Article

S-nitrosylation: Integrator of cardiovascular performance and oxygen delivery

The Journal of clinical investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 01/2013; 123(1):101-10. DOI: 10.1172/JCI62854
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Delivery of oxygen to tissues is the primary function of the cardiovascular system. NO, a gasotransmitter that signals predominantly through protein S-nitrosylation to form S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in target proteins, operates coordinately with oxygen in mammalian cellular systems. From this perspective, SNO-based signaling may have evolved as a major transducer of the cellular oxygen-sensing machinery that underlies global cardiovascular function. Here we review mechanisms that regulate S-nitrosylation in the context of its essential role in "systems-level" control of oxygen sensing, delivery, and utilization in the cardiovascular system, and we highlight examples of aberrant S-nitrosylation that may lead to altered oxygen homeostasis in cardiovascular diseases. Thus, through a bird's-eye view of S-nitrosylation in the cardiovascular system, we provide a conceptual framework that may be broadly applicable to the functioning of other cellular systems and physiological processes and that illuminates new therapeutic promise in cardiovascular medicine.

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    • "Therefore, it has to be considered that H 2 S is not working on its own but rather in concert with a host of other reactive chemicals (Hancock & Whiteman, 2014 ). Therefore, similar investigations of thiol modifications needs to be carried out with other compounds, perhaps with other assays too, such as the biotin switch assay (Forrester et al., 2009; Haldar & Stamler, 2013; Nakamura et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2005), as it is under the physiological conditions in which a protein resides that will determine the exact end result of the thiol alteration. If NO is the predominant signal, then perhaps S-nitrosylation will be the result, but if H 2 O 2 is predominant then the thiol may be oxidized—to varying degrees. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gasotransmitter in both animals and plants. Many physiological events, including responses to stress, have been suggested to involve H2S, at least in part. On the other hand, numerous responses have been reported following treatment with H2S, including changes in the levels of antioxidants and the activities of transcription factors. Therefore, it is important to understand and unravel the events that are taking place downstream of H2S in signaling pathways. H2S is known to interact with other reactive signaling molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). One of the mechanisms by which ROS and NO have effects in a cell is the modification of thiol groups on proteins, by oxidation or S-nitrosylation, respectively. Recently, it has been reported that H2S can also modify thiols. Here we report a method for the determination of thiol modifications on proteins following the treatment with biological samples with H2S donors. Here, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system but this method can be used for samples from other animals or plants. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Methods in enzymology
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    • "The initial discovery by Murad in 1977 that exogenous NO can act as a bioactive messenger to activate soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in SMCs (Katsuki et al., 1977), along with the work by Furchgott and Zawadzki (1980) identifying the presence of an endothelium derived relaxing factor that has since been identified as NO (Ignarro et al., 1987; Palmer et al., 1987), fueled the concept that NO is an essential player in regulating blood vessel physiology. Since then, a number of intra-and intercellular targets for bioactive NO have been identified with the biological effects ranging from enzyme activation or inhibition, posttranslational modifications altering protein function, including S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitrosation, and the generation of complex reactive nitrogen and oxygen species through the rapid spontaneous reaction of NO with other gaseous molecules in the cell (Ignarro, 1991; Davidge et al., 1995; Xu et al., 1998; Handy and Loscalzo, 2006; Yoshida et al., 2006; Kang-Decker et al., 2007; Selemidis et al., 2007; Zuckerbraun et al., 2007; Illi et al., 2008; Briones et al., 2009; Fernhoff et al., 2009; Lima et al., 2010; Thibeault et al., 2010; Bess et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2011; Straub et al., 2011; Marin et al., 2012; Haldar and Stamler, 2013; Korkmaz et al., 2013). It has now become evident that the spatial and temporal regulation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species generation can dictate the functional impact of these signaling molecules on the homeostatic maintenance of vascular function, where dysregulation can lead to complications including, but not limited to, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis (reviewed by Giles, 2006; Pacher et al., 2007; Muller and Morawietz, 2009). "
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    • "These effects can occur either as direct actions of CO, or (and more commonly) CO effects on closely related intracellular signaling pathways, often involving nitric oxide signaling, metabolism, and/or downstream targets for chemical modifications of individual amino acids in functional proteins. In the cardiovascular system, specific attention has been drawn to S-nitrosylation of, specific ion channel residues (Jaffrey et al., 2001; Haldar and Stamler, 2013). "
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