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Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects in Structural Equation Models

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... Different approaches on the evaluation of mediation exist, and there is no general consensus on a preferable procedure to evaluate it in PLS-SEM [92,102]. Previously, the most employed procedures were the Sobel test [103] and the Baron and Kenny approach [101]. More recently, the effectiveness of these procedures has been widely criticized [104][105][106]. ...
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... SNP selection methods that were described in the MR instrument selection section (see Section 2.2.1) were also applied to the mediation analysis. The Sobel test was used to calculate the indirect effects in the mediation analysis [29]. ...
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... Then, after controlling for participation and LMX, respectively, the relationship between procedural justice and change-supporting behavior was estimated. Next, the indirect effects were calculated and tested for significance using the Sobel test [69]. Furthermore, whether the effects of participation and LMX on change-supporting behavior decreased after adding procedural justice to the models was tested. ...
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PTSD is associated with serious problems in interpersonal functioning, including higher rates of marital conflict and divorce, disrupted relationships with family and friends, estrangement from others and social isolation. Cognitive behavioral and trauma focused treatments are effective for treating PTSD symptoms, but a substantial proportion of individuals, particularly veterans, with PTSD, do not engage, complete, or fully respond to these treatments. The effects of these treatments on interpersonal functioning are unknown. There is a critical need for alternative treatments with established efficacy, and for treatments that directly address problems in relationship functioning. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD (IPT-PTSD) is a promising candidate for such a treatment. This paper describes the rationale, design, and methods of the first randomized controlled equivalence trial comparing IPT-PTSD with a first-line gold standard treatment for PTSD (Prolonged Exposure; PE) in the treatment of PTSD in veterans. Both treatments include up to 12 weekly individual sessions. Assessments were conducted at baseline, following sessions four and eight, end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Primary hypotheses are that IPT-PTSD will be statistically equivalent to PE in reducing the severity of PTSD symptoms, and superior to PE in improving interpersonal functioning. Secondary hypotheses propose that IPT will be superior to PE in improving overall social adjustment and quality of life, and in reducing suicidal ideation. Findings from this study have the potential to improve treatment options for veterans struggling with PTSD and interpersonal problems.
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This study aims to understand the health correlates of sleep deficiencies in non-elderly U.S. Hispanic women. Data from a sample of U.S. Hispanic women (n = 1,531; ages 18 – 65 [M = 39.98; SD = 12.85]) who completed the 2017 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed to understand (1) sleep duration and quality; (2) the association of sleep patterns with key health indicators; and (3) whether these relationships are mediated by health behaviors (i.e., healthy eating and physical activity). Shorter sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of often feeling anxious and having hypertension. Worse sleep quality was associated with a higher likelihood of being overweight, having fair or poor health status, often feeling depressed, often feeling anxious, having high cholesterol, and having asthma. Doctor’s recommendation to engage in physical activity and to decrease calorie intake served as mediators in some of these relationships. Results indicate that among Hispanic women: (1) sleep is an important determinant of a variety of health outcomes and (2) the association of sleep and many health outcomes are mediated by healthy eating and physical activity. Further research on the association of sleep and risk of chronic disease among Hispanic women is needed.
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This research reports the role of disaster policy implementation achieving disaster risk reduction (DRR) and sustainable development (SD) in Sierra Leone. The factors were highlighted to help policymakers measure disaster risk perception (DRP), disaster adaptation (DA), community participation (CP), and disaster policy implementation (DPI) towards achieving disaster risk reduction and sustainable development. A questionnaire was administered to collect data from the respondents in six disaster-prone communities (Dwarzarck, Portee-Rokupa, Kroobay, Susan’s Bay, Moyiba, and Colbot) in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Employing the structural equation model approach, we found that all the disaster risk reduction factors (DRP, CP, DA, and DPI) directly influence SD. Furthermore, disaster policy implementation serves as a channel through which disaster risk reduction influences sustainable development. This study suggests to policymakers to use the factors mentioned earlier to design effective disaster policy implementation to achieve disaster risk reduction and sustainable development in Sierra Leone.
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Introduction Interruptions are mostly related to negative outcomes and researchers already found that the complexity or the length of interruptions modulate their deleterious effect on performance. However, none of them investigated the effect of the pleasantness of interruptions. Objective The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of the pleasantness on both the correct completion of the interrupting task and the time required to resume the primary task. Method We designed a realistic email searching primary task during which 46 participants were either not interrupted or interrupted by a simple math addition task during which a positive or a negative picture was progressively revealed. We then asked participants how pleasant they found the interrupting task and investigated the effects of perceived pleasantness both on the interrupting task and on resuming the primary task. Results Results showed that performance on the interrupting task was worst and the time to resume the primary task was longer when participants found the task very pleasant or very unpleasant. Performance in both tasks was the best when participants gave intermediate pleasantness judgments. The findings were independent of the valence and arousal of the pictures used to manipulate task pleasantness. Conclusion These results are discussed in light of empirical studies assessing the deleterious effects of emotions on cognition, and practical implications are proposed.
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Several studies have investigated the use of virtual reality (VR) in tourism, but none has taken an epidemiological outlook. This research examined the use of VR in tourism through the lenses of an extended TAM model in times of COVID-19 pandemic. The premise was that, in this context, people would prefer less risky experiences and would see VR as a substitute for traditional travel. The data used was collected through a within-subjects experiment, which proved that intention to use VR in tourism increased under the COVID-19 effect. This study tested a conceptual model that showed this intention was influenced by the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived substitutability of VR, all mediated by people’s interest in VR use in tourism. The perceived authenticity of VR experience determined the perceived substitutability of VR. This paper has theoretical and practical implications. In the long term, promoting tourism-related VR activities might reduce the risk of virus spreading, lessen the pressure imposed on this sector by such epidemic episodes, and increase its sustainability.
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