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Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

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Abstract

This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; M(age) = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

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... School grades were end-of-the-year final grades obtained from school documents. The standardized PALMA Math Achievement Test (Murayama et al., 2013;Pekrun et al., 2007) was based on multiple-choice and open-ended items to measure students' modeling and algorithmic competencies in arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. The test was constructed using multi-matrix sampling with a balanced incomplete block design; the number of items increased with each wave, varying between 60 and 90 items across the five waves, with anchor items to allow for the linkage of the two test forms and the five measurement points. ...
... The test was constructed using multi-matrix sampling with a balanced incomplete block design; the number of items increased with each wave, varying between 60 and 90 items across the five waves, with anchor items to allow for the linkage of the two test forms and the five measurement points. The achievement scores were scaled using one-parameter logistic item response theory, confirming the unidimensionality and longitudinal invariance of the test scales (Murayama et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Much research shows academic self-concept and achievement are reciprocally related over time, based on traditional longitudinal data cross-lag-panel models (CLPM) supporting a reciprocal effects model (REM). However, recent research has challenged CLPM's appropriateness, arguing that CLPMs with random intercepts (RI-CLPMs) provide a more robust (within-person) perspective and better control for unmeasured covariates. However, there is much confusion in educational-psychology research concerning appropriate research questions and interpretations of RI-CLPMs and CLPMs. To clarify this confusion, we juxtapose CLPMs and RI-CLPMs relating math self-concept (MSCs), school grades, and achievement tests over the five years of compulsory secondary schooling ( N = 3,425). We extend basic models to evaluate: directional ordering among three rather than only two constructs; longitudinal invariance over time (multiple school years) and multiple groups (school tracks); lag-2 paths between non-adjacent waves; and covariates (gender, primary-school math and verbal achievement). Across all basic and extended RI-CLPMs and CLPMs, there was consistent support for the REM bidirectional-ordering hypothesis that self-concept and achievement are each a cause and an effect of the other. Consistent with the logic of these models, extensions of the basic models had more effect on CLPMs, but the direction and statistical significance of cross-lagged paths were largely unaffected for both RI-CLPMs and CLPMs. This substantive-methodological synergy has important implications for theory, methodology, and policy/practice; we support the importance of MSC as a predictor of subsequent achievement and demonstrate a more robust methodological framework for evaluating longitudinal-panel models.
... Two types of learning strategies or approaches that are widely recognized and explored in different learning domains are deep learning strategies (specifically, elaboration of learning material) and surface learning strategies (specifically, rehearsal or memorization) (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983Murayama et al., 2013). The results of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2010, revealed that memorization/rehearsal strategies in the mathematics domain were positively associated with achievement in 17 countries and negatively in 14 countries, but when accounting for other factors, the relationship was mainly negative. ...
... Elaboration strategies were positively associated with achievement in 25 countries and negatively in only one country (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2010). In a study exploring long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement, Murayama et al. (2013) found that deep learning strategies were positively related, while surface learning strategies were negatively related to math achievement growth. A study conducted in Serbia (Videnović & Radišić, 2011) reported that students who were anxious, had low self-efficacy, and used memorization as the primary learning strategy, achieved the worst results in the PISA study. ...
Article
This study aimed to explore age and gender differences in motivational (mathematics value and self-concept), emotional (mathematics anxiety), and cognitive (learning strategies and performance) aspects of mathematics functioning in a large representative sample of Croatian students (N = 2749; 56% girls, mean age = 14.58) during the transition from elementary to high school. The students’ values and self-concept in mathematics, mathematics anxiety, and perceived use of mathematics learning strategies were assessed using online self-report questionnaires. Teacher-created tasks were used for performance assessment. The results revealed a decrease in mathematics motivation and performance during school transition. Older students valued mathematics less than younger students, had less positive mathematics self-concept, less frequently used learning strategies, and had lower mathematics performance. No main effect of age/grade on mathematics anxiety was found. Boys had a more positive mathematics self-concept but used learning strategies less often than girls. Moreover, interaction effects of age and gender were found. High school girls showed lower performance but higher anxiety than boys. Future research should focus on examining the efficiency of interventions tailored to prevent a decline in mathematics motivation and performance during the transition periods, especially for girls.
... Recently there has been keen interest in understanding how affective factors or behaviors such as emotions, feelings, and dispositions (e.g., motivation, self-efficacy and responsible-decision making) influence students' cognitive ability and consequently their academic achievement [36,37,38]. As presented by Eccles & Wigfield [39], achievement-related behaviors can be fully explained by an individual's expectancies about future success. ...
... From a teaching and pedagogical standpoint, socio-emotional learning has emerged as a potential guiding theory that can be used to facilitate the implementation of educational activities, programs and processes that meet the needs, interests, and orientations of a diverse student body [22,29,30,31]. The ecological systems theory by Bronfenbrenner [44,45] provides a comprehensive framework and an expansive lens to examine contextual factors that influence the development of a child or adolescent [36,37]. As depicted in Figure 1, these factors include the main social dynamics that impact a child, such as family, school, peers, neighborhood, and general culture, within which they are situated and immersed. ...
Chapter
This study sought to understand the learning benefits, impacts, and opportunities involved with the use of serious games (SG), extended reality (XR), Artificial Intelligence (AI) and other advanced technologies in the classroom and other educational settings. We conducted a systematic literature review focusing on the potential benefits of utilizing those technologies to build and strengthen prosocial behaviors and cognitive abilities of students and other learners. Results of the study reveal that those modern technologies can be used to improve students’ academic experiences and interactions with their peers while in school. In our rapidly changing global knowledge society, it is clear there is a need to develop and build the capacity of students to work effectively and cooperatively with all people including those from diverse socio-cultural and educational backgrounds. This paper highlights ways in which advanced technologies can support ongoing efforts to enhance students’ knowledge while building more inclusive and emotionally supportive learning environments in school settings.
... Motivation to learning mathematics is an important factor in predicting performance of secondary school students. Students who are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to learn mathematics generally demonstrate higher performance than others who are not motivated (e.g., Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, & Hofe, 2012). It is therefore of preeminent concern to stakeholders in various disciplines such as school managers, teachers, religious leaders, coaches, health-care providers, parents, etc., involved in mobilizing others to act (Zakariya, 2017). ...
... Download source file (60.71 kB) Development of MMS for secondary school students 3 learning process and outcomes (Abdurrahman & Garba, 2014;Barattucci, Pagliaro, Cafagna, & Bosetto, 2017;Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, & Hofe, 2012;Sartawi, Alsawaie, Dodeen, Tibi, & Alghazo, 2012). Everyone is distinct, and individuals with the same affective, cognitive, and psycho-motor characteristics are rare to find (Ersoy & Oksuz, 2015). ...
... Entscheidend aber ist: Zu welchem Ausmaß gehen Unterschiede im schulischen Erfolg auf Unterschiede in den Motivationen zurück? Hier verweisen Forschungsarbeiten auf eine hohe Bedeutung der Motivation der Schüler*innen (Murayama et al., 2013), insbesondere für die Entwicklung ihrer Leistungen. ...
Preprint
Der Beitrag beleuchtet unter anderem folgende Themen: Welche Motivationsmodelle sollte man als Lehrkraft kennen? / Motivation der Schüler*innen / Motivation der Lehrkräfte und der Schulgemeinschaft
... While negative psychological dispositions may lead to maladaptive behavior and reduced math outcomes, positive dispositions can have the opposite effect. Having higher levels of math self-concept (i.e., how they feel about themselves as math learners), math interest (i.e., enjoyment of math tasks), math identity (i.e., identification as a math person), and math value/utility (i.e., positive thoughts about the future benefits of learning math) can help in promoting students' math success (Erturan and Jansen, 2015;Gottfried et al., 2007;Linder et al., 2015;Murayama et al., 2013;Williams, 2020). For instance, analyses of data on Latinx students in both middle and high school suggest a positive association between their math self-efficacy beliefs and their math achievement (Kitsantas et al., 2011;Safavian and Conley, 2016). ...
Article
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In the midst of an expanding knowledge-based economy, there remains a policy emphasis on increasing the number of professionals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) within the United States. In addition to a general interest in increasing STEM pathways for all students, there have been concentrated efforts to expand opportunities and STEM-related academic achievement for Black and Latinx students because of their underrepresentation in many of these fields. This critical quantitative study employs large-scale national data to examine an important outcome for Black and Latinx students 'STEM academic trajectories−their math achievement during high school. A strength-based role strain and adaptation approach is employed to investigate how students' math challenges and math-related multilevel strengths (i.e., positive psychological attributes and social supports) combine to influence their math achievement. Furthermore, we examine how the relationship between students 'strengths and achievement may be moderated by their prior math challenges. The findings suggest that some aspects of Black and Latinx students' strengths (e.g., math identity, math self-efficacy, and math-related social support) are positively related to their achievement; however, in some instances, the nature of these relationships may differ according to students 'prior math challenges. Based upon these findings, the authors advance a theory of strain-induced performance-perception misalignment that emphasizes how students 'prior math challenges may create a barrier to the potential benefits of positive math-related psychological orientations. Implications for the following are discussed: theory; educational practice regarding social supports and the need to change educators 'psychological dispositions; and opportunity gaps and STEM education policy.
... Moreover, students' learning (behavior) also depends on affective and motivational factors (Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009;Murayama et al., 2013). The affective-motivational aspects include emotions related to a specific situation or interest and motivation related to a task or subject matter. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, students were facing great challenges. Learning was shifted from the classroom to the home of the students. This implied that students had to complete their tasks in a more autonomous way than during regular lessons. As students’ ability to handle such challenges might depend on certain cognitive and motivational prerequisites as well as individual learning conditions, the present study investigates students’ cognitive competencies as well as affective-motivational factors as possible predictors of coping with this new learning situation at home. The study uses data of Starting Cohort 2 of the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Data of two measurement points are analyzed: Predictors were assessed at the earlier time point, when students (N=1,452; Mage=12years, 8months; 53.4% female) mostly attended seventh grade of a secondary school. They completed competence tests in reading as well as mathematics and rated affective-motivational aspects in terms of willingness to exert effort, learning enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. One and a half years later − during the COVID-19 pandemic and the first period of school closures − the second measurement point took place. Students’ parents rated the situation of learning at home with respect to students’ coping with the new situation and parents’ difficulties to motivate them. Regression analyses controlling for school track, students’ gender, and parents’ educational level and parental stress revealed that students’ reading competencies and their willingness to exert effort were significant predictors of their coping with the new learning situation at home. Moreover, parents reported that boys were more difficult to motivate to learn during this time as compared to girls. Other predictors (e.g., learning enjoyment) turned out to be non-significant when entered simultaneously in the regression analyses. The results point to the importance of children’s prerequisites for autonomous learning situations without structuring elements by teachers within the school context.
... Findings revealed that self-control was a better predictor of self-reported grades, while cognitive ability better predicted the achievement test score. Another study (Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, & Vom Hofe, 2013) based on a sample of N = 3,530 German youth followed from 5 th through 10 th grade found that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining unique variance; however, intelligence was unrelated to changes in achievement over time, whereas motivation and learning strategies both significantly predicted positive and negative growth. ...
Article
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Duckworth and Seligman’s seminal work found that self-discipline (self-control) was more salient for academic achievement than intelligence. Very little replication work exists, including in different cultures; the current study addressed these gaps. Data were collected from 6th and 7th grade cohorts of early adolescents (N = 589; age: Mean = 12.34 years, and SD = 0.89; 58% female) over two years. The study tested whether self-control was a stronger predictor than intelligence in explaining academic performance two years later as well as in explaining developmental changes over the course of two years. Path analyses provided evidence that both self-control and intelligence longitudinally predicted teacher-reported academic competence as well as school-reported grades; however, intelligence was a significantly stronger predictor than self-control. In addition, only intelligence predicted developmental changes in each measure of academic performance over time, self-control did not.
... Umemoto and Inagaki (2021) examined the interactive effects of the motivation level and instability during class on the use of deep-processing strategies. Deepprocessing strategies are learning tactics to understand new information by linking it to existing knowledge (Murayama et al., 2013), which lead to the effective memorization of the learning content. Umemoto and Inagaki (2021) showed that even when learners had high motivation instability, they often used deep-processing strategies if their motivation level was high. ...
Article
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In this study, we examine the relationship between university students' contextual motivation for learning a specific class subject and situational motivations for learning during a specific class. We focus on two aspects of motivation, namely, level and instability. A longitudinal study was conducted over one semester, with 168 students from two universities in Japan. The data of 122 students who attended classes more than nine times in the semester and participated in the survey at the situational level were analyzed. The results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that the students' contextual motivation level correlated positively with their situational motivation level. Moreover, the results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed the interactive effects of the contextual motivation level and instability on the situational motivation instability were significant. The results of a simple slope analysis showed that if the contextual motivation instability was low, the higher the contextual motivation level and the greater the situational motivation instability during class would be. This finding indicates that students who maintain high and stable motivation to learn class subjects throughout the semester, tend to show an upward trend in their situational motivation during class.
... Further, in a sample of 637 adolescent students, Wang and colleagues [34] found that students' math intrinsic motivation mediated the relation between teachers' autonomy support and students' math engagement. Researchers have also shown that math intrinsic motivation predicts students' math school grades [39,40], SAT math scores [40], and growth in math performance over time [41,42]. ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that math homework help of higher-math-anxious parents impedes children’s math learning and facilitates the development of math anxiety. In the present study, we explored a possible explanation for this phenomenon by examining the relations between parents’ math anxiety, their math homework-helping styles (i.e., autonomy- and controlling-supportive), and their child’s math achievement. Parents of children ages 11 to 14 completed an online survey. Using path analysis, we examined the relations among parental factors (i.e., math anxiety, math ability, and homework-helping styles) and child math achievement. Parents’ math anxiety was positively related to both autonomy-supportive and controlling-supportive math homework-helping styles. Notably, controlling-supportive style partially mediated the relation between parents’ math anxiety and their children’s math achievement. Thus, it is possible that the use of a controlling-supportive math homework-helping style may explain why the homework help offered by higher-math-anxious parents is detrimental to their children’s math learning. Identifying negative relations between parent factors and children’s math outcomes is crucial for developing evidence-based math learning interventions.
... Therefore, learning strategies are important factors affecting academic achievement (e.g., Pintrich & De Groot, 1990;Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990). In particular, previous studies have shown that metacognitive strategies and deep-processing strategies encourage academic achievement (e.g., Murayama et al., 2013;Nishimura et al., 2011;Vansteenkiste et al., 2004). ...
Article
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This study examined the interaction effect of the level and instability of motivation on different learning strategies in university learning at the contextual level. Two motivation levels—introjected and identified regulation—and three types of learning strategies—metacognitive, writing-repetition, and deep-processing—were measured. Self-reported questionnaires were administered to students from two universities in Japan; data of 307 students were included in the analysis. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis on metacognitive and deep-processing strategies revealed an interaction effect of identified regulation and instability of motivation. The results of a simple slope analysis showed that identified regulation had no effect on metacognitive and deep-processing strategies during high instability of motivation. However, during low instability of motivation, higher identified regulation enabled greater use of metacognitive and deep-processing strategies. On the other hand, there was no an interaction effect of level and instability of motivation on writing-repetition strategies. These results revealed the significant role of the level and instability of motivation in the application of metacognitive and deep-processing strategies.
... z. B. Murayama et al., 2013) bisher nur vereinzelt mit in das Untersuchungsdesign aufgenommen wurde. Inwieweit die motivationale Ausgangslage für die Leistungsbereitschaft und den Lernzuwachs in verschiedenen Lernsettings mitentscheidend ist -gerade in Bezug auf das alleinige Lernen im Gegensatz zum Lernen zu zweit -, ist demnach noch weitgehend ungeklärt. ...
Chapter
Motivation kann als zentrales Konstrukt für die Erklärung von menschlichem Verhalten angesehen werden. Die Beziehungen zwischen den verschiedenen motivationalen Konstrukten wie Leistungsmotivation, Interesse, Selbstkonzept und Selbstwirksamkeit sind bisher erst teilweise geklärt, ihr Einfluss auf die Kompetenzentwicklung und den Lernerfolg von Individuen ist jedoch unbestritten. Wie genau verhalten sich aber diese motivationalen Aspekte bei unterschiedlichen Instruktionsformaten des E-Learnings, beim kollaborativen Lernen und bezüglich des spezifischen Inhaltsgebiets der beschreibenden Statistik? Die mamdim-Studie möchte Antworten auf diese bisher größtenteils ungeklärten Zusammenhänge geben.
... z. B. Murayama et al., 2013) bisher nur vereinzelt mit in das Untersuchungsdesign aufgenommen wurde. Inwieweit die motivationale Ausgangslage für die Leistungsbereitschaft und den Lernzuwachs in verschiedenen Lernsettings mitentscheidend ist -gerade in Bezug auf das alleinige Lernen im Gegensatz zum Lernen zu zweit -, ist demnach noch weitgehend ungeklärt. ...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel stellen wir ein theoretisches Instrument basierend auf dem Interactive-Constructive-Active–Passive-Framework vor, das zur Analyse des Kommunikationsverhaltens von Dyaden, einem Paar von Lernenden, in kollaborativen Lernsituationen geeignet ist. Es zeigt sich, dass dieses Instrument zur Analyse von Videoaufzeichnungen von Dyaden, die mit verschiedenen Lernumgebungen beschreibende Statistik lernen, geeignet ist und eine Abhängigkeit zwischen dem so erfassten Kommunikationsverhalten der Dyaden und dem potentiellen Lernerfolg bestehen kann.
... Students who flexibly use learning strategies have also been shown to better perceive the control of the learning process (Obergriesser and Stoeger, 2020). This phenomenon influences the student's self-efficacy, academic emotions, and learning outcome (Pekrun et al., 2011;Murayama et al., 2013;Pekrun and Perry, 2014). These conclusions are supported by the affective dynamics model of D' Mello and Graesser (2012). ...
Article
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Background: Based on the control-value theory (CVT), learning strategies and academic emotions are closely related to learning achievement, and have been considered as important factors influencing student's learning satisfaction and learning performance in the online learning context. However, only a few studies have focused on the influence of learning strategies on academic emotions and the interaction of learning strategies with behavioral engagement and social interaction on learning satisfaction. Methods: The participants were 363 pre-service teachers in China, and we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the mediating and moderating effects of the data. Results: The main findings of the current study showed that learning strategies influence students' online learning satisfaction through academic emotions. The interaction between learning strategies and behavioral engagement was also an important factor influencing online learning satisfaction. Conclusions: We explored the internal mechanism and boundary conditions of how learning strategies influenced learning satisfaction to provide intellectual guarantee and theoretical support for the online teaching design and online learning platform. This study provides theoretical contributions to the CVT and practical value for massive open online courses (MOOCs), flipped classrooms and blended learning in the future.
... More recent studies showcase impressive efforts of researchers to use large sample sizes and longitudinal data of up to six waves, allowing changes in motivation and achievement of students to be tracked across their school career (e.g., Marsh et al., 2018;Murayama et al., 2013). A recent meta-analysis (Scharmer, 2020), which includes such studies that were published between 2011 and August 2020, showed that overall, the pooled effect of achievement on motivation was twice (β = .12) ...
Article
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The question of how learners’ motivation influences their academic achievement and vice versa has been the subject of intensive research due to its theoretical relevance and important implications for the field of education. Here, we present our understanding of how influential theories of academic motivation have conceptualized reciprocal interactions between motivation and achievement and the kinds of evidence that support this reciprocity. While the reciprocal nature of the relationship between motivation and academic achievement has been established in the literature, further insights into several features of this relationship are still lacking. We therefore present a research agenda where we identify theoretical and methodological challenges that could inspire further understanding of the reciprocal relationship between motivation and achievement as well as inform future interventions. Specifically, the research agenda includes the recommendation that future research considers (1) multiple motivation constructs, (2) behavioral mediators, (3) a network approach, (4) alignment of intervals of measurement and the short vs. long time scales of motivation constructs, (5) designs that meet the criteria for making causal, reciprocal inferences, (6) appropriate statistical models, (7) alternatives to self-reports, (8) different ways of measuring achievement, and (9) generalizability of the reciprocal relations to various developmental, ethnic, and sociocultural groups.
... The Robbins Report (1963) claimed that social class was one of the major influences on the achievement, as in the UK students with similar IQ did not acquire the same occupation, as twice as many middle-class students did bachelors as the working-class students. Murayama et al. (2012) did a study in Germany and found that IQ was a significant factor only at the beginning of mathematical studies. The long-term analysis shows no http://www.ijmp.jor.br ...
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As globalization is increasingly affecting both Low Income Countries (LICs) and high income countries (HICs), the formation of mixed markets emphasizes the importance of private education. Functionalists, for example, highlight privately owned institutions as higher quality ones, as the competitive market forces them to innovate and follow the rapid technological improvements, to respond to customers' demand. Higher education is becoming a necessity in LICs, as well. This is because it is much easier nowadays to "import" the workforce from another country. On the other hand, factories of transnational corporations are getting established in LICs. In this case, higher knowledge is not required, as the emphasis is placed on repetitive tasks and division of labor. The aim of this work is to provide a relevant analysis of scientific approach of various stand points in regards to different functions and applicability of knowledge, while considering the external factors, such as economic status of the country, to define the key challenges. Still, as the country progresses economically, the sector of production is likely to shift from primary (fishing, farming, agriculture) to the third one (services). As a result, LICs who aim to progress in an economical sense, must place greater emphasis on higher education, and align the educational process with the economic demand. [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/] Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
... Minat juga merupakan kehendak atau keinginan individu untuk menentukan keutamaan sesuatu perkara yang membawa emosi gembira kepada individu tersebut (Azmidar et al., 2017). Minat dalam pembelajaran matematik adalah penting dan ia merupakan salah satu penyumbang faktor kepada kejayaan pelajar menguasainya (Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, & vom Hofe, 2013). Pelajar yang mempunyai minat untuk menyelesaikan masalah matematik adalah lebih fokus semasa melakukan sesuatu perkara dan menggunakan strategi pemprosesan yang lebih mendalam. ...
Conference Paper
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Sikap memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menentukan kejayaan seseorang pelajar dalam pembelajarannya. Sikap pelajar terhadap matematik yang baik dapat merangsang meta kognitif pelajar untuk mencapai pencapaian yang baik dalam matematik. Kajian tinjauan kuantitatif ini dijalankan bagi mengkaji hubungan sikap dari segi minat, keyakinan, kebimbangan, dan persepsi pelajar terhadap kegunaan matematik dengan pencapaian pelajar pra-universiti dalam Matematik T di Kinta Utara, Perak. Seramai 211 pelajar pra-universiti daripada 10 buah sekolah termasuk Kolej Tingkatan 6 di Kinta Utara dipilih menggunakan kaedah pensampelan rawak mudah. Data-data dikumpul menggunakan instrumen soal selidik yang diterjemahkan daripada Instrumen Pengukuran Sikap Fennema and Sherman (1976) hasil adaptasi oleh Dlamini (1998), secara atas talian. Analisis inferensi statistik iaitu ujian-t tak bersandar dan korelasi Pearson digunakan untuk menganalisis data menggunakan perisian SPSS 26. Hasil dapatan kajian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan sikap di antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan. Keempat-empat konstruk sikap yang dikaji mempunyai korelasi yang signifikan dengan pencapaian pelajar dalam subjek Matematik T. Minat (r = .266), keyakinan (r = .342) dan persepsi pelajar terhadap kegunaan matematik (r = .631) mempunyai hubungan signifikan yang positif manakala kebimbangan (r = –.173) mempunyai hubungan signifikan yang negatif dengan pencapaian pelajar. Secara keseluruhannya, sikap pelajar di Kinta Utara berkorelasi secara sederhana (r = .562) dengan pencapaian pelajar dalam Matematik T. Kajian ini menunjukkan konstruk sikap, iaitu minat, keyakinan, kebimbangan dan persepsi pelajar terhadap kegunaan matematik, mempunyai pengaruh terhadap pencapaian pelajar pra-universiti dalam Matematik T di Kinta Utara, Perak.
... However, such surveys may suffer from validity concerns if they measure only decontextualized dispositions, are unengaging to young survey-takers, or items are interpreted inaccurately or inconsistently across individuals (Karabenick et al., 2007;Peterson, Peterson, & Powell, 2017). This problem is exacerbated for younger children; the elementary school ages are thought to be vital for fostering students' attitudes toward school (Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, & vom Hofe, 2013), but younger students' interpretations of motivational constructs have been found to be particularly inconsistent (Thorndike & Thorndike, 2010). ...
Article
The ability to accurately measure academic motivation is important to its value as a predictive variable for learning, achievement, and other outcomes. Although measures of motivation are frequently subject to quantitative validation (e.g., Appleton, Ntoumanis, Quested, Viladrich, & Duda, 2016; Gagné et al., 2015; Pekrun, Goetz, Frenzel, Barchfeld, & Perry, 2011), the establishment of cognitive validity is more rare. By conducting cognitive interviews with a sample of elementary-aged children, we explored the cognitive validity of a novel motivation (expectancy–value and academic emotions) survey embedded in an educational technology. Children were largely able to accurately interpret questions, elaborate on their reasoning for answers, and choose answers congruent with those reasons. Challenges to cognitive validity fell under varied and underdeveloped interpretations of expectancy–value concepts; misunderstandings related to available response choices; and discrepancies between younger and older children’s abilities to judge their perceived competencies and values. Insights from these interviews can be applied to interpretation of the immediate survey, but also to design and interpretation of motivation surveys beyond the current measure.
... Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan teknik bermain peran pada pembelajaran berbasis masalah merupakan pemilihan strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga motivasi dan keterlibatan mahasiswa pada saat mereka sedang bekerja untuk memecahkan masalah. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa motivasi dan strategi pembelajaran adalah faktor penting dalam peningkatan kompetensi mahasiswa (Murayama et al., 2013). Kolaborasi dalam kelompok kecil dapat mengaktivasi pengetahuan mahasiswa mengenai materi sebselumnya yang penting digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu masalah dan membangun pemahaman (Schmidt et al., 2011). ...
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Dua tantangan utama yang dihadapi oleh mahasiswa calon guru matematika adalah mampu berpikir dan bekerja seperti matematikawan dan memiliki keterampilan komunikasi, interaksi, dan kerjasama yang baik. Implikasi dari tantangan-tantangan ini adalah pentingnya untuk memiliki pendekatan pembelajaran yang dapat mendukung keduanya. Sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur efektivitas pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan bermain peran terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa. Penelitian ini adalah suatu quasi- experimental research dengan non-equivalent control group posttest only design. Populasi sebanyak 42 mahasiswa dibagi ke dalam kelompok eksperimen dan kontrol. Kelompok eksperimen diperlakukan dengan pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan bermain peran sedangkan kelompok kontrol hanya diperlakukan dengan pembelajaran berbasis masalah saja. Analisa data penelitian ini antara lain; (1) pengujian validitas tes menurut ahli, (2) pengujian reliabilitas tes dengan pearson correlation coefficient, (3) pengujian normalitas data melalui interpretasi skewness dan kurtosis, (4) pengujian homogenitas data dengan F-test, dan (5) pengujian hipotesis dengan t-test. Semua pengujian data dilakukan menggunakan analysis toolpak pada Microsoft Excel. Hasil pengujian hipotesis dengan t-test menunjukkan bahwa thitung = 7.64 > ttabel = 1.68 yang artinya Ho ditolak pada α = 0.05. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan bermain peran efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa. Kata kunci: Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah; Bermain Peran; Hasil Belajar
... Our findings coincide with Broadbent's (2017) claim that online learning environments do not necessarily require all of the SRL strategies and a few strategies may play more significant roles than others because of the environmental factors particular to AOL. In fact, prior studies on online SRL strategies have identified different key SRL strategies as related to student achievement, such as metacognitive regulation (e.g., Carson, 2011) and cognitive strategies (e.g., Murayama et al., 2013). ...
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The self-paced nature of asynchronous online learning (AOL) is recognized as an obstacle that disrupts student success in the learning environment. Without on-time interventions provided by instructors, students find it challenging to use learning strategies tailored to the learning environment, and their use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies has been regarded one of the key indicators of success in AOL. To examine how student SRL strategies are associated with their video engagement trajectory and learning outcomes, we used student video engagement data collected at multiple time points. Participants were 159 students who were taking a self-paced asynchronous online statistics course. Results revealed that student video engagement was found to increase over time and student management strategies contributed to the upward change. We also found that the growth of engagement predicted student achievement in the course. Our findings shed light on instructional strategies to support students in AOL contexts.
... Previous studies show parental involvement (PI) and student academic performance are positively related (Boonk et al., 2018;Hill et al., 2004;Murayama et al., 2013). To explore the relationship between PI and school dropout we examined multiple variables in the datasets of the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) published in 2015. ...
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p>Students drop out of schools for many reasons, and it has negative effects on the individual and society. This paper reports a study using data published in 2015 from the Educational Longitudinal Study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics to analyze the influence of parental involvement on low-achieving U.S. students’ graduation rates from high school. Findings indicate that both students and parents share the same perspective on the need for parental involvement in their academic progress. For low-achieving high school students, parental involvement in academic work is a positive factor influencing students’ graduation from high school.</p
... For reading achievement, by contrast, a compensatory effect occurred: Students with lower fluid intelligence showed a steeper rise in their reading achievement growth rates compared to students with higher fluid intelligence (Baumert, Nagy, & Lehmann, 2012;Geary, 2011). Still other studies-both in mathematics and in reading 1 -provided evidence for initial intelligence being related to initial achievement, but not to achievement growth (Murayama, Pekrun, Lichtenfeld, & vom Hofe, R., 2013;Rescorla & Rosenthal, 2004). Yet another study by Lechner, Miyamoto, and Knopf (2019) found that fluid intelligence positively predicted students' initial level of mathematics and reading achievement as well as their growth, whereby the effects sizes were larger for mathematics than for reading. ...
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Evidence on the interrelation of intelligence development and the development of domain-specific academic achievement is still inconclusive. We investigated the longitudinal relation between these 2 constructs in the domains mathematics and reading. Data from 6 large adolescent student samples (Ntotal = 24,828) from 4 longitudinal studies were analyzed using an integrated approach. Continuous time models corroborate the assumption that intelligence and academic achievement are reciprocally related over the course of 9 months, a time period that approximates the length of a school year. Reciprocal relations were observed regardless of the achievement indicator employed (standardized test score or report card grade) and the academic domain. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that the strengths of associations between intelligence and the indicators of academic achievement was robust across sexes. Our rigorous tests of the interrelation between intelligence and academic achievement underscore the importance of adolescents' learning opportunities not only for achievement in academic domains, but for intelligence development more generally.
... To gain a better understanding of these inconsistent findings, it is important to examine the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on academic performance 15 . This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise on a key predictor of academic achievement-motivation 16 . There has been little research that systematically examines the influence of exercise on motivation in educational settings. ...
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This study examined whether engaging in physical exercise during a university class would have beneficial effect on students’ learning motivation. One hundred and forty-nine participants took part in a psychology class over nine weeks (one lesson per week); for each lesson, participants engaged in a three-minute physical activity (low-intensity aerobic exercise) or control activity (watching a video), about 20 min after the lesson started. Participants reported higher vigour and lower fatigue during the class when they exercised than when they engaged in control activities. These findings suggest the utility of incorporating a short exercise activity in university settings to enhance students’ classroom motivation.
... Increased enjoyment may thus explain a possible direct positive effect of personalization on performance (path C). We also expect ability to predict enjoyment (path D) (Frenzel et al., 2007;Murayama et al., 2013;Prast et al., 2018) and performance (path E). In the moderation part of the model, we expect personalization to be especially effective for lower-ability students (path C mod ). ...
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In two context personalization studies, we examined (a) enjoyment and cognitive load as two potential mechanisms explaining the effects of context personalization on mathematical word problem performance, and (b) whether individual differences in math, reading and working memory ability moderated these effects. In both studies (Study 1: N = 238; Study 2: N = 149) primary school students from 6th grade completed math word problems in either a personalized condition or a control condition. Students rated their enjoyment and experienced cognitive load after each problem. Moderated mediation models showed that while ability, enjoyment and cognitive load significantly predicted performance, (a) personalization did not affect word problem performance, enjoyment or cognitive load, and (b) the three different abilities did not moderate these relations. The findings are discussed in light of three personalization principles (depth, grain size, ownership) and complexity in different steps of math problem solving.
... Control beliefs refer to an overall set of beliefs about how effective one's process of producing expected outcomes can be (Skinner et al., 1998). In academic settings, perceived control is understood as a critical psychological disposition that affect students' behavior, emotion, and achievement (d 'Ailly, 2003;Schunk, 1984;Murayama et al., 2013). According to the previous frameworks of perceived control (e.g., Skinner et al., 1998;Rotter, 1966;Rotter & Mulry, 1965), perceived control over learning is constituted of two types of beliefs: strategy beliefs (what it takes to do well) and capacity beliefs (whether I believe I have the strategies; Skinner et al., 1998). ...
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We investigated how the opportunity to learn (OTL) with different types of mathematics tasks are related to mathematical literacy and the role of perceived control in the relationship between OTL and mathematical literacy. The structural equation modeling was applied to the data of 1,649 Korean students from the PISA 2012 database. OTL with the four different types of tasks – algebraic word problems, procedural tasks, pure mathematics reasoning, and applied mathematics reasoning – were measured via student survey on how often they have encountered each type of task in their mathematics lessons and tests. The results showed that OTL with the procedural tasks was likely to increase mathematical literacy directly and indirectly through internal perceived control. Engaging in the applied reasoning tasks is positively related to external perceived control, but negatively to mathematical literacy.
... Several studies have highlighted associations between students' use of cognitive learning strategies and improved academic outcomes. A 2013 study found that amongst students in fifth through tenth grade, cognitive learning strategies were associated with growth of academic achievement over a 5-year period, whereas intelligence was not (Murayama et al., 2013). The findings of this study underscore the value of cognitive learning strategies in mathematics competency development. ...
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Self-regulation involves the modulation of one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in the pursuit of long-term goals. Students who face difficulties with self-regulation may experience substantial deficits in their academic achievement. However, research has pointed to a number of effective instructional strategies and interventions which may be particularly beneficial for improving students’ acquisition of academic skills. One such strategy is self-regulation interventions, which are typically comprised of cognitive learning strategies, mnemonic strategies, and/or behavioral management strategies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize and analyze extant research on the impact of self-regulation (as defined in this study) interventions on primary and secondary students’ math, reading, and writing outcomes. Peer-reviewed publications from the last 50 years were identified through a systematic search, which resulted in a total of 46 studies included in the meta-analysis. This systematic review yielded an overall positive effect of self-regulation interventions on academic outcomes, suggesting that self-regulation interventions can lead to improved reading, writing, and math scores for children and adolescents. The increased and sustained development and implementation of self-regulation interventions in school settings may be particularly beneficial for targeting deficits in self-regulation and promoting academic achievement.
... This downward trend is worrying because motivation is a very important predictor for mathematical achievement [13]. For the motivational construct of interest, research has shown direct and indirect (via academic engagement, persistence, or course selection) effects on mathematics achievement [14][15][16][17]; here, interest in mathematics was found to be an important predictor for mathematics achievement in the long term [18]. Given these findings, it seems necessary to closely monitor students' interest so that a response can be issued when their interest is low. ...
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A motivational downturn in mathematics during secondary school has been well documented for many students. As a way to address this, creating personally relevant tasks is supposed to increase students’ motivation for mathematical tasks. According to recent research, topics relating to affiliation, achievement, and power are personally relevant for young people. Prior research showed that motive imagery in school tasks increases students’ task-related intrinsic value and success expectancies. The present study examined the effect of motive topics in word problems on students’ task performance. We contextualized mathematical tasks either with affiliation, achievement, and power topics or with neutral topics not related to motive topics. The tasks were comparable regarding their mean word count, text, and mathematical complexity. In three experimental studies ( N 1 = 56, N 2 = 63, N 3 = 62), the students solved four tasks for each motive topic and neutral tasks, respectively. The dependent variables were task performance, intrinsic values, and expectancies of success. Repeated measures analyses of variance with the four-level, within-subjects factor motive imagery revealed positive effects of motive imagery in word problems on students’ task performance. This was particularly true for achievement-related tasks compared with neutral tasks. The results also indicated slightly positive effects for affiliation-related word problems on students’ performance. In addition, the intrinsic value for affiliation-related (Experiment 1) and achievement-related tasks (Experiment 3) was higher than for neutral tasks. Power imagery did not affect students’ task performance; it negatively affected students’ intrinsic value compared with neutral tasks. Task-related success expectancies were not influenced by motive imagery. The present study replicates and extends previous findings that indicate that tasks referring to affiliation and achievement imagery are more appealing to students and can benefit their performance.
... The time period was considered appropriate to measure how much knowledge learners retained after one or two days, because motivation is a critical influencing factor for long-term memory (e.g. Murayama et al. 2013;Naceur and Schiefele 2005). ...
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Learning is a central component of human life and essential for personal development. Therefore, utilizing new technologies in the learning context and exploring their combined potential are considered essential to support self-directed learning in a digital age. A learning environment can be expanded by various technical and content-related aspects. Gamification in the form of elements from video games offers a potential concept to support the learning process. This can be supplemented by technology-supported learning. While the use of tablets is already widespread in the learning context, the integration of a social robot can provide new perspectives on the learning process. However, simply adding new technologies such as social robots or gamification to existing systems may not automatically result in a better learning environment. In the present study, game elements as well as a social robot were integrated separately and conjointly into a learning environment for basic Spanish skills, with a follow-up on retained knowledge. This allowed us to investigate the respective and combined effects of both expansions on motivation, engagement and learning effect. This approach should provide insights into the integration of both additions in an adult learning context. We found that the additions of game elements and the robot did not significantly improve learning, engagement or motivation. Based on these results and a literature review, we outline relevant factors for meaningful integration of gamification and social robots in learning environments in adult learning.
... Cognitive strategies include surface learning strategies (e.g., memorization) and deep learning strategies (e.g., elaboration) [55]. Surface learning strategies involve rote learning without in-depth elaboration [60]. Deep learning strategies and metacognitive strategies promote a higher level of problem-solving achievement [9]. ...
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Several attempts have been made to explore the factors influencing teacher emotions, most of which focus on external factors such as student behaviors and classroom teaching. However, research on the links between internal factors and teacher emotions is scant. Based on the control value theory, this article explored the influence of junior secondary mathematics teachers’ error orientations on their emotions, and how teachers’ error orientations and emotions were related to students’ mathematics learning strategies. A sample of 70 junior high school mathematics teachers and their students (N = 2453) in mainland China participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. The results showed that teachers’ positive error orientation increased their positive emotions and reduced their negative emotions, whereas teachers’ negative error orientation increased their negative emotions and reduced their positive emotions. Regarding the effects of teacher emotions, teachers’ positive emotions increased students’ positive mathematics achievement emotions and reduced their negative emotions. Meanwhile, students’ negative mathematics achievement emotions significantly reduced their adoption of desirable mathematics learning strategies. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ positive error orientation and positive emotion for students’ mathematics learning.
... It is also needed to advance the academic achievement of excellent students [15][16][17][18][19]. Prior studies deliver qualitative and quantitative results in extending students' performance evaluation and calculation, and highlighting the factors that influence the performance [20][21][22][23][24][25]. For a few decades, psychology, data mining, cognitive computing, and data analysis fields directly or indirectly contributed to the optimization of students' performance prediction systems [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. erefore, related work is split into the following subsections. ...
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Previous studies widely report the optimization of performance predictions to highlight at-risk students and advance the achievement of excellent students. They also have contributions that overlap different fields of research. On the one hand, they have insightful psychological studies, data mining discoveries, and data analysis findings. On the other hand, they produce a variety of performance prediction approaches to assess students’ performance during cognitive tasks. However, the synchronization between these studies is still a black box that increases prediction systems’ dependency on real-world datasets. It also delays the mathematical modeling of students’ emotional attributes. This review paper performs an insightful analysis and thorough literature-based survey to draw a comprehensive picture of potential challenges and prior contributions. The review consists of 1497 publications from 1990 to 2022 (32 years), which reported various opportunities for future performance prediction researchers. First, it evaluates psychological studies, data analysis results, and data mining findings to provide a general picture of the statistical association among students’ performance and various influential factors. Second, it critically evaluates new students’ performance prediction techniques, modifications in existing techniques, and comprehensive studies based on the comparative analysis. Lastly, future directions and potential pilot projects based on the assumption-based dataset are highlighted to optimize the existing performance prediction systems.
... 1 The study of self-efficacy Self-efficacy (SE) concerns, according to a well-known definition, 'beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments' (Bandura, 1997), and it has been described as 'the most important building block in one's self-concept' (Bong & Skaalvik, 2003, p. 10-11). It is argued that positive SE beliefs can enhance human well-being (Pajares & Schunk, 2001), reduce anxiety (Pajares & Miller, 1994), and facilitate successful adoption of goals and strategies (Bandura, 1977), which can result in more positive outcomes when attempting to achieve a task (Murayama et al., 2013;Parker et al., 2014). In fact, Graham and Weiner (1996) hold that SE is a more reliable predictor of behaviorial outcomes than any other self-belief. ...
Article
This article outlines the development of a 16-item instrument for measuring language learner’s foreign language self-efficacy (SE) concerning their speaking and listening skills through repeated administrations to groups of Japanese tertiary students. Responses were analysed through the Rasch model, which allows researchers to investigate unidimensionality of each proposed component, as well as the functioning of individual items. Logit scores from Rasch were used for a regression analysis of listening SE with listening proficiency test data, and a correlation study with speaking SE and speaking proficiency scores of a subset of participants. The results suggest that the two proposed components in the instrument are unidimensional and are able to differentiate between different levels of SE among participants. Also, there are low to moderate correlations between learners’ aural/oral SE and their language proficiency.
... Moreover, students who have developed these skills are more likely to obtain good grades. It is confirmed by Hattie, Biggs and Purdie [38], Murayama et al. [39] and Nota et al. [40] that students can control their learning process by using learning strategies and therefore positively influence their academic outcomes. ...
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The main purpose of this study is determining the correlations between personality traits, academic mental skills and educational outcomes using a quantitative methodology, based on a non-experimental, correlational study. In addition, the following variables are taken into consideration: gender, grade averages and school cycle. The sample is composed of 695 students: these are two institutions (middle and high school) under the provincial direction of Mediouna. In order to gather the information, participants were asked to complete the 16pf 5 questionnaire and scale measuring academic mental skills. Note that the results obtained are processed by the IBM SPSS 23 software. The results demonstrate that the 16 personality scales of the Cattell 16PF5 test and the 9 school grades have significant correlations: 77.77% of all correlations, with essentially the following factors: abstractedness, tension, emotional stability, dominance, social-boldness, vigilance and apprehension maintain (8/9) significant and positive relationships with 38.88% and low intensity (r = 0.031 to 0.0465). Additionally, mental skills (affective, cognitive and metacognitive strategies) and grades have significant correlations with 70.37% of all calculated correlations, with low, average and/or positive, negative intensities, according to each strategy with each grade of school subjects. In the end, it is necessary to make considerable efforts to better understanding the multidimensionality of school success and to ensure an effective and relevant pedagogical intervention.
... For example, the cross-sectional study was conducted on a specific age group. Consequently, the design does not allow conclusions about bidirectional connections and-in relation to developmental changes of predictive power [105][106][107][108]-other age groups. Therefore, it becomes apparent that the longitudinal data of cognitive and affective variables are necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of reciprocal effects. ...
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Although the interaction between anxiety and attention is considered crucial for learning and performance in mathematics, few studies have examined these cognitive and affective predictors in a single framework or explored the role of sustained attention in promoting children’s arithmetic performance, using traditional linear analyses and latent profile analysis (LPA). In this paper, state anxieties (in a math test and in an attention test situation), general anxiety traits, sustained attention (performance-based test and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) self-ratings) and math achievement of 403 fourth and fifth graders (55.8% girls) were assessed. A negative correlation between state anxiety prior to the math test and arithmetic achievements was identified, even when controlling for other non-math related state anxieties and general anxiety. Sustained attention was a strong predictor of arithmetic achievement and functioned as a moderator in the anxiety-performance link. LPA identified six distinct profiles that revealed a complex relationship with arithmetic fluency. The weakest achievement was found for a specific math anxiety subgroup. The findings highlight the important role of the interaction of anxiety and sustained attention in children’s ability to perform math and enable new conclusions about the specific nature of math anxiety. Implications for future research are discussed.
... One such hypothesis is that low interest may lead to a superficial approach towards subject-specific AoPs, instead of using deep learning strategies involving the intended knowledge components (Hidi and Renninger 2006). Investigating deep and surface learning strategies, which have been discussed in connection to interest for secondary mathematics pre-service teachers in the past (Murayama et al. 2013), could be one step towards this issue. A second area for further study is the role of repeated participation in similar AoPs. ...
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The acquisition of diagnostic competences is an essential goal of teacher education. Thus, evidence on how learning environments facilitate pre-service teachers’ acquisition of corresponding competences is important. In teacher education, approximations of practice (such as simulations) are discussed as being learning environments that can support learners in activating acquired knowledge in authentic situations. Simulated diagnostic interviews are recommended to foster teachers’ diagnostic competences. The conceptualization of diagnostic competences highlights the importance of cognitive and motivational characteristics. Motivational learning theories predict that the activation of acquired knowledge in learning situations may be influenced by motivational characteristics such as individual interest. Although teachers’ diagnostic competences constitute an increasing research focus, how cognitive and motivational characteristics interact when shaping the diagnostic process and accuracy in authentic learning situations remains an open question. To address this question, we report on data from 126 simulated diagnostic one-on-one interviews conducted by 63 pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (students simulated by research assistants), studying the combined effects of interest and professional knowledge on the diagnostic process and accuracy. In addition to the main effect of content knowledge, interaction effects indicate that participants’ interest plays the role of a “door-opener” for the activation of knowledge during simulation-based learning. Thus, the results highlight the importance of both, cognitive and motivational characteristics. This implies that simulation-based learning environments should be designed to arouse participants’ interest to support their learning or to support less interested learners in activating relevant knowledge.
... Students who flexibly use learning strategies have also been shown to better perceive the control of the learning process (Obergriesser and Stoeger, 2020). This phenomenon influences the student's self-efficacy, academic emotions, and learning outcome (Pekrun et al., 2011;Murayama et al., 2013;Pekrun and Perry, 2014). These conclusions are supported by the affective dynamics model of D' Mello and Graesser (2012). ...
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Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic and government measures implemented to counter the spread of the infection may be a major stressor affecting the psychological health of university students. This study aimed to explore how anxiety symptoms changed during the pandemic. Methods: 676 students (76% females) at Zurich University of Applied Sciences participated in the first (T0) and second (T1) survey waves. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-Scale-7 (GAD-7). Risk and protective factors (e.g., COVID-19-related variables) were examined. Results: GAD-7 scores decreased significantly from T0 to T1 (mean change: 􀀀0.446, SE = 0.132, 95% CI: -0.706, -0.186, t = -3.371, df = 659, p = 0.001). Participants with moderate-to-severe anxiety score were 20.2 and 15.6% at T0 and T1, respectively. The following positively predicted anxiety: older age, female gender, non-Swiss nationality, loneliness, participants’ concern about their own health, and interaction between time and participants’ concern about their own health. Resilience and social support negatively predicted anxiety. Conclusions: Our findings provide information for public health measures and psychological interventions supporting the mental health of university students during the COVID-19 emergency.
... Moreover, Umemoto and Inagaki (2021) suggests that low instability of motivation may be important for the effective use of deepprocessing strategies during learning. Deep-processing strategies are learning methods that promote the understanding of learning contents based on the associations between new information and existing knowledge, and promote academic achievement (e.g., Murayama et al., 2013). Considering the instability of motivation makes it possible to identify the learning process from aspects that differ from past high or low levels of motivation. ...
Article
In this study, we used a longitudinal survey of two time-points to investigate the relationship between motivation instability and type of motivation level toward university learning using a cross-lagged panel model. We measured four types of motivation level based on self-determination theory. A total of 127 Japanese students from two universities participated in two longitudinal surveys; their data were used in the analysis. We investigated the relationship between motivation instability and motivation level by employing the cross-lagged panel model, and found that intrinsic regulation at Time 1 was positively related to the instability of motivation at Time 2, while identified regulation at Time 1 was negatively related to instability of motivation at Time 2. These results indicate that two processes may exist: one where instability of motivation increases depending on the level of motivation, and one where it decreases. Moreover, instability of motivation at Time 1 was positively related to the identified regulation and introjected regulation at Time 2, although the values of the path coefficients were very small. Finally, instability of motivation at Time 1 was positively related to the instability of motivation at Time 2. Based on the results of this study, we discuss the relationship between motivation level and instability in university learning.
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THE EFFECT OF GREEN CHEMISTRY LAB EXPERIMENTS ON STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHEMISTRY Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of green chemistry lab experiments and the traditional chemistry lab experiments on students’ attitudes towards chemistry. This type of study was a quasi-experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. The population of this study was all the Class XI of Natural Sciences in SMA Negeri 4 Singaraja, totaling five classes. Samples were selected by a purposive sampling technique. Sciences of 2 and 5 was the control group taught by traditional chemistry lab experiments, while Class XI of Natural Sciences of 3 and 4 was the experimental group taught by green chemistry lab experiments. Students’ attitudes towards chemistry were measured by a questionnaire given to students before and after the chemistry lab experiments. The results of this study indicated that students’ attitudes toward chemistry were better in the green chemistry lab experiments with a mean score of 4.34 than in the traditional chemistry lab experiments with a mean score of 4.15. Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan menyelidiki pengaruh praktikum kimia hijau dan praktikum kimia tradisional pada sikap siswa terhadap kimia. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen kuasi dengan rancangan non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa Kelas XI IPA di SMA Negeri 4 Singaraja yang berjumlah lima kelas. Sampel dipilih dengan teknik purpossive sampling. Kelas XI IPA 2 dan 5 sebagai kelompok kontrol yang diajar dengan praktikum kimia tradisional, sedangkan Kelas XI IPA 3 dan 4 sebagai kelompok eksperimen yang diajar dengan praktikum kimia hijau. Sikap siswa terhadap kimia diukur dengan inventori yang diberikan kepada siswa sebelum dan setelah kegiatan praktikum kimia. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan sikap siswa terhadap kimia lebih baik pada praktikum kimia hijau dengan skor rata-rata 4,34 dibandingkan dengan praktikum kimia tradisional skor rata-rata 4,15.
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The study purposes were to explore the level of students' academic enablers and gender‐based difference towards academic enablers scales (AES) among 3200 students that were selected randomly from 80 high schools of Punjab province of Pakistan. The descriptive design of the positivism research paradigm was used to accomplish the study. Academic enablers scale for students (AES‐students) was adapted to collect data about four academic enabling behaviors (motivation, engagement, interpersonal skills, and study skills). Hence, the psychometric properties of adapted AES‐students exhibited that it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure academic enablers. Results indicated that the majority of students had a competent level in all academic enabling behaviors while they are more motivated as compared to their study skills, interpersonal skills, and engagement. However, engagement is the least contributive enabler. Moreover, results also demonstrated a significant difference in girls' and boys' student perceptions towards AES. It is also determined that gender had a small effect size on students' academic enablers as Cohen's d values among 0.1 to 0.4. Academic enabling behaviors may be enhanced among boy students through the use of different teaching strategies in the classroom, such as enthusiastic demonstration style, group activities, and classroom symposiums.
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The study [in Finnish] is part of a longitudinal research. Same students were followed from 3rd grade of primary education to the end of upper secondary level. The data was collected by EDUFI and FINEEC during 2005–2015. The data consists of 3896 students and the target group consists of mathematically high-achieving students. Total number of them is 292 (7,5 %). Definition of high-achieving students is based on success in the mathematics examination of 9th grade. In addition to math examinations it has been gathered information about students’ individual-, school- and home-related factors. The study examines the relationship between these factors and the choice between upper secondary vocational education and general upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate how high-achieving students’ mathematical competence develop during these studies and which factors are related to development. Decision tree analysis (DTA) and regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The results indicated that 60,0 % of mathematically high-achieving students were also high-achieving students at the end of upper secondary level. The individual-related factors were explanatory factors for mathematical success at the upper secondary level. Positive attitudes towards mathematics and strong mathematical competence in basic education predicted excellent success in mathematics later. The competence of high-achieving student most likely decreased if a student didn’t go to the general upper secondary school or didn’t complete at least 11 mathematics courses. They, who performed excellently in their studies of mother tongue in 9th grade, most likely applied to the general upper secondary school.
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This investigation examines the effect of the Updated Content of Education (UCE) project on Kazakh, Russian, and Uyghur child literacy in Kazakhstan. Participants included 1,920 Kazakh, 1,528 Russian, and 143 Uyghur speaking Grade 1 students tracked longitudinally from 2015 to 2019 under both control and pilot curricula conditions. Based on Rasch modelling using a linked equating design, multi-level piece-wise growth modelling suggested that the UCE pilot had a positive effect on the between-school growth rate for the first year for both Kazakh (b = 1.49, p < .001) and Russian (b = 1.40, p < .001). For Uyghur, the UCE pilot had a significant positive effect (b = 0.40, p < .001) for the final two-year period. Overall, findings support the implementation of the updated curriculum for the advancement of child literacy suggesting that the UCE may also be implemented more broadly. Implications for other post-Soviet and Central Asian jurisdictions looking to simultaneously advance minority, indigenous, and regional child language literacy are offered.
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Poor math and numeracy skills are associated with a range of adverse outcomes, including reduced employability and poorer physical and mental health. Research has increasingly focused on understanding factors associated with the improvement of math skills in school. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigated the association between metacognition and math performance in adolescence (11-16-year-olds). A systematic search of electronic databases and grey literature (to 04.01.2020) highlighted 31 studies. The quantitative synthesis of 74 effect sizes from 29 of these studies (30 independent populations) indicated a significantly positive correlation between metacognition and math performance in adolescence (r = .37, 95% CI = [.29, .44], p < .001). There was significant heterogeneity between studies. Consideration of online (versus offline) measures of metacognition and more complex (versus simple) measures of math performance, and their combination, were associated with larger effect sizes; however heterogeneity remained high for all analyses.
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Great learning interest contributes to success in various kinds of field. This case study aims to explore how to foster learning interest in STEM (Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology) based on the interest-driven creation theory. The two STEM activities were designed and implemented according to the interest-driven creation theory. The first activity was to make a bookmark with a bridge, and the second was to make a bridge model. The learning interest questionnaire, group products, and interview results revealed that all of the participants were very interested in the two activities and STEM. The implications, limitations, and future studies are discussed in depth.
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Several cognitive deficits have been suggested to induce mathematical learning difficulties (MLD), but it is unclear whether the cognitive profile for all children with MLD is the same and to what extent it differs from typically developing (TD) children. This study investigated whether such a profile could be distinguished when cognitive skills and math performance are compared between TD children and children with MLD. This was accomplished by employing two-way repeated-measures analyses of covariance in 276 10-year-old participants (60 with MLD) from fourth and fifth grades. In addition, we investigated whether more restrictive selection criteria for MLD result in different mathematical and cognitive profiles by means of independent-samples t tests. Results revealed that cognitive mechanisms for math development are mostly similar for children with MLD and TD children and that variability in sample selection criteria did not produce different mathematical or cognitive profiles. To conclude, the cognitive mechanisms for math development are broadly similar for children with MLD and their TD counterparts even when different MLD samples were selected. This strengthens our idea that MLD can be defined as the worst performance on a continuous scale rather than as a discrete disorder.
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Community college students face difficulties in mathematics courses and may not understand the relevance of the topics they are learning to their intended career. When such connections are not made, mathematics courses can become barriers to pursuit of careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). In the present study, we assessed student interest in mathematics and various STEM career areas and students' perceptions of ways mathematics is involved in STEM careers in order to better understand how these variables are related. We discovered that interest in mathematics predicted interest in many, but not all, categories of STEM and STEM-related careers. We also assessed how deeply the student was engaged with their current career pathway, and how this related to other variables. We found that students' depth of interest in their chosen career path was only associated with mathematics interest for some STEM careers. Finally, students' perceptions of how mathematics was used in their chosen career area predicted their interest in mathematics, and their interest in some STEM career areas.
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It has been claimed that intelligence causes academic achievement to increase over time, and that also, conversely, academic achievement causes intelligence to increase over time. This bidirectional facilitating longitudinal effect between intelligence and academic achievement rests on observed associations between initial intelligence and the change in academic achievement between an initial and a subsequent measurement, and vice versa. Here, we demonstrate, through simulating empirical data used in previous research, that such longitudinal associations may be due to regression toward the mean rather than a true facilitating effect. Regression toward the mean occurs due to the conditioning of change on the initial value on the outcome variable. Researchers should be aware of this fallacy and are recommended to verify their findings with analyses without adjustment for an initial value on the outcome.
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This research aimed at discovering the factors which affect the academic performance of undergraduate college/university students. Qualitative research design was implied and semi-structured interview was used to collect data. Sample included 15 (N=15, females=10, males=5) students studying in undergraduate programs at different public sector colleges/universities. Thematic analysis was used to find out the factors which affect academic performance of undergraduate college/university students. Three major themes clusters emerged naming positive factors, negative factors and suggestive factors. Both positive and negative factors contained sub themes like psychological factors (e.g. determination, casual behavior) social/external factors (e.g., social support, excessive use of social media) and academic factors (conceptual study, language difficulties) while suggestive themes contained sub themes like steps by students and steps by teachers/institutes. Results have implications for students, teachers and policy makers. Findings may guide both students and institutes in working to improve the academic performance of undergraduate college/university students.
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Background: Parental support plays an important role in children's schoolwork motivation and may have been even more important during the first UK COVID-19 pandemic lockdown because all schoolwork was completed at home. When examining the effect of parental support on children's schoolwork motivation, research has typically focused on comparing families with each other (i.e., difference between families). In reality, however, the effect unfolds as a transactional, bidirectional process between parents and children over time (i.e., a within family process). This research trend can result in imprecise conclusions about the association between parental support and schoolwork motivation. Objectives: We examined bidirectional effects of parental schoolwork support and children's schoolwork motivation at both the between-family and within-family level. Methods: This study reports findings from a weekly-diary study conducted during the first UK COVID-19 school lockdown. Cross-lagged within and between multilevel modelling was used to analyse data from UK secondary school students (N = 98) in Years 7-9. Results: Between-family results show no evidence of association between motivation and parental support. Within-family results indicate that higher motivation (assessed as higher expectations of success) predicted more support from parents. However, in contrast with predictions, weekly levels of parental support did not predict children's weekly fluctuations in motivation. Conclusions: Within-family results were not consistent with between-family results. This study is novel in showing that child-driven effects appear to be important in eliciting parental support within families over time.
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This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
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We (Marsh & Craven, 1997) have claimed that academic self-concept and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other. Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) have claimed that self-esteem has no benefits beyond seductive pleasure and may even be detrimental to subsequent performance. Integrating these seemingly contradictory conclusions, we distinguish between (a) older, unidimensional perspectives that focus on global self-esteem and underpin the Baumeister et al. review and (b) more recent, multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and are the basis of our claim. Supporting the construct validity of a multidimensional perspective, studies show that academic achievement is substantially related to academic self-concept, but nearly unrelated to self-esteem. Consistent with this distinction, research based on our reciprocal-effects model (REM) and a recent meta-analysis show that prior academic self-concept (as opposed to self-esteem) and achievement both have positive effects on subsequent self-concept and achievement. We provide an overview of new support for the generality of the REM for young children, cross-cultural research in non-Western countries, health (physical activity), and nonelite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. We conclude that future reviews elucidating the significant implications of self-concept for theory, policy, and practice need to account for current research supporting the REM and a multidimensional perspective of self-concept. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.
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The construct, self-concept, has been evoked to explain overt behavior across a wide spectrum of situations, and the attainment of a positive self-concept has been posited as a desirable goal in personality and child development, in clinical treatments, and in education. Its importance notwithstanding, research and evaluations using self-concept have suffered from imprecise theoretical formulation of the construct and inadequate measurement instruments. In an attempt to remedy this situation, Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton (1976) posited a multifaceted, hierarchical self-concept with facets becoming more distinct with age, and set forth criteria for evaluating adequate instrumentation. This paper brings together recent research on this model and instrumentation. Each of these hypotheses is supported, though the structure appears to be more complicated than originally proposed and the facets are so distinct by late adolescence that the hierarchy is necessarily very weak. Further empirical research and theoretical clarification are required on the nature of this hierarchy and how it re1ates to the different uses of the general-self construct.
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The purpose of the research program described here was to investigate college students' approaches to learning, and to determine the extent to which these reflected the effects of teaching and assessment demands rather than representing relatively stable characteristics of the individual learners. There were six main areas within the program: (1) the measurement of approaches to and styles of studying; (2) the exploration of the cognitive skills, cognitive styles, and personality characteristics underlying different approaches to studying; (3) the extension of Marton's work on reading academic articles; (4) the identification of students' perceptions of the academic 'climate' of departments; (5) the use of interviews to investigate students' strategies in carrying out particular types of academic task; and (6) an investigation of how contrasting academic contexts appear to affect the approaches to studying adopted by students in those departments. Details of each of these areas of research are presented. (BW)
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We evaluated the statistical power of single-indicator latent growth curve models to detect individual differences in change (variances of latent slopes) as a function of sample size, number of longitudinal measurement occasions, and growth curve reliability. We recommend the 2 degree-of-freedom generalized test assessing loss of fit when both slope-related random effects, the slope variance and intercept-slope covariance, are fixed to 0. Statistical power to detect individual differences in change is low to moderate unless the residual error variance is low, sample size is large, and there are more than four measurement occasions. The generalized test has greater power than a specific test isolating the hypothesis of zero slope variance, except when the true slope variance is close to 0, and has uniformly superior power to a Wald test based on the estimated slope variance.
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We used structural modeling procedures to assess the influence of past math grades, math ability perceptions, performance expectancies, and value perceptions on the level of math anxiety reported in a sample of 7th- through 9th-grade students ( N = 250). A second set of analyses examined the relative influence of these performance, self-perception, and affect variables on students' subsequent grades and course enrollment intentions in mathematics. The findings indicated that math anxiety was most directly related to students' math ability perceptions, performance expectancies, and value perceptions. Students' performance expectancies predicted subsequent math grades, whereas their value perceptions predicted course enrollment intentions. Math anxiety did not have significant direct effects on either grades or intentions. The findings also suggested that the pattern of relations are similar for boys and girls. The results are discussed in relation to expectancy-value and self-efficacy theories of academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study advances understanding of (a) the development of achievement goals, (b) the changing association of achievement goals and achievement over time, and (c) the implications of changes in achievement goals for changes in achievement over time. African American and European American adolescents' (N=588) achievement goals and subsequent achievement were assessed at 4 time points (fall and spring of 6th and 7th grades) and modeled using growth-curve analytic techniques. There was an overall decline in all 3 types of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals), because of within-year rather than between-year decreases. The association between mastery goals and achievement was null at Time 1 and then positive at the following 3 time points. The association between performance-approach goals and achievement went from negative to null across time. Changes in students' goals, as well as their initial levels of goals, were particularly important in understanding how mastery goals foreshadow achievement. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A contradiction to the typical pattern of academic success occurs when bright, enthusiastic high school students fail after entering university. Two measures, perceived academic control and action control (i.e., preoccupation with failure) were administered to 524 college students at the beginning of a 2-semester course. Achievement-related cognitions, emotions, motivation, and final grades were measured at the end of the course. High-academic-control students exerted more effort, reported less boredom and anxiety, were more motivated, used self-monitoring strategies more often, felt more in control of their course assignments and of life in general, believed they performed better, and obtained higher final grades. Failure-preoccupied students received higher final grades, which corroborated their self-reported performance. Of note, high-control, high-failure-preoccupied students outperformed the other 3 groups by 1 to 2 letter grades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A new conceptualization of perceived control was used to test a process model describing the contribution of these perceptions to school achievement for students in elementary school ( N = 220). Three sets of beliefs were distinguished: (a) expectations about whether one can influence success and failure in school ( control beliefs); (b) expectations about the strategies that are effective in producing academic outcomes; and (c) expectations about one's own capacities to execute these strategies. Correlational and path analyses were consistent with a process model which predicted that children's perceived control (self-report) influences academic performance (grades and achievement test scores) by promoting or undermining active engagement in learning activities (as reported by teachers) and that teachers positively influence children's perceived control by provision of contingency and involvement (as reported by students). These results have implications for theories of perceived control and also suggest one pathway by which teachers can enhance children's motivation in school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose for this research was threefold: to determine whether distinct and informative student profiles would emerge from knowledge, interest, and strategy measures specific to educational psychology; to compare these profiles with prior studies; and to explore changes in student profiles across an academic semester. As a result of cluster-analytic procedures, 3 distinct groups of participants emerged at pretest, and 4 emerged at posttest. One of the profiles that remained fairly consistent from pretest to posttest was the Learning-Oriented cluster. Students fitting this profile began the semester with the highest means in interest and strategic processing and with a moderate level of domain knowledge. By the end of the semester, this cluster obtained the highest means also on the domain knowledge test. Yet, the largest cluster at posttest seemed unable or unwilling to learn from demanding exposition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This research examined changes in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation during the transition from junior to senior high school as well as the impact of motivational changes on various educational consequences (i.e., dropout intentions, absenteeism, homework frequency, and educational aspirations). A total of 646 participants completed a questionnaire in 8th, 9th, and 10th grade. Using the true intraindividual change modeling technique (R. Steyer, I. Partchev, & M. J. Shanahan, 2000), the authors reached results revealing that students' intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation decreased gradually from 8th to 10th grade. Furthermore, less educational adjustment was observed for students experiencing a decline in external regulation during the transitional year and students experiencing a decline in intrinsic motivation and identified regulation during the year after the transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses issues in the cognitive representation and control of action from the perspective of action identification theory. This theory holds that any action can be identified in many ways, ranging from low-level identities that specify how the action is performed to high-level identities that signify why or with what effect the action is performed. The level of identification most likely to be adopted by an actor is dictated by processes reflecting a trade-off between concerns for comprehensive action understanding and effective action maintenance. This suggests that the actor is always sensitive to contextual cues to higher levels of identification but moves to lower levels of identification if the action proves difficult to maintain with higher level identities in mind. These processes are documented empirically, as is their coordinated interplay in promoting a level of prepotent identification that matches the upper limits of the actor's capacity to perform the action. Implications are developed for action stability, the psychology of performance impairment, personal vs situational causation, and the behavioral bases of self-understanding. (87 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents findings of a task force established by the American Psychological Association to report on the issues of what is known and unknown about intelligence. Significant conceptualizations of intelligence are reviewed, including the psychometric approach, theories of multiple forms of intelligence, cultural variations, theories of developmental progressions, and biological approaches. The meaning of intelligence test scores, what they predict, and how well they predict intelligence is discussed. Genetic factors and intelligence, focusing on individual differences, conventional IQ tests, and other tests intended to measure cognitive ability, are described. Environmental factors such as social and biological variables are discussed, and sex and ethnic group differences are addressed. Recommendations for future research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A FRAMEWORK for conceptualizing the development of individual differences in reading ability is presented that synthesizes a great deal of the research literature. The framework places special emphasis on the effects of reading on cognitive development and on "bootstrapping" relationships involving reading. Of key importance are the concepts of reciprocal relationships-situations where the causal connection between reading ability and the efficiency of a cognitive process is bidirectional-and organism-environment correlation-the fact that differentially advantaged organisms are exposed to nonrandom distributions of environmental quality. Hypotheses are advanced to explain how these mechanisms operate to create rich-getricher and poor-get-poorer patterns of reading achievement. The framework is used to explicate some persisting problems in the literature on reading disability and to conceptualize remediation efforts in reading.
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Presents findings of a task force established by the American Psychological Association to report on the issues of what is known and unknown about intelligence. Significant conceptualizations of intelligence are reviewed, including the psychometric approach, theories of multiple forms of intelligence, cultural variations, theories of developmental progressions, and biological approaches. The meaning of intelligence test scores, what they predict, and how well they predict intelligence is discussed. Genetic factors and intelligence, focusing on individual differences, conventional IQ tests, and other tests intended to measure cognitive ability, are described. Environmental factors such as social and biological variables are discussed, and sex and ethnic group differences are addressed. Recommendations for future research are presented.
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Recent research indicates that children's learning-related skills (including self-regulation and social competence) contribute to early school success. The present study investigated the relation of kindergarten learning-related skills to reading and math trajectories in 538 children between kindergarten and sixth grade, and examined how children with poor learning-related skills fared throughout elementary school on reading and math. Latent growth curves indicated that learning-related skills had a unique effect on children's reading and math scores between kindergarten and sixth grade and predicted growth in reading and math between kindergarten and second grade. In addition, children with poor learning-related skills performed lower than their higher-rated peers on measures of reading and mathematics between kindergarten and sixth grade, with the gap widening between kindergarten and second grade. Between third and sixth grade, this gap persisted but did not widen. Discussion focuses on the importance of early learning-related skills as a component in children's academic trajectories throughout elementary school and the need for early intervention focusing on children's self-regulation and social competence.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Chapter
Although most research on mnemonics has been done with adults, there are replicable developmental shifts in mnemonic skills. The analysis of age-related changes mnemonic skills has increased understanding of theoretical issues, such as the nature of production deficiencies (Flavell, 1970) and imaginal representations (e.g., Bruner, Olver, & Greenfield, 1966; Kosslyn, 1980; Paivio, 1971, 1986), and holds promise for enhancing children’s associative learning and memory processes in classroom contexts.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on contextual aspects of learning. Its special concern is with understanding higher education students’ learning in terms of the teaching and evaluation environment in which it takes place. The question posed is this: How does this environment, defined by institutional practices, assessment methods, the skills and attitudes of faculty, and the kinds of learning tasks encountered, influence the ways individual students learn?
Article
This study tested a framework in which goals are proposed to be central determinants of achievement patterns. Learning goals, in which individuals seek to increase their competence, were predicted to promote challenge-seeking and a mastery-oriented response to failure regardless of perceived ability. Performance goals, in which individuals seek to gain favorable judgments of their competence or avoid negative judgments, were predicted to produce challenge-avoidance and learned helplessness when perceived ability was low and to promote certain forms of risk-avoidance even when perceived ability was high. Manipulations of relative goal value (learning vs. performance) and perceived ability (high vs. low) resulted in the predicted differences on measures of task choice, performance during difficulty, and spontaneous verbalizations during difficulty. Particularly striking was the way in which the performance goal-low perceived ability condition produced the same pattern of strategy deterioration, failure attribution, and negative affect found in naturally occurring learned helplessness. Implications for theories of motivation and achievement are discussed.
Article
There has been extensive debate among scholars and practitioners concerning whether self-beliefs influence academic achievement. To address this question, findings of longitudinal studies investigating the relation between self-beliefs and achievement were synthesized using meta-analysis. Estimated effects are consistent with a small, favorable influence of positive self-beliefs on academic achievement, with an average standardized path or regression coefficient of .08 for self-beliefs as a predictor of later achievement, controlling for initial levels of achievement. Stronger effects of self-beliefs are evident when assessing self-beliefs specific to the academic domain and when measures of self-beliefs and achievement are matched by domain (e.g., same subject area). Under these conditions, the relation of self-beliefs to later achievement meets or exceeds Cohen's (1988) definition of a small effect size.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the contributions of subject-matter knowledge, strategic processing, and interest to college students' educational psychology learning. The model of domain learning, or MDL (Alexander, 1997), guided our instrument development and served as the framework for multivariate analyses and path modeling. In general, the study's results upheld the MDL predictions. For example, students' subject-matter knowledge, strategic processing, interest, and interactive knowledge significantly increased after a semester of domain instruction. In addition, path analyses revealed that posttest subject-matter knowledge was both directly and indirectly predicted by pretest subject-matter knowledge, surface- and deep-level processing, interactive knowledge, and pretest interest Predicted interrelations among subject-matter knowledge also emerged, as did interest and interactive knowledge at pretest, and subject-matter knowledge at posttest Finally, it appears that the nature of the tasks used in this investigation differentially affected students' reported strategy use from the outset of the course to its conclusion.
Article
The study presented in this article is aimed at understanding students' goal orientation in a classroom context. The methodology developed for this purpose has two main distinctive features: (a) the definition of two levels of approach to the real classroom context; (b) the development of interviews to elicit students' goals in the classroom. On the basis of these procedures, students' general and specific goals in the classroom are identified and characterized. Results are discussed in terms of the patterns of students' goals in the classroom, the consistencies and changes in students' goals in different situations, and the match or mismatch between students' and teachers' goals.
Article
Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and 1 diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.
Article
A self-report method was used to assess the frequency of engagement in 15 varieties of study activities by 1240 junior high, senior high, and college students enrolled in 22 social science courses. Also assessed, by means of observations and document analyses, were 14 characteristics of these courses. The results revealed (a) a comparatively low incidence of engagement in planful and generative study activities, (b) an increase in engagement in such activities across grade levels, (c) parallel increases across levels in course demands for and support of engagement in these activities, (d) substantial variation between courses within grade level in study-activity engagement, but (e) only inconsistent relationships between course-to-course engagement variation and course differences in demands and supports.
Article
The present study examined to which extent different motivational concepts contribute to the prediction of school achievement among adolescent students independently from intelligence. A sample of 342 11th and 12th graders (age M=16.94; SD=.71) was investigated. Students gave self-reports on domain-specific values, ability self-perceptions, goals, and achievement motives. Hierarchical regression and relative weights analyses were performed with grades in math and German as dependent variables and intelligence as well as motivational measures as independent variables. Beyond intelligence, different motivational constructs incrementally contributed to the prediction of school achievement. Domain-specific ability self-perceptions and values showed the highest increments whereas achievement motives and goal orientations explained less additional variance. Even when prior achievement was controlled, some motivational concepts still proved to contribute to the prediction of subsequent performance. In the light of these findings, we discuss the importance of motivation in educational contexts.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Strategies enhance learning. However, children and adults often fail to invoke strategic behaviors. In this article, five reasons for failure to use strategies are discussed: (a) poor cognitive monitoring, (b) primitive routines that yield a product, (c) a meager knowledge base, (d) attributions and classroom goals that do not support strategy use, and (e) minimal transfer. I argue that use and failure to use strategies are not fruitfully studied without consideration of setting. A theory of settings reminds us that, when context varies, the nature of strategic activity often varies as well.
Article
The Matthew effect hypothesis in reading predicts that the gap between good and poor readers increases with time. Although, intuitively appealing, the Matthew effect has hardly been empirically studied in longitudinal studies of reading. Two competing longitudinal models were used to represent the Matthew effect hypothesis: the Latent Growth Curve model and the Simplex model with structured means. It is argued that on the basis of theoretical and empirical arguments the Simplex model should be preferred to represent and analyze the Matthew effect hypothesis. However, the results of the Simplex models imply that conceptual refinement and clarification of Matthew effects in reading are needed.
Article
States that the creation of "best methods" for the analysis of change in longitudinal and developmental research has five key goals: the direct identification of intraindividual change; direction identification of interindividual differences in intraindividual change; analysis of interrelationships in change; analysis of determinants of intraindividual change; and analysis of determinants of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. The kind of longitudinal data dealt with in this chapter are multiple measures from data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Some recent approaches to longitudinal data analysis have used structural equation modeling (SEM). The authors present a relatively new way to approach SEM-based analyses of longitudinal data, termed latent differences score (LDS) analysis (McArdle and Hamagami, 1995, 1998; McArdle and Nesselroade, 1994). This version of LDS is designed for ease of use with available SEM software (e.g., LISREL, Mx, RAMONA) and permits features of incomplete-data analyses. The chapter begins with a basic description of the available data and gives foundations of the LDS methods. A variety of LDS models using the available NLSY data are illustrated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was predicted that orientations to help-avoidance (HA) would predict styles of help seeking (HS). In Study 1, a total of 1,029 pupils aged 10–12 years rated reasons for HA in math class. Ratings formed 3 factors reflecting autonomous strivings for independent mastery, ability-focused concerns to mask poor ability, and expedient perceptions that help would not expedite task completion. In Study 2, a total of 272 pupils who had endorsed one or another HA orientation could request help for math problems. An autonomous orientation was associated with autonomous HS, which promoted independent mastery, and an expedient orientation with executive HS, which expedited task completion. Pupils, especially boys, with an ability-focused orientation exhibited avoidant-covert HS: they requested least help and were most likely to cheat. HS was moderated by perceived threat to competence (ability-focused orientation) but not by perceived competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There is surprisingly little sound research on the causal ordering of academic self-concept and academic achievement in longitudinal panel studies, despite its theoretical and practical significance. Data collected in Grades 10, 11, 12, and 1 yr after graduation from high school that were used in this study come from the large ( N = 1,456 students), nationally representative Youth in Transition study (e.g., J. G. Bachman; 1970). It was found that reported grade averages in Grades 11 and 12 were significantly affected by academic self-concept measured the previous year, whereas prior reported grades had no effect on subsequent measures of academic self-concept. The results provide one of the few defensible demonstrations of prior academic self-concept influencing subsequent academic achievement, and the study appears to be methodologically stronger than previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies, 1 longitudinal and 1 cross-sectional, demonstrate that for young elementary school children, academic intrinsic motivation is a reliable, valid, and significant construct. It was positively related to achievement, IQ, and perception of competence, and inversely related to anxiety. Academic intrinsic motivation at age 9 was significantly predicted by motivation measured 1 and 2 years earlier, above and beyond the contribution of IQ and achievement. Children with higher academic intrinsic motivation at ages 7 and 8 were more likely to show higher motivation at age 9. Whereas young children could reliably distinguish between subject areas of academic intrinsic motivation, only math motivation showed consistently specific relations to other math criteria. Findings are discussed with regard to developmental theories of intrinsic motivation and the significance of academic intrinsic motivation for children's education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)