence and conformation of the peptides bound by HLA class I molecules. This analysis shows how polymorphism at sites throughout the HLA class I molecule can influence the interaction of the Bw4 epitope with KIR3DL1. This influence is likely mediated by changes in the peptides bound, which alter the conformation of the Bw4 epitope.
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"Similar results were obtained for B*51-negative Turkish patients. The Bw4 epitope is characterized by the NIALR sequence motif of the polymorphic amino acid positions 77, 80 to 83 in the α1 helix of the HLA molecule . Several studies have shown that variant Bw4 HLA-B allotypes with isoleucine or threonine at position 80 can be discriminated by NK cells and manifest associations with different clinical diseases. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Behçet’s disease (BD) as systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology is associated with HLA-B*51 in European and Asian populations. HLA-A*26 was claimed as an additional BD susceptibility marker in Japanese and Greek patients. This study was performed to test for HLA associations in HLA-B*51 negative German and Turkish BD populations.
In total, 65 German and 46 Turkish patients lacking HLA-B*51 were analyzed in comparison to healthy HLA-B*51 negative Germans (n = 1500) and Turks (n = 130). HLA-A/B genotypes were determined by SSOP. P-values with correction for multiple testing (pc), χ2-test and odds ratio (OR) were used for statistical evaluation.
HLA-A*26 was significantly more frequent in HLA-B*51− German patients [pc = 0.0076, OR = 3.23, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.39] than in respective controls. HLA-A*26 was also elevated in a smaller group of Turkish patients versus the controls. Significant association of HLA-Bw4 with isoleucine at amino-acid position 80 (HLA-Bw4-80I) was found in the HLA-B*51− German cohort of BD patients [pc = 0.0042, OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.93) and in the Turkish patients in comparison to the respective controls [p = 0.025, OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.31]. On the contrary, HLA-Bw4-80 T was reduced in both HLA-B*51− BD patient cohorts.
The study shows a significant association of HLA-Bw4-80I present on HLA-B*51 as well as on other B-locus molecules with BD. This indicates that distinctive Bw4 epitopes on HLA-B locus molecules could play a role in BD pathogenesis. The study also indicates an association with HLA-A*26 in German and Turkish BD patients as a genetic risk factor independent of HLA-B*51.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Arthritis Research & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the Z27 mAb was shown to recognize the NK cell-activating receptor KIR3DS1, and several genetic studies suggest that the most probable ligands of KIR3DS1 are HLA class I molecules with the Bw4 motif. Despite these findings, the attempts to establish a functional interaction between KIR3DS1 and its potential ligand have been unsuccessful. Here, we study the proliferation and cytotoxicity of KIR3DS1(+) NK cells, compared with KIR3DL1(+) NK cells, according to the Bw4(+) or Bw4(-) allogeneic environment. Our results show for the first time that KIR3DS1 expression on NK cells can be induced after exposure to stimulator cells (221, K562, EBV-B cell lines, and B cells), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, IL-15, or IL-2. Furthermore, whereas KIR3DL1(+) NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were inhibited in a Bw4(+) but not a Bw4(-) context, KIR3DS1(+) NK cell functions were not influenced by the presence of Bw4 on target cells. Nevertheless, despite the absence of demonstrated regulation of KIR3DS1(+) NK cell functions by HLA-Bw4 molecules, we found a higher KIR3DS1(+) NK cell frequency and higher levels of KIR3DS1 expression in Bw4(+) compared with Bw4(-) individuals. Altogether, these results suggest that KIR3DS1 does not recognize HLA-Bw4 molecules in a physiological context, and they highlight the induced expression of KIR3DS1 observed on stimulated NK cells and the higher frequency of KIR3DS1(+) NK cells in Bw4(+) individuals. Because a protective KIR3DS1-Bw4 association has been reported in viral infections, our results further the understanding of the role of KIR3DS1(+) NK cells in controlling viral infections.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison of mutant killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) 3DL1*015 substituted at natural positions of variation showed that tryptophan/leucine dimorphism at position 283 uniquely changes receptor conformation and can strongly influence binding of the A24nef tetramer. Dimorphic motifs at positions 2, 47, and 54 in D0 and 182 and 283 in D1+D2 distinguish the two 3DL1 lineages, typified by 3DL1*005 and 3DL1*015. The interlineage recombinant, KIR3DL1*001, combines D0 of 3DL1*005 with D1+D2 of 3DL1*015 and binds A24nef more strongly than either parent. In contrast, the reciprocal recombinant with D0 from 3DL1*015 and D1+D2 from 3DL1*005 cannot bind A24nef. Thus, D0 polymorphism directly affects the avidity of the KIR3DL1 ligand binding site. From these observations, multiple sequence alignment, and homology modeling, we constructed structural models for KIR3DL1 and its complex with A24nef. In these models, D0, D1, and D2 come together to form a binding surface for A24nef, which is contacted by all three Ig-like domains. A central pocket binds arginine 83, the only Bw4 motif residue essential for KIR3DL1 interaction, similar to the binding of lysine 80 in HLA-C by KIR2DL1. Central to this interaction is a salt bridge between arginine 83 of Bw4 and glutamate 282 of 3DL1, which juxtaposes the functionally influential dimorphism at position 283. Further 3DL1 mutants were tested and shown to have A24nef-binding properties consistent with the models. A24nef was not bound by KIR3DS1, the activating counterpart of KIR3DL1. Moreover, introducing any one of three residues specific to KIR3DS1, serine 163, arginine 166, or leucine 199, into 3DL1*015, abrogated A24nef binding.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Immunology