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“Buntsandstein” magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphic reappraisal from Eastern Iberia: Early and Middle Triassic stage boundary definitions through correlation to Tethyan sections

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A new magnetic polarity stratigraphy is reported from 214 sampling sites representing 265 m of fluviatile red beds of the Buntsandstein facies succession from the Catalan Coastal Ranges (Riera de Sant Jaume, RSJ section). The Buntsandstein constitutes the lowermost of the six lithostratigraphic units in which the Triassic from the CCR is subdivided (also grouped into the typical three-fold subdivision of the Germanic Facies from the Tethys Realm: Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper). Magnetostratigraphic data from four sections though the uppermost Buntsandstein facies located in the Molina de Aragón area in the Iberian Ranges (Rey, D., Turner, P., Ramos, A., 1996. Palaeomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of the Middle Triassic in the Iberian Ranges (Central Spain). In: Morris, A., Tarling, D.R. (Eds.), Palaeomagnetism and Tectonics of the Mediterranean Region, Geol. Soc. Sp. Pub. 105, 59–82) are also discussed in the light of a new biostratigraphic reappraisal of the palynoflora content presented herein. Characteristic magnetizations are carried mostly by hematite with minor contributions by magnetite for the Buntsandstein red beds. The magnetic polarity sequence at the RSJ section consists of 9 magnetozones (and one additional less reliable magnetozone) that are represented by more than two samples. A detailed study along a magnetic reversal indicates that the nature of the remanence in the studied red beds is partially controlled by a chemical magnetization process (delayed remanence acquisition), in addition to a detrital signature (the characteristic primary direction). Chronostratigraphic constraints are provided by conodont fauna from the overlying Muschelkalk facies that indicates a middle–late Pelsonian to late Illyrian age (middle–late Anisian) (Marquez-Aliaga, A., Valenzuela-Rios, J.I., Calvet, F., Budurov, K., 2000. Middle Triassic conodonts from northeastern Spain; biostratigraphic implications. Terra Nova 12, 77–83) and a few palynostratigraphic determinations in the Buntsandstein red beds. These biostratigraphic constraints and the magnetic polarity pattern allow an unambiguous correlation of the RSJ magnetostratigraphy to the conodont-ammonoid-calibrated magnetostratigraphy from the Tethys realm (Muttoni, G., Kent, D.V., Meco, S., Balini, M., Nicora, A., Rettori, R. Gaetani, M., Krystine, L., 1998. Towards a better definition of the Middle Triassic magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Tethyan realm. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164, 285–302; Muttoni, G., Gaetani, M., Budurov, K., Zagorchev, I., Trifonova, E., Ivanova, D., Petrounova, L., Lowrie, W., 2000. Middle Triassic paleomagnetic data from northern Bulgaria; constraints on Tethyan magnetostratigraphy and paleogeography. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 160, 223–237; Muttoni, G., Nicora, A., Brack, P., Kent, D.V., 2004a. Integrated Anisian–Ladinian boundary chronology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 208, 85–102; Muttoni, G., Kent, D.V., Olsen, P.E., Di Stefano, P., Lowrie, W., Bernasconi, S., Hernandez, F.M., 2004b. Tethyan magnetostratigraphy from Pizzo Mondello (Sicily) and correlation to the Late Triassic Newark astrochronological polarity time scale. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 116, 1043–1058). The proposed correlation identifies for the first time in the Triassic from Iberia the Olenekian (Scythian)–Anisian stage boundary (245 Ma) within magnetozone N3 in the Riera de Sant Jaume units. Likewise, the new palynostratigraphic reconsideration allows the identification of the Anisian–Ladian stage (Illyrian–Fassanian substage) boundary (taken the option at the base of the Curionii ammonoid Zone favored by Muttoni et al. (2004a) [Muttoni, G., Nicora, A., Brack, P., Kent, D.V., 2004. Integrated Anisian–Ladinian boundary chronology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 208, 85–102] for this boundary within the upper part of the Rillo Mudstone and Sandstones Formation (RMS Formation) and the Fassanian–Longobardian substage boundary (Ladinian) within the Torete Multicoloured Mudstone and Sandstone Formation (TMMS Formation). Our data are consistent with the notion that the lower Muschelkalk transgression progressed from east to west (i.e., the Buntsandstein/Muschelkalk boundary is younger in the Iberian Ranges with respect to the Catalan Coastal Ranges). The Early/Middle Triassic paleopole for the Catalan Coastal Ranges is located at 55.1°N 172.4E (Dp = 1.4, Dm = 2.7).and the Middle/Late Triassic paleopole for the Iberian Ranges is 55°N 201E (Dp = 1.7, Dm = 3.1). These paleopoles are compatible with the general trend of the Iberian apparent polar wander path which indicates a northward motion during the Triassic related to the general northward translation of Pangea.
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bBuntsandsteinQmagnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphic
reappraisal from eastern Iberia: Early and Middle Triassic stage
boundary definitions through correlation to Tethyan sections
Jaume Dinare`s-Turell
a,
*, Jose´ Bienvenido Diez
b
, Daniel Rey
b
, Isabel Arnal
c
a
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via di Vigna Murata 605, I-00143 Roma, Italy
b
Dept. Geociencias Marinas y O.T., Grupo GEOMA (U. As. CSIC-ICM). Univ. Vigo. Campus Lagoas-Marcosende,
36200 Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain
c
Salesians de Sarria` , Passeig Sant Joan Bosco 42, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
Received 23 July 2004; received in revised form 21 December 2004; accepted 24 June 2005
Abstract
A new magnetic polarity stratigraphy is reported from 214 sampling sites representing 265 m of fluviatile red beds of the
Buntsandstein facies succession from the Catalan Coastal Ranges (Riera de Sant Jaume, RSJ section). The Buntsandstein
constitutes the lowermost of the six lithostratigraphic units in which the Triassic from the CCR is subdivided (also grouped into
the typical three-fold subdivision of the Germanic Facies from the Tethys Realm: Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper).
Magnetostratigraphic data from four sections though the uppermost Buntsandstein facies located in the Molina de Arago´ n area
in the Iberian Ranges (Rey, D., Turner, P., Ramos, A., 1996. Palaeomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of the Middle Triassic
in the Iberian Ranges (Central Spain). In: Morris, A., Tarling, D.R. (Eds.), Palaeomagnetism and Tectonics of the Mediterranean
Region, Geol. Soc. Sp. Pub. 105, 59–82) are also discussed in the light of a new biostratigraphic reappraisal of the palynoflora
content presented herein. Characteristic magnetizations are carried mostly by hematite with minor contributions by magnetite
for the Buntsandstein red beds. The magnetic polarity sequence at the RSJ section consists of 9 magnetozones (and one
additional less reliable magnetozone) that are represented by more than two samples. A detailed study along a magnetic reversal
indicates that the nature of the remanence in the studied red beds is partially controlled by a chemical magnetization process
(delayed remanence acquisition), in addition to a detrital signature (the characteristic primary direction). Chronostratigraphic
constraints are provided by conodont fauna from the overlying Muschelkalk facies that indicates a middle–late Pelsonian to late
Illyrian age (middle–late Anisian) (Marquez-Aliaga, A., Valenzuela-Rios, J.I., Calvet, F., Budurov, K., 2000. Middle Triassic
conodonts from northeastern Spain; biostratigraphic implications. Terra Nova 12, 77–83) and a few palynostratigraphic
determinations in the Buntsandstein red beds. These biostratigraphic constraints and the magnetic polarity pattern allow an
unambiguous correlation of the RSJ magnetostratigraphy to the conodont-ammonoid-calibrated magnetostratigraphy from the
Tethys realm (Muttoni, G., Kent, D.V., Meco, S., Balini, M., Nicora, A., Rettori, R. Gaetani, M., Krystine, L., 1998. Towards a
better definition of the Middle Triassic magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Tethyan realm. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.
0031-0182/$ - see front matter D2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.06.036
* Corresponding author. Fax: +39 06 51860397.
E-mail address: dinares@ingv.it (J. Dinare`s-Turell).
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158 177
www.elsevier.com/locate/palaeo
164, 285–302; Muttoni, G., Gaetani, M., Budurov, K., Zagorchev, I., Trifonova, E., Ivanova, D., Petrounova, L., Lowrie, W.,
2000. Middle Triassic paleomagnetic data from northern Bulgaria; constraints on Tethyan magnetostratigraphy and paleogeo-
graphy. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 160, 223–237; Muttoni, G., Nicora, A., Brack, P., Kent, D.V., 2004a.
Integrated Anisian–Ladinian boundary chronology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 208, 85–102; Muttoni, G.,
Kent, D.V., Olsen, P.E., Di Stefano, P., Lowrie, W., Bernasconi, S., Hernandez, F.M., 2004b. Tethyan magnetostratigraphy
from Pizzo Mondello (Sicily) and correlation to the Late Triassic Newark astrochronological polarity time scale. Geol. Soc.
Amer. Bull. 116, 1043–1058). The proposed correlation identifies for the first time in the Triassic from Iberia the Olenekian
(Scythian)–Anisian stage boundary (245 Ma) within magnetozone N3 in the Riera de Sant Jaume units. Likewise, the new
palynostratigraphic reconsideration allows the identification of the Anisian–Ladian stage (Illyrian–Fassanian substage) bound-
ary (taken the option at the base of the Curionii ammonoid Zone favored by Muttoni et al. (2004a) [Muttoni, G., Nicora, A.,
Brack, P., Kent, D.V., 2004. Integrated Anisian–Ladinian boundary chronology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 208,
85–102] for this boundary within the upper part of the Rillo Mudstone and Sandstones Formation (RMS Formation) and the
Fassanian–Longobardian substage boundary (Ladinian) within the Torete Multicoloured Mudstone and Sandstone Formation
(TMMS Formation). Our data are consistent with the notion that the lower Muschelkalk transgression progressed from east to
west (i.e., the Buntsandstein/Muschelkalk boundary is younger in the Iberian Ranges with respect to the Catalan Coastal
Ranges).
The Early/Middle Triassic paleopole for the Catalan Coastal Ranges is located at 55.18N 172.4E (Dp = 1.4, Dm = 2.7).and the
Middle/Late Triassic paleopole for the Iberian Ranges is 558N 201E (Dp = 1.7, Dm = 3.1). These paleopoles are compatible with
the general trend of the Iberian apparent polar wander path which indicates a northward motion during the Triassic related to the
general northward translation of Pangea.
D2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Buntsandstein; Olenekian–Anisian boundary; Anisian–Ladinian boundary; Palynostratigraphy; Conodonts; Catalan Coastal Ranges;
Iberian Ranges
1. Introduction
We present magnetostratigraphic data for the Bunt-
sandstein facies along sections located in the Catalan
Coastal Ranges (CCR) and Iberian Ranges at the
eastern Iberian Peninsula. Available pollen data and
other biostratigraphic constraints (conodont and
ammonoid biostratigraphy) are reviewed with the
aim to present an integrated chronology for the
Lower and Middle Triassic succession.
The terms bZechsteinQand bBuntsandsteinQare
typically used as lithostratigraphic units to design
mostly continental strata in Central Europe. The first
is usually assigned to the Permian, whereas the Bunt-
sandstein is the basal unit of the classic Germanic
Triassic (von Alberti, 1834). The Buntsandstein is
mainly clastic and was deposited in a large intracra-
tonic basin in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, with
marine influences restricted to the upper part. As a
lithological facies, the Buntsandstein has no precise
chronostratigraphic meaning.
The Lower Triassic reference magnetostratigra-
phy is chiefly based on data from the Arctic region
stratotypes (Ogg and Steiner, 1991). However, sig-
nificant progress has been achieved in the last
decade in constructing a Triassic geomagnetic polar-
ity sequence correlated with biostratigraphic and
chronostratigraphic data in Tethyan marine sections
(e.g., Gallet et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1998; Muttoni
et al., 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2004a,b).
Likewise, the Germanic Triassic successions from
the central European basin have been the target of
thorough magnetostratigraphic studies (e.g.,
Nawrocki, 1997; Szurlies et al., 2003; Szurlies,
2004), as well as the onshore Triassic from Britain
(e.g., Hounslow and McIntosh, 2003). Our work
provides an integrated magnetostratigraphic and
biostratigraphic reappraisal (palynoflora and cono-
dont fauna) that allows a direct correlation of the
Iberian sections to conodont-ammonoid-calibrated
magnetostratigraphy from the Tethys realm (Muttoni
et al., 1998, 2000, 2004a) and allows the recognition
of both the Olenekian (Scythian)–Anisian and Ani-
sian–Ladinian boundary (Early and Middle Triassic)
in the Buntsandstein continental succession from the
eastern Iberian Peninsula. This work contributes to an
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 159
improved understanding of western European inter-
basin correlations during the Triassic.
2. Sections studied and methods
2.1. Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR)
The Triassic of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR)
is composed of six lithostratigraphic units (Virgili,
1958; Calvet and Marzo, 1994): Buntsandstein,
lower, middle and upper Muschelkalk (M1, M2
and M3 respectively), Keuper and Imo´n Formation.
The overall thickness for the Triassic varies between
500 and 800 m. The Buntsandstein outcrops in the
CCR can be grouped in three large domains: Mont-
seny–Llobregat–Gaia`, Garraf and Miramar–Prades–
Priorat. These domains represent graben basins con-
trolled by NE–SW and NW–SE trending faults, each
one initially evolving independently and with impre-
cise palaeogeographic limits (Calvet and Marzo,
1994; Lo´ pez-Go´mez et al., 2002 and references
therein). In the Montseny–Llobregat–Gaia` domain,
the Buntsandstein is characterized by a sandy-silt-
stone composition and by a stratigraphic thickness
that varies from about 150 m in the Montseny to
about 300 m in the Llobregat area.
The Riera de Sant Jaume section (RSJ) (41.438N,
1.508W) is located in the Prelitoral Range of the CCR
(Montseny–Llobregat–Gaia` domain) (Figs. 1, 2) and
constitutes the most complete and longest record of
the Buntsandstein from that domain. At this location,
the Buntsandstein facies lies unconformably over an
undifferentiated Hercynian basement and is bounded
at its upper part by the marine lower Muschelkalk
limestones (M1). In this domain, the Buntsandstein is
constituted by four lithological units starting with a
basal breccia unit a few meters thick interpreted as
local scree deposits. Above this unit, or directly on the
Paleozoic basement, lies the Riera de Sant Jaume
(RSJ) unit (up to 50 m), which comprises conglom-
erates, red-pink sandstones and red siltstones with
Fig. 1. Simplified geological map of eastern Iberia showing the Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR) and the Castilian Branch of the Iberian Ranges
(CB). Studied areas are framed in white and referred to corresponding figures. (CR—Central System, AB—Aragonian branch of the Iberian
Ranges). Modified from Tejero and Ferna´ndez-Gianotti (2004).
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177160
paleosols and represents a fining upward succession
of alluvial origin (the unit is further subdivided into a
lower conglomeratic subunit, an intermediate sandy
subunit and an upper sandy-silty unit). The white-red
pebbly sandstones of the overlying Caldes unit (up to
5 m thick) lie above the RSJ unit, or directly on the
Paleozoic basement, this unit is interpreted as distal
braided fluvial, mixed load sediments. The overlying
Figuero´ unit comprises a thick (up to 235 m) succes-
sion of fining upward cycles of pink-red sandstones
and red siltstones. It is interpreted as recording high
sinuosity fluvial systems of mixed or suspended load.
On top of the Buntsandstein succession, below the
dolomitic limestones of the lower Muschelkalk, lays
the upper-evaporitic–carbonatic-silty complex (Ro¨t
facies) (UECS complex), with a stratigraphic thick-
Fig. 2. Location of the Riera de Sant Jaume (RSJ) section. (a) Field picture of the Triassic succession adjacent to the RSJ section. Note the RSJ
conglomeratic unit at the base of the Buntsandstein series. M1, M2 and M3 denote the lower, middle and upper Muschelkalk respectively. (b)
Simplified geological map of with the location of the RSJ section and the field view shown on the top.
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 161
ness of about 30 m. The RSJ section represents the
thickest Buntsandstein section along the CCR and the
one that offers the most continuous outcrops suitable
for magnetostratigraphy (Fig. 2). However, recent
regional geologic mapping has suggested the presence
of a thrust crosscutting the Buntsandstein series at the
RSJ locality (Bera´stegui et al., 1996), which is diffi-
cult to identify at the RSJ section itself because of
similar bedding along section and some discontinu-
ities in the exposure (see below). Paleomagnetic sam-
pling was performed mostly along the Riera de Sant
Jaume stream but also in the adjacent road in order to
minimize covered intervals. A total of 214 sites or
stratigraphic levels were sampled with a portable
gasoline-powered drill. The studied interval is about
265 m thick and encompasses the three lower litho-
logic Buntsandstein units. The uppermost 10–15 m of
the Figuero´ unit and the upper-evaporitic–carbonatic-
silty complex (about 30 m) were not sampled due to
lack of suitable outcrops.
2.2. Castilian branch of the Iberian Ranges (CBIR)
The Iberian basin is currently geographically
divided into the two NW–SE oriented Aragonian
and Castilian branches of the Iberian Ranges (respec-
tively AB and CB in Fig. 1), separated by the
Tertiary Calatayud–Teruel basin. Permian and Trias-
sic sediments were deposited in a series of intramon-
tane, transtensional, half-graben basins and the
stratigraphic succession can vary substantially in
thickness from hundreds to thousands of meters
owing to varied subsidence rates (Sopen˜ a et al.,
1988; Lo´ pez-Go´mez et al., 2002 and references
therein). A number of stratigraphic units have been
described for the Permo-Triassic mostly continental
sequences of the Iberian Cordillera which are asso-
ciated with the three discrete lithologic facies char-
acteristic of the so-called Germanic Triassic, namely
Buntsandstein (siliciclastic), Muschelkalk (carbonate)
and Keuper (evaporitic). In the Molina de Arago´n
study area in the central part of the Castilian branch,
the Buntsandstein sediments unconformably overlie
all previous rocks and represent a period of major
subsidence with accumulation of some 550 m of
clastic red bed sequences. The two concerned units
in this work, the Rillo Mudstone and Sandstones
Formation (RMS Formation) and the Torete Multi-
coloured Mudstone and Sandstone Formation
(TMMS Formation), represent the evolution from a
distal fluvial environment to the supratidal sedimen-
tation which preceded the Tethys transgression,
which in this area is marked by the overlying Tra-
macastilla Dolomites Formation (TD Formation).
The RMS Formation comprises up to 120 m of red
mudstones and sandstones with local basal conglom-
erates. The overlying TMMS Formation (40 m) con-
sists of thin-bedded mudstones and sandstones,
which often show evidence of evaporite precipitation
and occasional interbedding of fine dolomitic hori-
zons showing algal lamination. Five sections of these
formations have been examined earlier in a paleo-
magnetic and magnetostratigraphic study (Rey et al.,
1996). The RMS Formation was sampled in the Rillo
de Gallo section, while the TMMS Formation was
sampled in four separate sections, namely: La Hoz
del Gallo; Aragoncillo; Ermita de la Virgen del Buen
Labrador and Arroyo de San Roman.
3. Paleomagnetic methods
A gasoline-powered drill was used for paleomag-
netic sampling. Cores (2.54 cm in diameter) were cut
in the laboratory into standard specimens (2.2 cm in
length) for paleomagnetic measurements. Natural
remanent magnetization (NRM) and remanence at
all demagnetization steps were measured using a
2G-Enterprises cryogenic magnetometer equipped
with DC-squids at the Ludwig–Maximilians-Univer-
sita¨t Mu¨nchen paleomagnetics laboratory (RSJ sec-
tion) and the cryogenic magnetometer at Close
House in Newcastle for the Iberian Range samples.
Standard shielded furnaces were used for thermal
demagnetization.
Usually one or two specimens per stratigraphic
level were routinely subjected to stepwise thermal
demagnetization. Thermal demagnetization up to 690
8C included a maximum of 13 steps with intervals of
20–100 8C. Characteristic remanent magnetizations
(ChRM) were computed by least-squares fitting
(Kirschvink, 1980) on the orthogonal demagnetiza-
tion plots (Zijderveld, 1967). The mean ChRM decli-
nation and inclination for each sample have been
used to derive the latitude of the virtual geomagnetic
pole (VGP). This parameter has been used as an
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177162
indicator of the polarity (normal polarity for positive
VGP latitudes and reverse polarity for negative VGP
latitudes).
4. Biostratigraphic review
The available palynologic data for the Buntsand-
stein in eastern Iberia have been reinterpreted follow-
ing the methodological approach outlined in the PhD
thesis of one of us (Diez, 2000), in which a new
Triassic palynostratigraphic scale for the Western
Peritethyan Domain is developed. In that scheme,
valid taxa are only defined by clearly identified spe-
cies, disregarding the ones that have been referred
with the terminology confer (cf.) or affinis (aff.).
The babsent criteriaQto determine pollen associations
are also not used given that the actual number of well-
defined taxa allows basing the dating on registered
entities only.
4.1. Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR)
There are few palynologic data for the Buntsand-
stein facies from the Triassic succession in the Cat-
alan Coastal Ranges. The scarcity may be related to
the important biological crisis following the Per-
mian–Triassic boundary but is most likely due to
bad preservation conditions (Diez et al., this
volume). There are only three studies available
from the CCR Buntsandstein facies that we will
evaluate.
Visscher (1967) reports a pollen assemblage from a
grey argillaceous level within the sandy Buntsandstein
conglomerates in the vicinity of Montroig del Camp
(Tarragona) (Prades–Colldejou sector, Go´mez-Gras,
1993; Miramar–Prades–Priorat domain, Marzo,
1980), which is considered similar to the German
Ro¨ t. However, the presence of Alisporites grauvogeli ,
Voltziaceaesporites heteromorpha and Angustisulcites
gorpii could indicate an Aegean (early Anisian) age.
In any case, the imprecise stratigraphic location of the
fossiliferous levels in the original publication makes
the data less relevant although we can presume that
correspond to the youngest Buntsandstein levels. The
bupper-evaporitic–carbonatic-silty complexQ(Ro¨t
facies) of the Buntsandstein succession in the Hosta-
lets de Balenya` (Montseny sector, Go´mez-Gras, 1993;
Montseny–Llobregat domain, Marzo, 1980) studied
by Calvet and Marzo (1994) and in the la Pena
locality (L’Espluga de Francolı´, Miramar–Prades–
Priorat domain, Marzo, 1980) studied by Sole´de
Porta et al. (1987) is assigned to the Anisian (most
likely early Anisian) on the basis of the presence of
Stellatopollenites thiergartii (=Hexasaccites muel-
leri), Voltziaceaesporites heteromorpha,Triadispora
sp. and the absence of Praecirculina granifer. The
appearance of Alisporites grauvogeli and the different
Triadispora and Microcachryidites fastidioides spe-
cies would confirm an age near to the early–middle
Anisian transition close to the Aegean–Pelsonian
boundary. In our opinion, the absence criteria, in
this case Praecirculina granifer, should not be used
to date a paleontologic level.
The palynologic data available for the Buntsand-
stein facies from the CCR are shown schematically in
Tables 1 and 2. The RSJ magnetostratigraphic section
is located in the Prelitoral Range in the Llobregat area
(Montseny–Llobregat–Gaia` domain), and therefore,
the palynologic data from the Hostalets de Balenya`
locality from the same domain are a first-order chron-
ological constraint. The La Pena locality is situated in
the Prades area (Miramar–Prades–Priorat domain)
while the data from Visscher (1967) on the Prades–
Colldejou sector (Miramar–Prades–Priorat domain)
are not considered due to the imprecise stratigraphic
position of the levels studied.
Further chronostratigraphic constraints for the
Buntsandstein in the CCR are provided by biostrati-
graphic determinations in the overlying marine lower
Muschelkalk (M1) that is divided into four members,
which are, from base to top, El Brull, Olesa de Mon-
tserrat, Vilella Baixa and Colldejou (Calvet and
Marzo, 1994 and references therein) with an overall
stratigraphic thickness of about 70 m. The lower
Muschelkalk has classically been ascribed to the Ani-
sian on the basis of the presence of Spiriferina (Ment-
zelia) mentzeli (Virgili, 1958) at the base of the unit as
indication of the lowermost Anisian (the base Anisian
being in the underlying Buntsandstein). The presence
of a Paraceratites fauna in the middle part of the
lower Muschelkalk appears to be correlatable with
the binodosus and trinodosus levels of the late Ani-
sian (Virgili et al., 1977; Goy, 1995). A coherent
conodont-chronostratigraphic estimate for the lower
Muschelkalk facies has recently been established by
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 163
Table 1
Palynological assemblages for the Buntsandstein facies in the Catalan Coastal Ranges
(*) Stellatopollenites thiergatii (Mðdler) Clement-Westerhof et al. 1974 = Hexasaccites muelleri (Reinhardt y Schmitz 1965) Adloff y Doubinger 1969.
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177164
Table 2
Proposed age of available pollen determinations for the Catalan Coastal Ranges
Facies Stratigraphic unit Locality Original age
determination
Proposed age
Diez (2000)
Buntsandstein Upper-evaporitic–
carbonatic-silty complex
(UECS complex)
Els Hostalets de Balanya
Calvet and Marzo (1994)
Aegenian–Pelsonian Late Aegenian–early
Pelsonian
La Pena (L’Espulga del Francoli)
Sole´ de Porta et al. (1987)
The bProposed ageQconsiders all the individual determinations as reinterpreted by Diez (2000) and herein. Dashed lines indicate an approximate
position.
Table 3
Palynological assemblages for the Rillo Mudstone and Sandstones Formation (RMS Formation) and the Torete Multicoloured Mudstone and
Sandstone Formation (TMMS Formation), in the Iberian Ranges
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 165
Marquez-Aliaga et al. (2000). Two sections were
studied: the Ametlla section from the Miramar–
Prades–Priorat domain, and the Riera de Sant Jaume
section from the Montseny–Llobregat–Gaia` domain.
Recognized conodont taxa include Paragondolella
bulgarica,P. hanbulogi,P. bifurcata,Neogondolella
constricta,N. cornuta ,N. excentrica and N. basisy-
metrica. The conodont sequence allows recognition of
the P. bulgarica and N. constricta zones, which indi-
cate a middle–late Pelsonian to late Illyrian age (mid-
dle–late Anisian). The base of the N. constricta zone
is located within the Olesa de Montserrat member at
about 10.5 m from the base of the lower Muschelkalk
series.
4.2. Castilian branch of the Iberian Ranges (CBIR)
According to our new interpretational approach
outlined above, the published palynological analysis
for the Triassic Rillo Mudstone and Sandstones For-
mation (RMS Formation) and the Triassic Torete
Multicoloured Mudstone and Sandstone Formation
(TMMS Formation) from the Castilian branch of the
Iberian Ranges can be reassessed. We will make a
chronological inventory of data as originally pub-
lished and review it with the new criteria.
In Ramos (1979), level 14 from the Riba de Saelices
section and level 149 from de Rillo Gallo section, both
are given a late Anisian–early Ladinian age in the RMS
formation. However, the presence of Hexasaccites
muelleri indicates Anisian while the appearance of
Triadispora falcata would further constrain the age to
be Pelsonian–Illyrian as suggested by Diez (2000).
Pe´rez-Arlucea (1986) assigns an Anisian–Ladinian
age to the TMMS formation based on the presence of
Calamospora tener,Triadispora staplinii,T. falcata,
T. suspecta and Alisporites sp. in samples from the
Muela (level 15) and Noguera (levels 13 and 15)
localities. Pe´rez-Arlucea (1986) notes that such an
assemblage is not conclusive but a late Anisian or
early Ladinian age is inferred considering the simila-
rities with the assemblage described in Ramos (1979).
This seems to be logical given that the successions
studied are placed in equivalent stratigraphic posi-
tions. As suggested by Diez (2000), the Protodiplox-
ypinus gracilis,Triadispora falcata and
Microcachryidites doubingeri assemblage would indi-
cate a large temporal span from the Pelsonian to the
Langobardian substages.
A synthesis of the palynological studies from the
Castilian branch of the Iberian Ranges is given in
Sopen˜ a et al. (1995). A synthetic composite assem-
blage that includes the upper part of the RMS for-
mation (level 36 from the Luzo´n section and level
241 from the Rio de Gallo section) and the base of
the TMMS formation (level 37 from Luzo´n) (Ramos,
1979) is given. The presence of Triadispora aurea
and T. suspecta in the assemblage, in addition to
Table 4
Proposed age of available pollen determinations from the northern sector of the Castilian branch of the Iberian Ranges
The bProposed ageQconsiders all the individual determinations as reinterpreted by Diez (2000) and herein. Dashed lines indicate an approximate
position.
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177166
several Ovalipollis species, is taken as indication of
Ladinian sensu lato. Diez (2000) agrees with the age
interpretation but indicates that the age should be
based upon the presence of Triadispora aurea and
Microcachryidites fastidioides instead, and not Tria-
dispora suspecta that has in principle a broad pre-
sence range.
Ramos (1979) reports a pollen assemblage in the
TMMS section from Riba de Saelices as early Car-
nian. Diez (2000) indicates an age between the late
Fassanian and the early Julian considering the overlap
of the Keuperisporites baculatus and Camerosporites
secatus biozones.
All the palynologic revisions outlined above
together with the original interpretations are illu-
strated in a common stratigraphic framework in
Tables 3 and 4.
5. Magnetostratigraphy
5.1. Riera de Sant Jaume (RSJ) section
A total of 282 specimens were stepwise thermally
demagnetized (AF demagnetization proved unsuita-
ble due to the presence of high coercivity minerals).
The intensity of the NRM varied in the range 2–
810
3
A/m. A ChRM component trending toward
the origin of the demagnetization diagrams is usually
isolated at temperatures above 630 8C (often 650 8C)
up to 690 8C(Fig. 3). These high temperatures are
consistent with detrital hematite or ilmenohematite
mineral phases as remanence carriers. The ChRM
has either normal (Fig. 3c and i) or reverse polarity
(Fig. 3a and b) in bedding-corrected coordinates. In
some samples, a low temperature component, which
unblocks below 300–350 8C and conforms to the
present geomagnetic field in geographic coordinates,
is isolated in addition to a viscous magnetization
removed below 120 8C. The component removed
below 120 8C could occasionally correspond to a
goethite component (Fig. 3f and g). At intermediate
temperatures between 300–350 8C and up to 630–
655 8C, there is little NRM unblocking (Fig. 3a and
d) or a small component similar in direction to the
ChRM is unblocked. (Fig. 3c and i).
It is interesting to observe the evolution of the
intermediate temperature component across a polarity
reversal. The normal to reverse transition N3-R4 at
about 45 m above the section base (see below) is
illustrated with five demagnetization diagrams (Fig.
3d–h). It can be observed that the intermediate tem-
perature component reverses polarity at a lower strati-
graphic level than the high-temperature component
unblocked above 655–675 8C (note the stratigraphic
level on each diagram from Fig. 3). This feature is
particularly obvious for specimen R30-7A at 44.90 m
(Fig 3g) but also in samples located tens of cm below
(Fig. 3e and f). The presence of a magnetic compo-
nent with the post-transition polarity at a level below
the reversal boundary as defined by the ChRM com-
ponent can suggest a delayed acquisition for the for-
mer component. Complex directional behaviour along
the reversal boundaries of the Pliocene marine Trubi
chalk Formation from southern Sicily has been
explained by magnetite growth at different times at
different levels in the sediment because of early diage-
netic diffusion of Fe from the anoxic grey layers into
suboxic/oxic zones where secondary magnetite would
then form, resulting in delayed remanence acquisition
(van Hoof and Langereis, 1991, see Dinare`s-Turell
and Dekkers, 1999, for a complete diagenetic model
for the Trubi Formation). The sedimentary setting for
the alluvial–fluvial red bed Buntsandstein succession
is obviously different, but the magnetic fingerprint
along a reversal may be comparable. We interpret
the intermediate unblocking temperature component
(below ~650 8C) as a chemical remanence (CRM)
acquired by authigenic hematite grain growth in oxi-
dizing conditions soon after deposition, and the high-
temperature component as a detrital remanence
(DRM) also carried by hematite. The presence of
both components/mineral phases appears to be vari-
able in the samples studied. The CRM component
would therefore represent a delayed remanence able
to record the post reversal polarity in the vicinity of a
reversal boundary as observed in the case outlined
above. These observations are consistent with petro-
logical studies in the Buntsandstein red beds from the
Iberian Ranges (Rey et al., 1996) (see below) and red
beds elsewhere (e.g., Collinson, 1974), which despite
the complexity of the Fe-oxide textural phases usually
allow the assignment of coarse-grained hematite
grains of detrital origin (specular hematite) to the
high-temperature magnetic components, and fine-
grained hematite (microcrystalline or pigmentary
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 167
hematite) to secondary overprints that unblock at
intermediate temperatures. In the RSJ section, the
secondary components appear to be an early diage-
netic CRM although in other settings in the Iberian
Range could be related to several phases of burial and
uplift (Rey et al., 1996).
The reversal test of McFadden and McElhinny
(1981) has been performed on the ChRM components
in order to assess the antipodality of the normal and
reverse populations (Fig. 4). This test classifies a
dpositiveTreversal test on the basis of the angle c
c
between the mean directions of the two sets of obser-
Fig. 3. Bedding-corrected orthogonal plots of thermal demagnetization data from representative specimens. Solid (open) symbols represent
projections onto the horizontal (vertical) plane. The stratigraphic level, the NRM intensity and the temperature of some steps are indicated for
each diagram. Diagrams (d) to (h) (shaded) correspond to the N3-R4 normal to reverse transition (see text for explanations).
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177168
vations at which the null hypothesis of a common
mean direction would be rejected with 95% confi-
dence (class dATif c
c
V58as dBTif 58bc
c
V108,as
dCTif 108Vc
c
V208, and dindeterminateTif c
c
N208).
The ChRM data for the RSJ section pass the reversal
test as class B.
The primary nature of the ChRM is supported by
(1) the presence of a dual-polarity ChRM in addition
to the low temperature present-day field overprint; (2)
an unrealistic steep inclination before bedding correc-
tion (e.g., not compatible with any geomagnetic field
direction for Iberia), and a shallow overall inclination
after bedding correction consistent with the expected
Early Triassic palaeoinclination (Osete et al., 1997;
Van der Voo, 1993); (3) changes in polarity do not
seem to be lithologically controlled.
The VGP latitude derived from the ChRM direc-
tions yields a succession of 5 magnetozones (3 normal
and 2 reverse) that have been labeled from oldest to
youngest as N1-R1-N2-R2-N3 (Fig. 5).
Fig. 4. Equal area projections of the ChRM directions before (in situ) and after bedding correction. The 95% confidence ellipse for the normal
and reverse mean directions is indicated in the right projection. Statistical information is given (N, number of samples; Dec., declination; Inc.,
inclination: k, Fisher’s precision parameter; a
95
, radius of the 95% confidence cone).
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 169
5.2. The Iberian Range sections
The magnetostratigraphy of the RMS and TMMS
Formations in the Molina de Arago´n area along 5
sections (Rillo de Gallo, La Hoz del Gallo; Aragon-
cillo; Ermita de la Virgen del Buen Labrador and
Arroyo de San Roman, Fig. 6) has been reported
before (Rey et al., 1996). Detailed petrological obser-
vations and rock magnetic experiments where con-
ducted in that study. Detrital hematite and ilmeno-
hematite carry a primary magnetization in the form
of a DRM or PDRM. It was inferred that a likely
early CRM also contributed to the primary rema-
nence. Goethite and several textural phases of authi-
genic hematite are responsible for a recent overprint
in the form of a CRM. Acquisition of a PTRM
during the uplift also contributed to the overprint.
Despite the primary remanence that was slightly
Fig. 5. Stratigraphic variation of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) latitude (derived from ChRM directions) and interpreted magnetic polarity
stratigraphy plotted on a lithologic log (modified from Marzo, 1980 and Calvet and Marzo, 1994). An enlargement of the lowermost 58 m of
section comprising the Riera de Sant Jaume (RSJ) units is shown to the right.
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177170
Fig. 6. (a) Correlation and composite magnetostratigraphic sequence for the Rillo Mudstones and Sandstones (RMS) and Torete Multicoloured
Mudstones and Sandstones (TMMS) Formations in the Molina de Arago´ n area (after Rey et al., 1996). Lithological logs from Ramos (1979). (b)
Location of the five studied sections in the framed area of Fig. 1.
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 171
biased by residual components of recent origin, a
reliable Triassic magnetostratigraphy for Anisian–
Ladinian times could be established. Fig. 6 illustrates
the magnetozones defined at the different sections
studied by Rey et al. (1996) and the synthetic polar-
ity sequence.
6. Magnetostratigraphic correlation and discussion
After consideration of the biostratigraphic con-
straints outlined above, a straightforward correlation
of the RSJ polarity sequence to the conodont-ammo-
noid-calibrated magnetostratigraphy from the Tethys
Fig. 7. Magnetostratigraphy of the Riera de Sant Jaume (RSJ) Buntsandstein section compared to biostratigraphically dated Tethyan composite
section of Muttoni et al. (1998), which is based in this interval on data from Albania (Kc¸ira composite, Nderlysacj sections) and Greece (Chios).
Conodont biostratigraphic estimate (base of Constricta zone) is from Marquez-Aliaga et al. (2000). Numeric age value is from Gradstein et al.
(2004).
Fig. 8. Composite magnetostratigraphy of the Molina de Arago´ n Buntsandstein sections of Rey et al. (1996) compared to biostratigraphically
dated Tethyan composite section of Muttoni et al. (1998). The recently revised location of the Anisian Ladinian boundary (Muttoni et al.,
2004a,b) is considered. Age reinterpretation based on palynological assemblages proposed by Diez (2000).
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177172
Molina Composite
(Rey et al. 1996)
RMS Fm TMMS Fm TD Fm
BUNTSANDSTEIN
LOWER MUS-
CHELKAK
Permian to
Lower Triassic
Unit
Facies
Uppper
Pelsonian to Late Fassanian
?
Longobardian
Fassanian
Polynic Age
(Diez 2000)
0 m
116 m
no data
remagnetized
no outcrop
Batalonicus
IsmÌdicum
Osmani
Aegeic.
Japon.
Bifurcata/
Kokaeli
Trinodosus
sl. Reitzi
(Nevadites)
Secedensis
Curionii Gredleri
Homeri
Timonensis
Bulgarica
Constricta/
Cornuta
Trammeri
Excelsa Inclinata Mungoensis
Spathian Pelsonian
Bithynian
Illyrian Fassanian L o n g o b a r d i a n
A n i s i a n
Olenekian
L a d i n i a n
Egean
M I D D L E T R I A S S I C
Prohung.-Subcolumbites
L OW E R T R I A S S I C
?
245 Ma
Ammonoid Z.
Conodont Z.
Tethyan composite
(Muttoniet al. 2000, 2004)
Polarity
Zones
N1
N3
R1
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 173
realm (Muttoni et al., 1998, 2000, 2004a) can be
made (Fig. 7). Magnetozone R5 (that includes a
potential small normal magnetozone) from the RSJ
section is correlated to a mostly reversed zone in the
early Anisian portion of the Tethyan composite and
then the sequence of magnetozones N4 to R1 can be
easily correlated to magnetozones spanning the early
Anisian and the late Olenekian. Relative thickness of
magnetozones among the Tethyan composite and the
RSJ is comparable with the exception of magneto-
zone N4 from the RSJ section which appears rela-
tively thick. Although this could be interpreted as a
variation of sedimentation rate along the RSJ section
(note however that the Tethyan composite is not time
calibrated throughout), it could be also explained
with a stratigraphic duplication related to a postu-
lated thrust in the region (Bera´stegui et al., 1996)
and discussed above. The polarity sequence retrieved
at the RSJ section and the presence of distinct litho-
logical units at the base of the section (the RSJ units,
see Fig. 7) limit the eventual presence of a thrust
within the El Figuero´ sandstones and siltstone unit
and we have hypothetically placed it at about the 110
m level of the section studied in a covered interval
(Fig. 5). The proposed magnetostratigraphic correla-
tion indicates that the Olenekian (Scythian)–Anisian
stage boundary (245 Ma) is located within magneto-
zone N3 in the Riera de Sant Jaume units. This is the
first time that the Early Triassic is adequately identi-
fied within the Buntsandstein facies in eastern Iberia.
However, it is likely that the Early Triassic is
restricted to the Riera the Sant Jaume area given
that the RSJ units have only been recognized there.
For the rest of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (or at
Table 5
Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic selected paleomagnetic poles for Iberia
Rock unit, location Age Lat Long Pal. Ka
95
Reference
Viar intrusives and red beds Cu/Pl (263–296 Ma) 43 211 1.2 110 6 Van der Voo (1969)
Buc¸ aco red beds, N Portugal Cu/Pl (268–291 Ma) 36 211 7.5 332 7 Van der Voo (1969)
Buc¸ aco red beds, N Portugal Cu/Pl (268–291 Ma) 38 202 8.4 206 9 Gomes et al. (2004)
Atienza andesites,
NW Iberian Ranges
Cu/P (275–299 Ma) 36 203 10.0 31 12 Van der Voo (1967)
Atienza andesites,
NW Iberian Ranges
Cu/Pl (275–299 Ma) 42 208 3.8 25 14 Hernando et al. (1980)
Atienza andesites,
NW Iberian Ranges
Cu/Pl (275–299 Ma) 50 205 3.1 64 3 Osete et al. (1997)
Dikes, Catalan Coastal Range Pl (268.286 Ma) 49 202 3.6 83 9 Pare´s et al. (1988)
Red beds, RSJ section,
Catalan Coastal Range
Tl–Tm (245–240 Ma) 55 172 5.0 11 3 This study
Red beds, Catalan
Coastal Ranges
Tm (228–237 Ma) 51 181 1.1 205 6 Pare´ s (1988)
Red beds, Molina de A.,
Iberian Ranges
Tm (230–240 Ma) 55 201 7.4 12 4 Rey et al. (1996),
this study
Red beds, Alca´ zar de St. Juan,
Southern Meseta
Tm–Tu (216–237 Ma) 63 178 13 47 3 Van der Voo (1967)
Red beds, various localities,
Southern Meseta
Tm–Tu (216–237 Ma) 54 178 4.0 7 Pare´s and
Dinare` s-Turell (1994)
Red beds, Alca´ zar de St. Juan,
Southern Meseta
Tm–Tu (216–237 Ma) 62 190 12.6 11 12 Osete et al. (1997)
Red beds, Alcaraz,
outhern Meseta
Tm–Tu (216–237 Ma) 58 177 8.0 23 5 Osete et al. (1997)
Red beds, Ayllo´n,
Iberian Ranges
Tu (216–228 Ma) 60 192 10.9 20 6 Osete et al. (1997)
Messejana–Plasencia dyke Jl (201–205 Ma) 71 236 28.9 36 7 Schott et al. (1981)
Messejana–Plasencia dyk Jl (201–205 Ma) 71 238 29.4 48 3 Palencia-Ortas (2004)
Abbreviations are C—Carboniferous, P—Permian, T—Triassic, J—Jurassic, l—lower, m—middle, u—upper; Lat/Long,—Latitude and Long-
itude of the paleomagnetic pole, Pal—Paleolatitude computed for a common location at 408N, 48W, k—Fisher’s precision parameter, a
95
angle of the 95% confidence cone about the mean direction.
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177174
least for the Montseny–Llobregat domain) the base
of the Buntsandstein series corresponds to the El
Figuero´ sandstones and siltstones units (the Caldes
conglomeratic sandstone) (Calvet and Marzo, 1994),
and therefore, it would be already early Anisian in
age (see Figs. 5 and 7).
The composite magnetostratigraphy for the Molina
de Arago´ n area (Fig 8) tightly constrained on the
palynological age revision of RMS and TMMS
units of Diez (2000) allows precise correlation with
the Tethyan composite of Muttoni et al. (1998) (Fig.
8). It needs to be noted that the position of the
Ladinian–Anisian boundary in this diagram has
been located accordingly with the recent revision of
Muttoni et al. (2004a) for these stages. Magnetozone
R1 spans the Pelsonian Illyrian interval and the short
normal interval in R3 marks the Anisian–Ladinian
boundary. This correlation provides the basis to rein-
terpret the age of both formations, assigning a Pelso-
nian to early Fassanian age to the RMS Formation
and a mostly late Fassanian age for the TMMS For-
mation, with unusual substage accuracy for red bed
continental sequences. Equally important is the good
agreement between the magnetostratigraphic zonation
obtained in these fluviatile sequences that supports
the marine data, and ultimately, their significance to
tie palynological assemblages to the conodont and
amonoid zones.
The Early/Middle Triassic paleopole for the Catalan
Coastal Ranges is located at 55.18N 172.4E (Dp = 1.4,
Dm = 2.7), and the Middle/Late Triassic paleopole for
the Iberian Ranges is 558N 201E (Dp = 1.7, Dm = 3.1).
We have compiled the paleomagnetic poles for the Late
Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic portion of the Iberian
apparent polar wander path (Table 5). The computed
paleopoles for the Catalan Coastal Ranges (RSJ) and
Iberian Ranges (MA) are compatible (Fig. 9) with the
general trend of the Iberian apparent polar wander path
which indicates a northward motion during the Triassic
related to the general northward translation of Pangea.
7. Conclusions
We have presented new magnetostratigraphic data
and reviewed available palynostratigraphic data for
the Buntsandstein facies (Germanic Triassic) for
eastern Iberia. The magnetostratigraphyies retrieved
in the sections from the Catalan Coastal Ranges and
Iberian Ranges can be collectively correlated to the
conodont-ammonoid-calibrated magnetostratigraphy
from the Tethys realm (Muttoni et al., 1998, 2000,
2004a) and allow the identification of the Olene-
kian–Anisian and Anisian–Ladinian boundaries in
these continental red beds. Our chronostratigraphic
framework corroborates the classic view that the
Fig. 9. Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic polar wander path (a) and paleolatitude (b) for Iberia (based on data from Table 5). The Riera de Sant
Jaume section (RSJ) and the Molina de Arago´ n (MA) area data from this study are shown. The age scale is based on Gradstein et al. (2004).
J. Dinare`s-Turell et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 (2005) 158–177 175
Middle Triassic marine transgression (Muschelkalk)
develops from east to west implying progressively
younger ages for the upper continental Buntsand-
stein facies in the same direction as demonstrated
in this work (the top of the Buntsandstein is older in
the Catalan Coastal Ranges than in the Iberian
Ranges). Finally, the computed paleomagnetic pole
positions are compatible and contribute to a better
knowledge and documentation of the Iberian plate
motion related to the Pangea kinematics in Triassic
times.
Acknowledgements
We wish to dedicate this paper to the late Francesc
Calvet for his driving soul. Ken Kodama and Gio-
vanni Muttoni provided useful reviews. J. D-T was
supported by an Alexander von Humboldt grant. This
work was partly funded and it is a contribution to
projects DGICYT: BTE2002-00775; HP2001-0038
and IGCP 458 and 467.
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... The Muschelkalk cycle in the area starts with the Torete Fm., composed by siltstone and sandstone intercalations with minor presence of conglomerates and dolomitic beds (García-Gil, 1995), dated as upper Fassanian (Dinarès-Turell et al., 2005). This siliciclastic unit is representative of the regression phase of the first main Triassic incursion of the Tethys Sea in the southeastern areas (Arche et al., 2004). ...
... geological maps of the National Geological Mapping Program (MAGNA Plan. IGME, 1981a, b, c, 1982a, b, 1991a, b, 2005 and their accompanying reports (Spanish Geological Survey IGME, www.igme.es). The palaeogeographic maps obtained in this study were produced by integrating cartographic, sedimentological, and palynological data. ...
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This study presents new palynological and sedimentological data concerning the Upper Triassic outcrop El Atance (Guadalajara province, Spain). This fossil site has provided a unique and unprecedented concentration of reptile skeletons from the Late Triassic in the Iberian Peninsula, which are almost complete, articulated and preserved in three dimensions. It is the type locality of the simosaurid nothosauroid Paludidraco multidentatus and the henodontid placodont Parahenodus atancensis, being the only species of these clades represented with some certainty in the Iberian record. Although these reptiles are often linked to shallow marine environments, little is known about the sedimentary environment where they became fossilized. Furthermore, to compare these remains with those from other areas of Europe, greater precision in their age assignment is necessary. The new palynological data provided in this study allows us to assign a precise age, in addition to other data such as a probable plant community, palaeoecology, and palaeoclimatic conditions. This information together with the geological and sedimentological data and the new isolated sauropterygian remains studied, allow a better understanding of the local palaeogeography and the evolutionary history of the vertebrates found in the El Atance fossil site.
... This reinforces a number of recent studies that demonstrate difficulties in using Triassic non-marine vertebrates for biostratigraphy in the absence of precise non-biostratigraphic age constraints (e.g., Irmis et al., 2010Irmis et al., , 2011Langer et al., 2018;Marsicano et al., 2016;Ottone et al., 2014;Rayfield et al., 2005Rayfield et al., , 2009Rasmussen et al., 2020;Schultz, 2005). Elsewhere in the Tethys region, capitosaurian temnospondyl amphibian fossils from the Catalonian Basin of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula (Fortuny et al., 2011a(Fortuny et al., , 2011b are dated to the early Anisian based on palynomorph biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy (Dinarès-Turell et al., 2005). This suggests they are approximately equivalent in age to the Wupatki vertebrate assemblage, though the known taxa from each area (i.e., Calmasuchus from Spain and Comparisons with most other Middle Triassic non-marine vertebrate assemblages are difficult because of the lack of precise non-biostratigraphic age constraints (Marsicano et al., 2016;Ottone et al., 2014). ...
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... As regards the Iberian plate, the Early to early Middle Triassic terrestrial ecosystems are represented by the siliciclastic Buntsandstein red-beds facies mostly corresponding to alluvial and fluvial deposits (e. g., Dinarès-Turell et al., 2005;Bourquin et al., 2011;Fortuny et al., 2011b;Galán-Abellán et al., 2013;Mujal et al., 2016bMujal et al., , 2017aMujal et al., , 2017b. These facies were gradually replaced by shallow marine environments from East to West, represented by the carbonate and evaporitic Muschelkalk facies (Escudero-Mozo et al., 2015). ...
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... This pattern is derived from sections containing Boreal ammonoid zones in Spitsbergen (arctic Norway; Hounslow et al., 2008aHounslow et al., , 2008b and from those with conodont ranges in China (e.g., Lehrmann et al., 2006Lehrmann et al., , 2015, Albania (e.g., Muttoni et al., 1996b), Romania (e.g., Gradinaru et al., 2007), Austria (Muttoni et al., 1996a), and other regions. The distinctive switch in dominance of polarity is the firstorder constraint on projecting ages onto terrestrial facies in the Germanic Basin (e.g., Nawrocki and Szulc, 2000;Szurlies, 2007) and the Catalan and Iberian basins of Spain (e.g., Dinarès-Turell et al., 2005), and to England and China (Hounslow and Muttoni, 2010;Fig. 4). ...
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The Triassic is bound by two mass extinctions that coincide with vast outpourings of volcanic flood basalts. The Mesozoic begins with a gradual recovery of plant and animal life after the end-Permian mass extinction. Conodonts and ammonoids are the main correlation tools for marine deposits. The Pangea supercontinent has no known glacial episodes during the Triassic, but the modulation of its monsoonal climate by Milankovitch cycles left sedimentary signatures useful for high-resolution scaling. Dinosaurs begin to dominate the terrestrial ecosystems in latest Triassic. In contrast to the rapid evolution and pronounced environmental changes that characterize the Early Triassic through Carnian, the Norian–Rhaetian of the Late Triassic was an unusually long interval of stability in Earth history.
... Martínez et al. (2008) reported bimodal cooling ages of 305.9 ± 1.5 and 323.6 ± 2.8 Ma from U-Pb dating of zircon in, respectively, biotite granites and diorite bodies. In the south of the massif and in the Tagamanent area the crystalline basement is covered by Middle Triassic (Anisian) red-beds (Fig. 2a, b) that were deposited in the Permian-Triassic rift basins of northeastern Spain (Solé de Porta et al. 1987;Dinarès-Turell et al. 2005;Gómez-Gras 1993). In the (Fig. 2a), the unconformity is covered by Palaeocene red-beds deposited in the eastern boundaries of the Ebro Basin (Anadón et al. 1986). ...
Article
Extensive areas of the Variscan granitic basement in NE Spain display profiles of red-stained albitized facies characterized by albitization of Ca-plagioclase, chloritization of biotite and microclinization of orthoclase, along with the alteration of igneous quartz to secondary CL-dark quartz. These profiles have a geopetal structure beneath the Triassic unconformity, with a very intense and pervasive alteration in the upper part that progressively decreases with depth to 150–200 m where the alteration is restricted to the walls of fractures. The red albitized facies contains secondary maghemite and hematite that indicate oxidizing conditions. Dating of microclinized orthoclase and secondary monazite that have formed in the red-stained albitized facies yielded K–Ar and U–Th–Pbtotal ages of 240 and 250 Ma, respectively, suggesting that the alteration developed during the Permian–Triassic period. The geopetal disposition of the red albitized profile with respect to the Triassic unconformity, its large regional extent, and the fracture-controlled alteration in the lower part of the profile indicate groundwater interaction. The δ¹⁸O values of albitized plagioclase (+ 11‰), microclinized orthoclase (+ 13‰), and secondary CL-dark quartz (+ 12‰) suggest that the alteration temperature was about 55 °C. This “low” temperature suggests that the alteration occurred during interaction of the granitic rocks with Na-rich fluids below a surficial weathering mantle on the Permian–Triassic palaeosurface. The latter is possibly related to Triassic evaporitic environments in long-lasting, stable landscapes in which Na-rich solutions infiltrated deep regional groundwaters.
... Detailed sedimentological analyses of these rocks can be found in Marzo and Anadón (1977), Anadón et al. (1979), Marzo (1980Marzo ( , 1986, Calvet and Marzo (1994), and Galán-Abellán et al. (2013). Further published works are the palynological studies of Solé de Porta et al. (1987) and Díez et al. (2012), the detailed petrological study of Gómez-Gras (1993), and the magnetostratigraphy study of Dinarès-Turell et al. (2005). Basic stratigraphic nomenclature was initially established by Marzo (1980), and later complemented by Galán-Abellán et al. (2013), as summarized in Fig. 3.18. ...
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The Permian-Triassic rifting represents the first of the two Mesozoic rifting stages recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. Its first phases of development started during the Early Permian, and were linked to the beginning of the break-up of Pangea, the large, unique and rheologically unstable supercontinent that mainly resulted from the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. This chapter analyzes this first rifting stage in Iberia in two separate phases, an initial or tectonic phase, and a later mature phase. This analysis focuses on the main Permian-Triassic basins of the Iberian Peninsula: the Pyrenean, Iberian, Catalan, Ebro and Betic basins, as well as the basins located in the present-day Balearic Islands. In order to achieve a better understanding of the analyses of these basins, a multidisciplinary approach has been carried out by 48 researchers, including
... Detailed sedimentological analyses of these rocks can be found in Marzo and Anadón (1977), Anadón et al. (1979), Marzo (1980Marzo ( , 1986, Calvet and Marzo (1994), and Galán-Abellán et al. (2013). Further published works are the palynological studies of Solé de Porta et al. (1987) and Díez et al. (2012), the detailed petrological study of Gómez-Gras (1993), and the magnetostratigraphy study of Dinarès-Turell et al. (2005). Basic stratigraphic nomenclature was initially established by Marzo (1980), and later complemented by Galán-Abellán et al. (2013), as summarized in Fig. 3.18. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Permian-Triassic rifting represents the first of the two Mesozoic rifting stages recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. Its first phases of development started during the Early Permian, and were linked to the beginning of the break-up of Pangea, the large, unique and rheologically unstable supercontinent that mainly resulted from the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. This chapter analyzes this first rifting stage in Iberia in two separate phases, an initial or tectonic phase, and a later mature phase. This analysis focuses on the main Permian-Triassic basins of the Iberian Peninsula: the Pyrenean, Iberian, Catalan, Ebro and Betic basins, as well as the basins located in the present-day Balearic Islands. In order to achieve a better understanding of the analyses of these basins, a multidisciplinary approach has been carried out by 48 researchers, including studies of tectonics, sedimentology, magmatism, mineralogy, geochemistry and paleontology.
... The age of the lower part has been estimated as middle-late Smithian (early Olenekian, Early Triassic) by the calculation of the timespan represented by the major boundary surfaces (MBS) differentiated within, and also by regional correlation and comparison with lateral equivalent units of areas located to the north of the study area . The Upper Prades Conglomerates Unit and the Lower Prades Sandstones Unit have been dated as Olenekian by paleomagnetic data (Dinarès-Turell et al., 2005) and correlation with other basins (Galán-Abellán et al., 2013c). B1 Unit has also been ascribed to Olenekian (probably Spathian) by correlation with other basins Borruel-Abadía et al., 2015). ...
Article
In recent years there is growing evidence of the importance of the Smithian-Spathian (Early Triassic) ecological crisis to explain the delayed recovery of life after the Permian-Triassic Boundary mass extinction. This study focuses on sedimentary continental rocks of middle Permian to Middle Triassic age from four different Peritethys basins in subequatorial latitudes. Similar distribution patterns of aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals contents in these rocks in the four studied basins provide evidence of increased acidity during the Smithian-Spathian transition, coinciding with a lack of indicators of organic activity in the same interval. Thus, this period of high acidity on land, may have been one of the causes of this biological crisis. Based on the quantification of APS minerals in the studied sedimentary sequences, we propose that it was not until acidity in the environment diminished, that biotic recovery was possible. APS data may also be useful to interpret other past biotic crises.
... L'edat absoluta atribuïble al jaciment de la Móra no és del tot clara, els primers estudis palinològics a la zona (Solé de Porta et al., 1987) varen caracteritzar-lo com Anisià, que és el primer estatge del Triàsic mitjà. Més recentment, un estudi combinat de magnetostratigrafia i biostratigrafia en aquest sector (Dinarès-Turell et al., 2005) ha exclòs la possibilitat que es tracti de Triàsic inferior, i torna a inferir una edat d'Anisià, en aquest cas amb una major aproximació a la seva franja inferior-mitjana (entre 246 i 240 milions d'anys) per la unitat de gresos i lutites del Figaró. ...
... Detailed sedimentological analyses of these rocks can be found in Marzo and Anadón (1977), Anadón et al. (1979), Marzo (1980Marzo ( , 1986, Calvet and Marzo (1994), and Galán-Abellán et al. (2013). Further published works are the palynological studies of Solé de Porta et al. (1987) and Díez et al. (2012), the detailed petrological study of Gómez-Gras (1993), and the magnetostratigraphy study of Dinarès-Turell et al. (2005). Basic stratigraphic nomenclature was initially established by Marzo (1980), and later complemented by Galán-Abellán et al. (2013), as summarized in Fig. 3.18. ...
Chapter
• The Variscan orogenic belt that crops out in the western Iberian Peninsula forms the Iberian Massif. In the northwestern sector of this massif (the external Cantabian Zone), the orogeny finished in Late Carboniferous (Gzelian)-Early Permian (Asselian) times, developing a characteristic arc shaped orogen (Asturian Arc) (Merino-Tomé et al. 2009; Gutiérrez-Alonso et al. 2011). Shortly after, this orogen collapsed and the related extensional tectonics allowed the development of post-orogenic Permian basins and the emplacement of the last calc-alkaline Variscan magmas in upper crustal levels. These magmas even reached the earth surface, like in the Villaviciosa basin, where volcanic intercalations are abundant (Suárez-Rodríguez 1988; Valverde-Vaquero 1992). This post-orogenic magmatism can also be observed in the eastern Cantabrian Zone, where the small plutons of Peña Prieta, Pico Jano, Pico Iján and the igneous complex of Infiesto were emplaced. This magmatism took place between 297 and 292 Ma (Asselian-Sakmarian) (Gallastegui et al. 2004). In late early Permian times, the volcanism decreases and the basin infill is mainly sedimentary with source areas located in nearby areas. • Related to this collapse a subhorizontal cleavage is formed, which offset the Variscan structures and is better developed in the Carboniferous slate formations of the inner part of the Asturian Arc (Pisuerga-Carrión Region) (Aller et al. 2004). • The Variscan and late-Variscan structures of the Asturian Arc control the main Permian normal faults and therefore the related Permian basins. Noticeably, the Villaviciosa and La Justa-Aramil basins, among others, located in the central part of the Cantabrian Zone, have a predominant NE-SW orientation, parallel to Variscan thrusts; while those located at the easternmost part, such as those on the Picos de Europa Region and the northern part of the Pisuerga-Carrión Region (Sotres-Pandébano, Cueto Turis, Peña Sagra and Peña Labra basins) have E-W to NW-SE trends, related to Variscan thrusts and late-Variscan faults respectively. • Extensional tectonics during the early Permian was not generalized in the Cantabrian Zone, giving rise to narrow and isolated continental basins with very local depocenters. This extensional tectonics became generalized during Triassic, related to the Pangea fragmentation, occupying the sedimentary basins wider areas.
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