Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, California 92093-0314, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 11/2008; 42(19):7091-7. DOI: 10.1021/es7030483
Source: PubMed


Recent ice core measurements show lead concentrations increasing since 1970, suggesting new nonautomobile-related sources of Pb are becoming important worldwide (1). Developing a full understanding of the major sources of Pb and other metals is critical to controlling these emissions. During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, single particle measurements in Mexico City revealed the frequent appearance of particles internally mixed with Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. Pb concentrations were as high as 1.14 microg/m3 in PM10 and 0.76 microg/m3 in PM2.5. Real time measurements were used to select time periods of interest to perform offline analysis to obtain detailed aerosol speciation. Many Zn-rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O. The internally mixed Pb-Zn-Cl particles represented as much as 73% of the fine mode particles (by number) in the morning hours between 2-5 am. The Pb-Zn-Cl particles were primarily in the submicrometer size range and typically mixed with elemental carbon suggesting a combustion source. The unique single particle chemical associations measured in this study closely match signatures indicative of waste incineration. Our findings also show these industrial emissions play an important role in heterogeneous processing of NO(y) species. Primary emissions of metal and sodium chloride particles emitted by the same source underwent heterogeneous transformations into nitrate particles as soon as photochemical production of nitric acid began each day at approximately 7 am.

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    • "Lately, a number of authors describe the morphology of collected aerosol samples by electron microscopy studies (Blanco et al. 2003; Wittmaack 2005; Nguyen et al. 2006; Sinha et al. 2008; Bern et al. 2009; Martin et al. 2010; Conny 2011; Sánchez de la Campa et al. 2013; Pietrodangelo et al. 2014). Morphology is an important microphysical trait that relates to particle aerodynamic behavior, possible health effects (Gelencsér et al. 2011), direct trace metal identification (Utsunomiya et al. 2004), formation mechanism, and source identification (Moffet et al. 2008; Ault et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This work presents characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of urban central Balkans area, using a size-segregated aerosol sampling method, calculation of mass distributions, SEM/EDX characterization, and ICP/MS analysis. Three types of mass distributions were observed: distribution with a pronounced domination of coarse mode, bimodal distribution, and distribution with minimum at 1 μm describing the urban aerosol. SEM/EDX analyses have shown morphological difference and variation in the content of elements in samples. EDX spectra demonstrate that particles generally contain the following elements: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, K, Si, S. Additionally, the presence of As, Br, Sn, and Zn found in air masses from southeast segment points out the anthropogenic activities most probably from mining activities in southeastern part of Serbia. The ratio Al/Si equivalent to the ratio of desert dust was associated with air masses coming from southeastern and southwestern segments, pointing to influences from North Africa and Middle East desert areas whereas the Al/Si ratio in other samples is significantly lower. In several samples, we found high values of aluminum in the nucleation mode. Samples with low share of crustal elements in the coarse mode are collected when Mediterranean air masses prevailed, while high share in the coarse mode was associated with continental air masses that could be one of the approaches for identification of the aerosol origin. Graphical abstract ᅟ
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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    • "), waste incinerators (Li and Shao, 2009b; Moffet et al., 2008), industrial (Li et al., 2013a, 2013b; Utsunomiya et al., 2004; Van Malderen et al., 1996) and coal-fired power plants (Tian et al., 2012). In realistic atmosphere, most of these insoluble metal particles were internally mixed with secondary sulfate, nitrate, and organics (Fig. 11). "
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    ABSTRACT: Emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants in East Asia significantly influence the regional climate, cause environmental deterioration and threaten public health. Single particle analyses have been widely applied to study aerosol particles collected on the ground and at elevated altitudes at mountains and by flights. Here we review current understanding on physicochemical properties, mixing state, heterogeneous chemical reactivity of individual particles in East Asia based on electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. We summarize the techniques of single particle analysis and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Morphology and composition of the major particle types in East Asia obtained by these techniques are briefly introduced and are further used to identify particle sources. The diversity, heterogeneity, and variable size of ambient particles make it challenging to understand how the precise single particle analyses are efficient in studying particle optical properties, hygroscopic behavior, related heterogeneous reactions and potential health evaluations. We highlight the combinations of laboratory and field studies, single and bulk analytical methods, and the integration of different single particle technologies that may be very powerful to obtain a more complete picture of single particles. These research results can improve our knowledge on the fundamental physical chemistry of aerosol particles and be further extended to study their environment and climate effects as well as health risk.
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    • "ed in CA ( Fig . 3 ) , it is evident that the strong association between Ni and V exists in all fractions . The Ni – V associations in the fine and the accumulation mode and in the fraction PM 1 . 5 – 3 . 0 of coarse mode are in the group of elements of primary anthropogenic origin that could be combustion of fossil fuels ( Suarez and Ondov 2002 ; Moffet et al . 2008 ) . Associations of Ni – V present - ed in fractions of PM 3 . 0 – 7 . 2 and PM >7 . 2 are in the clusters of elements representing the resuspension ( Fig . 3 ) . Their strong associations in the fine and the accumulation mode as well as fraction PM 1 . 5 – 3 . 0 of coarse mode indi - cate their common origin from primary anthropogenic "
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    ABSTRACT: Size segregated particulate samples of atmospheric aerosols in urban site of continental part of Balkans were collected during 6 months in 2008. Six stages impactor in the size ranges: Dp ≤ 0.49 μm, 0.49 < Dp ≤ 0.95 μm, 0.95 < Dp ≤ 1.5 μm, 1.5 < Dp ≤ 3.0 μm, 3.0 < Dp ≤ 7.2 μm, and 7.2 < Dp ≤ 10.0 μm was applied for sampling. ICP-MS was used to quantify elements: Al, As, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn. Two main groups of elements were investigated: (1) K, V, Ni, Zn, Pb, As, and Cd with high domination in nuclei mode indicating the combustion processes as a dominant sources and (2) Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, Cr, Ga, Co, and Li in coarse mode indicating mechanical processes as their main origin. The strictly crustal origin is for Mg, Fe, Ca, and Co while for As, Cd, K, V, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn dominates the anthropogenic influence. The PCA analysis has shown that main contribution is of resuspension (PC1, σ(2) ≈ 30 %) followed by traffic (PC2, σ(2) ≈ 20 %) that are together contributing around 50 % of elements in the investigated urban aerosol. The EF model shows that major origin of Cd, K, V, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in the fine mode is from the anthropogenic sources while increase of their contents in the coarse particles indicates their deposition from the atmosphere and soil contamination. This approach is useful for the assessment of the local resuspension influence on element's contents in the aerosol and also for the evaluation of the historical pollution of soil caused by deposition of metals from the atmosphere.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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