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Multiple Regression: Testing And Interpreting Interactions

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Abstract

This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... We conducted a series of hierarchical regression analyses (Aiken & West, 1991) to test the hypotheses predicting the contributions of different scaling strategies, the combination and diversification of scaling strategies on scaling performance, and the moderating effect of organizational form on the relationship between scaling strategies and scaling performance. The control variables were entered in step 1, and the independent variables were subsequently added in step 2, followed by the moderator in step 3. Lastly, the interaction terms were included in step 4. Models 2 and 4 in Table 4 respectively display the results of the statistical analyses regarding the effects of scaling strategies and the moderating role of organizational form. ...
... p < 0.10). To elucidate the moderating effect, we conducted simple slope tests (Aiken & West, 1991) by probing the relationship between scaling strategies and scaling performance at the high or low values of organizational form (as nonprofit or for-profit organizations). As shown in Figure 2, the contribution of knowledge dissemination to scaling performance for nonprofit SEs was stronger (b simple slope = 26.71, ...
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Conventional nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and social enterprises (SEs) face constant challenges when scaling their social impacts, especially in societies undergoing transformation, such as China, where NPO and SE ecosystems are still nascent. Whereas previous studies have identified various scaling approaches for SEs, empirical investigations of the linkages between scaling strategies and scaling performance are lacking. To address this gap, we conducted a quantitative study of 293 Chinese SEs to examine how the four types of scaling strategies brought about different scaling performances and how the results varied upon organizational form. Our results revealed that three of these scaling strategies, namely knowledge dissemination, organizational growth, and contractual partnerships, contributed positively and significantly to scaling performance , whereas capacity building had a positive but not statistically significant effect. Our results also indicated that the positive contributions of organizational growth and knowledge dissemination to scaling performance were reinforced in SEs organized as nonprofits. Moreover, the results indicated that SEs that deployed combined and diversified scaling strategies demonstrated better scaling performance than those that deployed just one strategy. Our findings have important managerial implications for practitioners within the SE community, and especially providing a scientific
... As hypothesized, we found a significant Transgression Intentionality × Moral Identity Internalization interaction effect (see Figure 2). Simple slopes analyses (Aiken et al., 1991) revealed that leader's moral identity internalization predicted punishment of intentional transgressions (β = 0.18, t = 1.93, p = 0.055) but not of unintentional transgressions (β = −0.12, t = −1.32, ...
... As hypothesized, we found a significant Transgression Intentionality × Moral Identity Internalization interaction effect (see Figure 2). Simple slopes analyses (Aiken et al., 1991) revealed that leader's moral identity internalization predicted relationship restauration after an unintentional transgression (β = 0.33, t = 3.69, p < 0.001) but not after an intentional transgression (β = −0.03, t = −0.30, ...
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Punishment and forgiveness are two very different responses to a moral transgression that both have been argued to restore perceptions of moral order within an organization. Unfortunately, it is currently unclear what motivates organizational actors to punish or forgive a norm transgressor. We build on social cognitive theory to argue that punishment and forgiveness of a transgressor are both rooted in self-regulatory processes. Specifically, we argue that organizational actors are more likely to respond to intentional transgressions with punishment, and to unintentional transgressions with forgiveness. However, these effects of transgressor intentionality should be found in particular among actors for whom moral identity is central (vs. peripheral). We find support for these predictions in a laboratory experiment and a field study among organizational leaders. By simultaneously studying punishment and forgiveness in organizational settings, we provide crucial insight in their shared motivational bases, as well as into important differences between the two.
... To investigate the interaction effect, we used simple slopes, as recommended by Aiken et al. (1991). If the interaction terms of the independent and moderating variables show a significant relationship, the graph of the interaction must be schematically drawn using the mean value and ±1 standard deviation, and a simple slope test must be performed (Aiken et al., 1991). ...
... To investigate the interaction effect, we used simple slopes, as recommended by Aiken et al. (1991). If the interaction terms of the independent and moderating variables show a significant relationship, the graph of the interaction must be schematically drawn using the mean value and ±1 standard deviation, and a simple slope test must be performed (Aiken et al., 1991). A simple slope must be computed to clarify the form of the moderating effect (Jaccard et al., 1990). ...
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In the context of the organizational crisis caused by COVID-19, scholars and professionals have focused on factors that help employees stay at their jobs and perform well. In an uncertain era, grit is a significant employee and organizational sustainability trait. Using 890 responses, this study determined how grit affects organizational performance and used contingencies including supportive climate and transformational leadership as moderators. The hypotheses were tested by examining the relationship between grit and organizational performance and the moderating effects of supportive climate and transformational leadership. Further, these hypotheses were supported by confirmatory factor analysis, PROCESS macro analysis, and bootstrapping. Grit was found to be positively associated with organizational performance; meanwhile, supportive climate and transformational leadership strengthen the relationship between grit and performance. Both theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. This study makes a theoretical contribution through its assessment of the impact of grit on organizational performance. Trait activation theory can explain how grit can be expressed through organizational climate and leadership. With regard to practice, grit can be used as a vital factor for personnel selection and a supportive climate should be provided to ensure a desirable organizational climate.
... Ở bước 3, các cụm tương tác là tích số CI x SE và tích số SI x SE được thêm vào. Để giảm thiểu hiện tượng đa cộng tuyến (Multicollinary) gây ra bởi các cụm tương tác, biến điều tiết SE được chuẩn hóa trước khi nhân tích số tương tác (Aiken & West, 1991). Ý nghĩa thống kê của sự thay đổi trong hệ số R bình phương (∆ R 2 ) và hệ số F (∆ F) khi thêm vào các cụm tương tác được tính toán để xác định tính đáng kể của tác động điều tiết (Cohen và cộng sự, 1983). ...
... Để hình dung rõ hơn tính chất của tác động điều tiết gây ra bởi SI x SE, phân tích đường dốc đơn giản (Simple Slope Analyses) được thực hiện bằng việc tính toán tác động của Khiếm nhã từ Cấp trên (SI) lên Kiệt quệ cảm xúc (EE) khi SE đạt giá trị dưới 1 độ lệch chuẩn (1 SD) và trên 1 độ lệch chuẩn so với trung bình (Aiken & West, 1991). Kết quả được thể hiện trong Hình 2 cho thấy tác động của SI lên EE yếu đi khi Sự tự tin năng lực bản thân (SE) cao so với khi SE thấp. ...
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Mối quan hệ giữa sự khiếm nhã và tình trạng kiệt quệ cảm xúc ở nhân viên tuyến đầu: Vai trò điều tiết của nhân tố tự tin năng lực bản thân Mã phân loại JEL: J19; J59; M59; M12. Từ khóa: Nhân viên tuyến đầu; Khiếm nhã nơi làm việc; Khiếm nhã từ cấp trên; Khiếm nhã từ khách hàng; Kiệt quệ cảm xúc; Tự tin năng lực bản thân. Nghiên cứu chỉ ra tác động tiêu cực của khiếm nhã công sở đến tâm lý của nhân viên tuyến đầu và khả năng điều tiết của sự tự tin năng lực bản thân như một giải pháp cho tác động trên. Nghiên cứu được thực hiện bằng phương pháp định lượng thông qua dữ liệu từ 316 nhân viên tuyến đầu trong lĩnh vực dịch vụ tài chính trên địa bàn Hà Nội bằng khảo sát trực tuyến. Dữ liệu thu thập được xử lý thông qua các bước phân tích độ tin cậy, phân tích khám phá nhân tố, phân tích khẳng định nhân tố, mô hình cấu trúc tuyến tính SEM, và phân tích hồi quy phân cấp cho tác động điều tiết. Các khuyến nghị như: Chính sách không khoan nhượng với khiếm nhã, và chương trình nâng cao tự tin năng lực cá nhân cho nhân viên được đưa ra. Abstract The purpose of this study is to point out the adverse impacts of workplace incivility on frontline employees' well-being and the moderating ability of self-efficacy which makes this factor a potential solution. The study is performed by quantitative methods through data of 316 frontline employees in the financial services field in Hanoi, Vietnam using online survey. Collected data are processed through steps of reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modeling (SEM), * Tác giả liên hệ.
... To test H4 regarding the positive moderating effect of organizational mindfulness on the relationship between digital transformation and DEDM, we developed the interaction term OM×DT, which was created by mean-centering the independent variable (i.e., digital transformation) and the moderating variable (i.e., organizational mindfulness) on avoiding multicollinearity (Aiken et al., 1991). The interaction term had a positive and significant effect on DEDM, supporting H4 (Model 3: β = 0.19; t-value = 5.18). ...
... To better understand the nature of the significant interaction, this study followed Aiken et al. (1991) in plotting the effects of digital transformation on DEDM at high (+1 SD), average (mean), and low (-1 SD) organizational mindfulness levels. The interaction graph ( Figure 2) demonstrates that, when organizational mindfulness is high, the effect of digital transformation on DEDM is high but average (low) when organizational mindfulness is average (low). ...
... After coding and analyzing the variables, we found that the set of variables containing independent, moderating and control variables corresponded to a maximum variance inflation factor of 1.33, which indicated that the sample data did not have multiple covariance problems [62]. In order to avoid the problem of common method bias caused by the same information source, this set of questionnaires was filled out in a paired way, i.e., the entrepreneur's questionnaires (QA) was filled out by the entrepreneur himself, mainly containing basic information such as entrepreneurial characteristics and family shareholding, and the vice president of finance's questionnaires (QB) was filled in by the vice president of finance with data on enterprise innovation investment and performance. ...
... Following the approach of Aiken, West and Reno [62], the moderating effect of proportion of family directors and collective decision making was further analyzed by visualizing the moderating effect (Figures 1 and 2). As depicted in Figure 1, the positive effect of intra-family ownership concentration on the product innovation and process innovation differentials is more amplified when the proportion of family director is large. ...
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Innovation is an investment in future growth and development, and it is critical for family businesses to maintain a competitive advantage. Different types of innovation inputs have different uncertainties, advantages, and risks. Product innovation and process innovation are two distinct types of innovation that necessitate significantly different organizational resource allocation and risk taking. Ownership is the source of decision-making authority, and the dispersion of intra-family ownership influence goal preferences, risk taking, and resource allocation. We investigate the effect of intra-family ownership dispersion on the decision preferences of two unique types of innovation inputs by distinguishing between product and process innovations. The greater the concentration of ownership within the family, the more likely it is that the proportion of product innovation input is higher than the proportion of process innovation input. We further discuss the moderating effects of both the proportion of family directors and collective decision-making mode on the different innovation input decisions by family firms. Using a sample of 882 Chinese small- and medium-sized family firms from the 2015 All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, we find support for these proposed relationships. The implications of these findings extend to both family business and innovation research.
... In line with the suggestions of Aiken et al. (1991), higher order terms were interpreted before lower order terms. Thus, in line with the aims of our study, the threeway interaction term of economic hardship x frequency of social support x importance of social support was first investigated, followed by the two-way interaction term of economic hardship x frequency of social support was investigated, and the main effect term of frequency of social support. ...
... Thus, in line with the aims of our study, the threeway interaction term of economic hardship x frequency of social support x importance of social support was first investigated, followed by the two-way interaction term of economic hardship x frequency of social support was investigated, and the main effect term of frequency of social support. Where significant interaction effects were found, simple slopes analysis were conducted as a post hoc test, in line with the suggestions of Aiken et al. (1991). ...
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Low-Income children are susceptible to mental health problems. While social support has been found to protect children from these issues, most studies focus on the frequency of support rather than the importance of support. The importance of support refers to subjective value that the child places on the support provided. The present study investigated whether social support from parents, teacher, classmates or close friends was related to internalizing and externalizing problems, in 513 low-income children between 7 and 12 years of age. We investigated if these associations followed a main effect model, stress-buffering model or enhanced stress-buffering model. When parent support was considered important by the child, there were positive associations of economic hardship and internalizing problems. Furthermore, when parent support was frequent, or both infrequent and important, there was a positive association between economic hardship and externalizing problems. Conversely, teacher support that was considered important by the child was protective for internalizing problems in children. In addition, teacher support that was frequent and considered important, was protective for children’s externalizing problems. Implications arising from the study are discussed.
... Significant interactions revealed from the GLM were tested and interpreted by simple slopes analysis (SSA), which considers the regression of the explanatory variable on the outcome measure for low (mean − 1 SD), average (the mean), and high (mean + 1 SD) levels of the moderating variable 82,83 . Consequently, the nature of the interaction effect was visualized and interpreted by plotting and comparing the slopes in terms of their significance and the values and directions of the unstandardized regression coefficients (B) 82 . ...
... Significant interactions revealed from the GLM were tested and interpreted by simple slopes analysis (SSA), which considers the regression of the explanatory variable on the outcome measure for low (mean − 1 SD), average (the mean), and high (mean + 1 SD) levels of the moderating variable 82,83 . Consequently, the nature of the interaction effect was visualized and interpreted by plotting and comparing the slopes in terms of their significance and the values and directions of the unstandardized regression coefficients (B) 82 . SSA was performed using the "interactions" package (v1.1.3) ...
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A range of self-report questionnaires were developed to quantify one’s risk-taking (RT) tendency. Exploring people’s perceived risk level associated with negative risk behaviors is essential to develop a better understanding and intervention policies for RT. In the present study, we proposed a 2 × 10-item scale, namely, the general risk-taking questionnaire (GRTQ), to evaluate RT tendency and risk attitude among the general population by measuring people’s engagement in and perceptions toward 10 commonly known risky behaviors. A total of 2984 adults residing in 10 prefectures in Japan (age range = 20–59, 53.12% female) provided valid responses to an online survey. Apart from the factor analysis procedures, multivariate negative binomial regression models have been applied to investigate the relationship between RT engagement and perception. We obtained two identical factors, namely, personal risk and relational risk, for both scales of the GRTQ. Increased levels of RT engagement were found in younger, male, nonmarried, nonparent and urban respondents. Despite an overall negative correlation between RT engagement and perception, our model revealed a weaker linkage in the younger population for relational risk behaviors. Overall, we showed evidence that the GRTQ is an easy-to-administer, valid and reliable measure of RT for future clinical research.
... The hierarchical multiple regression method was used to examine whether negative emotions moderate the link between PIU and cyberbullying perpetration. According to the recommendation of Aiken et al. (1991), all predictive variables were standardized before data analysis. For the hierarchical multiple regression procedure, the four estimation steps were executed in turn: ...
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The present study examined the mediating and moderating roles of negative emotions on the association between problematic Internet use (PIU) and cyberbullying perpetration among adolescents. A sample of 831 junior high school students (50.8% males; Mage = 14 years; SDage = 0.55) was recruited for the completion of questionnaires assessing demographics, PIU, negative emotions, and cyberbullying perpetration. The gender- and grade-controlled result showed that (1) significant positive correlations existed among PIU, negative emotions, and cyberbullying perpetration; (2) negative emotions partially mediated the link between PIU and cyberbullying perpetration; and (3) negative emotions moderated the link between PIU and cyberbullying perpetration. Specifically, the positive association between PIU and cyberbullying perpetration was stronger in adolescents with high negative emotions than in those with low negative emotions. These findings provide important implications for the prevention and intervention of cyberbullying perpetration among adolescents.
... To better understand the significant moderating effects, we followed Aiken et al. (1991), and plotted the interactions in Figs. 3 and 4. Each demonstrates how different components of eco-capabilities impact the relationship between environmental stewardship and work meaningfulness. Figure 3 shows that employees with high environmental stewardship find more meaning at work when the managers support their stewardship through high levels of business resources. ...
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Corporate environmental ethics has moved from a niche issue within business strategy to a potential source of competitive advantage. Firms, however, are comprised of individuals who vary in their personal beliefs regarding environmental responsibility. Environmental stewards are those employees whose attitudes and actions reflect environmental concern. Top management can convey similar environmental values through the creation of eco-capabilities. Applying logic from the natural resource-based view of the firm, we build a model to test how the alignment of environmental values impacts multiple outcomes. We conduct a time-lagged examination using multi-level data from frontline employees, their managers, and their customers. We find that firms can ‘activate’ their corporate environmental ethics through eco-capabilities. Specifically, environmental stewards find more meaning in their work when managers perceive high levels of eco-capabilities within the firm. This meaningful work increases employee brand advocacy and customer satisfaction. Together, we demonstrate how corporate environmental ethics translates to the frontline and the customers they serve.
... CI 95% : -.323, -.04]. Simple slopes analyses [46] revealed that in the agitation reaction condition, the stronger participants' prevention focus, the more they reported being willing to help [B = .24, SE = .11, ...
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Similarity with others in need regarding various attributes [e.g., social group membership] has been shown to increase individuals’ empathic responses, willingness to help and prosocial behaviour. We tested whether a subtle similarity, namely of observers’ and targets’ self-regulatory orientation in terms of a promotion or prevention regulatory focus [i.e., interpersonal regulatory fit], would entail similar effects. Interpersonal regulatory [mis]fit was conveyed through focus-congruent or -incongruent emotional reactions which targets, facing distressing situations, expressed. We predicted that when observer participants’ regulatory focus fits with targets’ negative emotional reaction [i.e., promotion focus—dejection or prevention focus—agitation], they would be more likely to express empathy, willingness to help, and to engage in prosocial behaviour towards this target compared to conditions of misfit. Five studies relied on observers’ chronic regulatory focus [Study 1, 3, & 4] and situationally induced regulatory focus [Study 2 & 5] and presented different distressing scenarios with targets conveying focus [in]congruent negative emotions. Inconsistent results emerged across the studies, which indicated misfit, fit and no effects. Study characteristics did not suggest a moderator explaining these inconsistent findings. An internal meta-analysis across all studies indicated that overall there was no evidence of either a fit or a misfit effect. This work sheds light on the technical challenges of exploring relations between subtle interpersonal regulatory [mis]fit and prosocial reactions. Implications for future research are discussed, including the importance of creating stronger interpersonal [mis]fit experiences by means of incorporating descriptions of distressed targets’ hindered goal pursuits as well as negative reactions.
... Following Aiken et al's. (1991) recommendations, we divided high and low GI groups using one standard deviation above and below the mean to plot the interaction effect (see Figure 2) and analyzed them by performing a single slope analysis. We found a significant positive relationship between LPE and SWL only at low levels of GI (β = .25, p < .05). In contrast, at high ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between living up to parental expectations (LPE) and life satisfaction as well as the moderating effect of psychological separation on this relationship among South Korean college students. The participants ( N = 343) completed an online survey measuring the study variables. We divided psychological separation into conflictual independence (CI) and general independence (GI) and performed multiple regression analysis. The results revealed a positive association between LPE and life satisfaction. Our analysis also indicated that GI moderated the relationship between LPE and life satisfaction. Specifically, the positive association between LPE and life satisfaction was significant for participants with lower levels of GI. We discussed the significance of these findings and explained their implications for counseling settings in terms of cultural considerations.
... To test the moderation and moderated-mediation model, which comprises an assessment of Hypotheses 4 and 5, we mean-centered the predictors (Aiken et al., 1991) involved in the interaction (see Table 4). We observed a significant interaction of ethical leadership with the selfenhancement motive (b = -0.45, ...
... Next, according to the suggestion of Aiken et al. (1991), a schematic diagram of the moderating effect of government support on the relationship between information sharing and sustainable performance was made based on a simple slope The government helps link knowledge partners 0.836 ...
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Based on the theory of strategic alliances and social networks, this article empirically studies the relationship between partnership, information sharing, and sustainable performance through a questionnaire survey of Chinese sports equipment manufacturers. The findings show that partnerships have a positive impact on sustainable performance; that information sharing plays a role in mediating the relationships between trust, cooperation, and sustainable performance; and that government support can positively impact the effect of partnerships on sustainable performance. Through empirical research, this article proves the mechanism of the impact of partnership on alliance performance, further expands the theoretical basis for enterprises’ establishment of strategic alliances, and has important enlightening significance for enterprises within alliances aiming to rationally use the networks inside and outside their alliances to obtain knowledge and resources and improve their sustainable performance.
... The condition of moderated mediation is achieved when the conditional indirect effect of stress on turnover intentions through burnout differs in levels of resilience. Aiken and West (1991) used hierarchical regression to test the moderating effect of resilience on burnout-intention to leave relationship to test the second stage of moderation mediation. The result in Table 5 exhibits that the interaction between burnout and resilience was significant in predicting turnover intentions (0.23, p < 0.01) which states that a positive relation between burnout and turnover intentions would be weaker for those with resilience. ...
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The study proposes to understand the dynamics of work stress and turnover relationship of physicians in Indian context. It also intends to understand the mediating and moderating roles of burnout and resilience on the relationship between work stress and turnover intentions. The article has taken the support of conservation of resources (COR) theory to develop the conceptual framework. The study uses the survey method for data collection which was analysed using quantitative statistical methods like confirmatory factor analysis and mediated and moderated regression. The result showed a significant moderating effect of resilience on burnout and turnover intentions relationship and a strong mediating effect of burnout on the relationship between stress and turnover intentions. Physicians who are regarded as ‘saviours’ should be treated with respect. Certain activities dealing with work–life balance, engaging in leisure activities, getting support from family and friends may help the physician in coping with the demands of stress and thereby reducing the burnout. Future research can take into account other states of India as well as other countries for generalisation of results. The demographic differences among the physicians can also be a new area of research. Although there is lot of available research on the study variables, but none of the studies have taken into context resilience as a moderator between burnout and turnover intention specially in reference to Indian context. The results can add value to the prevailing studies on stress, burnout, resilience and turnover intention.
... Product terms of waking (centered) x PA (centered) were added to the regression model predicting depressive symptoms and functional impact. Simple slope analyses were subsequently performed to illustrate significant interaction effects ( Aiken et al., 1991 ). An index of moderated mediation, which is a measure of the association between an indirect effect and a moderator, was estimated, together with a 95% CI, from bootstrapping 10,0 0 0 samples ( Hayes, 2015 ). ...
Article
Background: Increased exercise is a marker of health in fibromyalgia (FM). However, patients frequently avoid physical activity as a way of minimizing the pain they feel. This deprives them of opportunities to obtain positive reinforcement, increasing functional impact. Aims: This study examines the mediating role of depressive symptoms between walking (as physical exercise), functional impact, and pain, at different levels of positive affect (PA) among women with fibromyalgia. Design: Cross-sectional correlational study. Settings: Mutual aid associations for fibromyalgia in Spain. Participants: 231 women diagnosed with FM. Methods: Moderate mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS. Results: First, a simple mediation model showed that depression mediated the effect of walking on functional impact, but not on pain. Additionally, the moderated mediated model showed that this effect was significant at medium and high levels of PA, but not when levels of PA were low. Conclusions: Provision of resources focused on positive affect seem to increase the positive effects of walking on functional impact through the reduction of depressive symptoms. Nurses can improve adherence of patients with FM to walking behavior through increasing positive affect.
... Each interaction term was entered in the model, tested for significance, and then removed before the next interaction term was entered (to reduce multicollinearity). If an interaction term was found to be significant, the nature of the interaction was plotted using Aiken and West (1991) recommendations [47]. This was done by first centering the variables around their mean and standardizing them (with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one). ...
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Research testing the risk perception attitudes (RPA) framework has demonstrated that efficacy can moderate the effect of risk perceptions on behavior. This effect of efficacy has also been seen at the social-level through tests of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB). We tested if efficacy could bridge normative factors at a social-level and risk perception at an individual-level. Data for this study come from the Reduction in Anemia through Normative Innovations (RANI) project’s baseline survey in Odisha, India. We used hierarchical regressions to analyze interactions between predictors at various levels and efficacy to predict behavioral intention. Efficacy beliefs moderated the effect of injunctive norms ( β = 0.07, p < 0.01), collective norms ( β = 0.06, p < 0.01), and risk perception ( β = 0.04, p < 0.01) on intentions. This study provides preliminary evidence for a multilevel theoretical framework.
... This means that bureaucratic culture plays a moderating role in the relationship between the sense of power and interpersonal deviance. Furthermore, we used Aiken et al. (1991) procedure of simple slopes at higher and lower levels of bureaucratic culture (one standard deviation above and below the mean) to plot the interaction. Table 4 and Figure 2 shows that the positive effect of the sense of power on interpersonal deviance was significant for high levels of bureaucratic culture (β = 0.35, p < 0.01). ...
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Purpose Drawing on the approach—inhibition theory of power and the containment theory of control—we propose a relationship model of leader humility, sense of power, and interpersonal deviance, by placing bureaucratic culture as a boundary condition. Design/Methodology/Approach Using a moderated mediation model, this study applies hierarchical regression and bootstrapping analyses to data obtained from online questionnaire responses of 428 employees from various sectors in Indonesia. Findings The results reveal a positive relationship between leader humility and employees perceptions of the sense of power, as well as between the sense of power to interpersonal deviance. In addition, we confirmed the mediating role of the sense of power on the relationship between leader humility and interpersonal deviant. Bureaucratic culture has been confirmed to moderate the relationship between a sense of power and interpersonal deviance. Practical Implications Companies can provide leadership training to leaders to convey to them when and where to demonstrate humility. Furthermore, the effectiveness of leaders' humility can be increased and their sense of power and interpersonal deviance reduced if the company adopts a low-level bureaucratic culture. Originality/Value The current study contributes to the extant literature by revealing the moderating effects of bureaucratic culture on the relationship between the sense of power and interpersonal deviance, clarifying how, and when employees' sense of power stimulates interpersonal deviance in the Asian context.
... The results show that the VIF value of each model is less than 2, which indicates that the regression results in Table 5 do not have a serious risk of collinearity. Furthermore, the study followed Aiken et al. (1991) and standardized our independent and moderating variables in the regression models. ...
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From the environmental sustainability perspective, scholars have considered corporate social responsibility activities as an essential mechanism for enhancing enterprise performance and innovation outcomes. However, how and under what conditions corporate social responsibility activities influence green innovation performance in emerging economies is still unclear. From the perspective of the theory of planned behavior, we construct a theoretical model to assess how corporate social responsibility activities affect enterprises’ green innovation performance. Explicitly, we investigate the mediating and moderating effects of managerial environmental concern and green absorptive capacity on the relationship between corporate social responsibility activities and enterprises’ green innovation performance. This research relies on a sample of 358 enterprises from the manufacturing and service sectors in China, and uses regression analysis and bootstrap to test the hypotheses proposed. The empirical results demonstrate that (1) corporate social responsibility activities positively enhance enterprises’ green innovation performance; (2) corporate social responsibility activities have a positive influence on managerial environmental concern; (3) managerial environmental concern has a mediating role between corporate social responsibility activities and green innovation performance; (4) managerial environmental concern has a powerful influence on green innovation performance; (5) green absorptive capacity positively moderates the association between managerial environmental concern and green innovation performance. This research work proposes that managerial environmental concern and green absorptive capacity play a mediating and moderating function on the linkage amongst corporate social responsibility activities and green innovation performance.
... Thus, H1 was confirmed. To test H2 regarding the moderating role of ALT in the effect of BE on PWOM, we created an interaction term ALT × BE after mean-centering ALT and BE to avoid multicollinearity issues (Aiken et al., 1991). As the effect of the interaction term on PWOM was positive and significant (model 3: β = .24, ...
Article
Prior research offers little guidance on how competence-based brand factors can help transmitting positive word of mouth (PWOM). Building upon signaling theory, we propose that a brand’s efforts into innovativeness reinforce the message that “we have the competence to deliver what promised,” which in turn generates PWOM. We collected longitudinal survey data using two measurement waves with a 4 week interval among respondents from an online customer panel. The results indicate that brand innovativeness has an indirect positive relationship with PWOM, mediated by perceived brand expertise. We also find that altruism positively moderates the relationship between perceived brand expertise and PWOM. The theoretical contributions and managerial implications are also discussed.
... Figure 2 shows the interaction effect, which we displayed to make it easier to understand. Job crafting was measured using basic slopes tests (i.e., + 1 and − 1 SD from the mean; Aiken et al., 1991). Our findings demonstrated a significant link between POQ and job boredom when an employee's job crafting was high (simple slope = 0.94, SE = 0.1995, p < 0.000); as compare to when it was low (simple slope = 0.16, SE = 0.2039, p > 0.005). ...
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... The paper examined the hypothesis of moderators by the mean centering. This technique is introduced by previous researchers like Aiken et al. (1991) and Cohen et al. (2003). This is a collaborative method, determining which variables are used in the suggested model from previous models based on the three following equations of regression: ...
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... Figure 2 shows the interaction effect, which we displayed to make it easier to understand. Leader motivational language was measured using basic slopes tests (i.e., + 1 and -1 SD from the mean) (Aiken et al., 1991). Our findings demonstrated a favorable and substantial link between the professional identity and critical thinking when a leader motivational language was high (simple slope = 0.87, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.7745, 1.0653); as compare to when it is low (simple slope = 0.69, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.6441, 0.8466). ...
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... Model 1 of Process Macro by Hayes was used to test the moderation hypothesis. On Aiken et al. (1991) recommendation, the moderator and independent variables were mean-centered. ...
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... In the first step, we entered the two covariates (sex and the mothers' education level); in the next step, the two temperament scores and Bookstart; in the third step, the interactions between the two temperament scores and Bookstart. The two temperament scores, compliant and reactive, were meancentered (Aiken, West, & Reno, 1991). ...
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... On the contrary, the results show the political ties weaken the relationship between ESCR and green shared vision. As per Aiken et al. (1991) suggestions, the present study plotted two figures to demonstrate the moderation effects of business ties and political ties between ESCR and the green shared vision relationship. By adding or subtracting a standard deviation of the average values, we get high and low values for both moderators, i.e., business ties and political ties. ...
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... Type of research: Quantitative Type of article: Theoretical/conceptual study 23 193 Aiken [53] The structure, test, and interpretation of multiple regression models are discussed. ...
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... Thus, Hypothesis 4 is supported. We adopted the methods proposed by Aiken and West (1991) to clearly demonstrate the moderating effect of a team proactive personality. We drew the moderating effect diagram in accordance with the mean standard deviation of team proactive personality. ...
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Drawing on the perspective of causal reasoning and the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, this study explores the mechanisms underlying the association between exposure to exploitative leadership and employee workplace deviance. The results of a time-lagged survey conducted in China reveal that exposure to exploitative leadership can evoke a moral justification process that leads to increased employee organizational and interpersonal deviance. A tendency toward hostile attribution bias reinforces the direct link between exploitative leadership and moral justification and the indirect effects of exploitative leadership on employee organizational and interpersonal deviance, via moral justification. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed and potential directions for future studies are proposed.
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Peer tutoring in STEM has risen in popularity in the past several years and has been proposed as one method of reducing gender disparities in STEM outcomes. Yet, the ways in which students and peer tutors engage with each other remain largely unexplored. In this study, we employed a multi-method approach to investigate whether students’ and tutors’ engagement behaviors and affective experiences during peer tutoring interactions in STEM fields differed by gender. Sixty unacquainted undergraduate college students formed student-tutor pairs and participated in videotaped thirty-minute tutoring sessions in the lab, all of which covered STEM topics (Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics, Mathematics, and Physics). We found no consistent gender differences across three measures of behavioral engagement: men and women talked for a similar amount of time, they did not differ in four of five types of questions asked (i.e., “clarification” and “knowledge” questions for tutors, and “feedback” and “more information” questions for students), and they were perceived as equally engaged by outside coders. One behavioral difference emerged: men students asked more “repeat” questions than women students. In contrast, consistent gender differences across four measures of affective experiences were found: women reported more anxiety and less confidence relative to men, they were perceived as less confident by outside coders relative to men, and women tutors evaluated their own performance less positively than men tutors. These findings suggest that despite being similarly engaged as men in peer tutoring interactions, women face psychological barriers in this context that may inhibit them from pursuing advanced degrees or careers in STEM.
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The objective behind the study is to investigate the impact of consumer traits, situational factors and variety seeking behaviour on impulsive buying. The study has also investigated the role of credit card and the sales promotions on the relationship. The study has used the primary data which was collected through questionnaire by using convenient sampling technique. The study was conducted in areas of Lahore and Faisalabad and contacted 281 respondents. In this study, the descriptive statistics were measured by using SPSS and for measuring other variables by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied for data analysis by using AMOS. The study concluded that consumer traits, situational factors and variety seeking behaviour have positive relationship with impulsive buying. The role of credit card usage and sales promotion also showed positive impact on impulsive buying and acted as moderators on the relationship. The study will assist to marketing managers and other business strategy makers regarding the effective usage of sales promotions and credit card. This research work contributes socially for providing the ease in shopping, promotes clean environment, caters entertainment and quenches the thirst of shopping, but also tries to deliver ease in payment or transaction process.
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Drawing on job demands-resources theory, we propose that perceived red tape, as a hindrance job demand, triggers attitudinal and behavioral precursors of turnover in employees (turnover intentions and job search behaviors) by reducing their work engagement. In addition, we hypothesize that career adaptability, as a personal resource, buffers the detrimental effects of perceived red tape. In Study 1, three-wave data collected from employees ( N = 202) working in Tanzanian public sector organizations supports the finding that work engagement mediates the effect of red tape on turnover intentions. Study 2 confirms this mediation, using data ( N = 405) collected at three time points from a Chinese private organization, further verifying the mediating role of work engagement in the effect of red tape on job search behaviors. Supporting the moderating role of career adaptability, Study 2 also found that career adaptability attenuated the influence of red tape on work engagement and, subsequently, on turnover intentions and job search behaviors. Our article theoretically and empirically contributes to the understanding of how and when perceived red tape in organizations leads employees to consider leaving and prepare to leave.
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The study explores the relationship between gender diversity board (GDB) and earnings management (EM) with state-ownership (SOE) and firm growth as moderating factors. Based on the data of 404 Vietnamese listed firms in 2015–2019, the feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) method and further tests are employed to confirm the results. Furthermore, this research compares the results of multiple regression analysis (MRA) with a recently developed panel data fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis technique (fsQCA). The findings suggest that women on board (WOB) is negatively related to accrual based earnings management (AEM), while positive relationships are found with the real earnings management (REM) one. Besides, firms have high proportion of SOE reduce the monitoring role of WOB in detering EM. For companies that had the increase in revenue, WOB shows a positive and insignificant relationship to AEM as well as REM, respectively. The fsQCA results highlight the configuration of WOB, SOE, FG, and other board characteristic proxies that lead to the EM’s behavior. In short, the moderating role of SOE and revenue expansion is validated. This study adds to the scholarly literature on accounting and corporate governance (CG) by providing empirical evidence from the context of an emerging market, Vietnam. Keywords: Female directors; fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis; accruals earnings management; real earnings management; state-ownership; firm growth.
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While prior research has shown a relationship between age diversity and outcomes in teams, little knowledge exists regarding the theoretical mechanisms driving these outcomes. Furthermore, mixed findings from prior research indicate that these relationships differ depending upon contextual factors. Our field study tests two potential mediators and one possible moderator of the relationship between age diversity and team performance. Multi-source data collected from 71 Chinese township government leadership groups showed that team age diversity is positively associated with survey measures of two emergent states, specifically, perceived team effectiveness and collective team identification, which in turn positively predict an objective measure of team performance. The fully mediated model was moderated by leader moral identity, which strengthened the relationships between age diversity and both team emergent states. Results also showed a curvilinear relationship between age diversity and the two team emergent states which was not significantly moderated by leader moral identity. These findings contribute to extant knowledge from an integrative approach within a non-Western cultural context. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Prior studies commonly argued that inclusive leadership is of considerable benefit to employees but rarely discussed its potential downsides. To address this issue, this study explores why and when inclusive leadership promotes and inhibits employee presenteeism. Based on sample data of 373 employees from three manufacturing enterprises in China, the empirical results show that inclusive leadership may reduce employee presenteeism by enhancing their psychological safety on the one hand and fostering it by promoting their felt obligation on the other hand. In addition, power distance orientation negatively moderates the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee’s felt obligation. The study also finds that power distance orientation moderates the indirect effect of felt obligation in the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee presenteeism, such that the indirect effect of felt obligation is significant only when power distance orientation is low. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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The present study pairs narrative meaning‐making with topic modeling to richly capture how girls choose to describe their experiences of change during puberty and to establish how these narratives map onto depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 125 girls; Mage = 11.61 years; 90.40% White) wrote about changes during puberty and reported their level of pubertal development, relationships, and mood. The relationship between meaning‐making and depressive symptoms was negatively moderated by early pubertal timing (d = .31) and positively moderated by more advanced pubertal status (d = .36). Exploratory analyses indicated that writing proportionally more about menstruation‐related changes had a small effect on subsequent depressive symptoms (f2 = .12). Results provide a conceptual and methodological update to decades‐old, landmark qualitative findings on girls' perceptions and assessments of experiences at puberty.
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This chapter describes the field of precision or stratified medicine and the role that clinical trials play in the development and validation of markers, particularly biomarkers, to inform management of patients. We begin by defining various types of biomarker and describe the life cycle of a biomarker in terms of discovery, analytical validation, clinical validation, and clinical utility. We provide a detailed overview of the many types of biomarker-guided trial designs that have been described in the literature and then summarize the analytical methods that are often used for biomarker-guided trials. Much of the research process for biomarker-guided trials does not differ markedly from that used for non-biomarker-guided trials but particular attention must be given to selecting the most appropriate trial design given the research question being investigated and we hope that this chapter helps with decisions on trial design and analysis in the biomarker-guided setting.
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Across adolescence and into young adulthood, as youth experience both normative developmental and stressful life changes, close and supportive relationships are essential for healthy adjustment. Supportive relationships may be especially important for protecting Mexican-origin youth from developing depressive symptoms and engaging in risky behaviors given the emphasis within Mexican culture on close relationships, especially in families. With longitudinal data, we examined the associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, and best friends and their adjustment across adolescence and into young adulthood. Participants were 246 Mexican-origin families with a 7th grader (younger sibling) and at least one older sibling, a mother, and a father at Time 1 (T1). Youth participated in home interviews at T1 and again five (T2) and eight (T3) years later. At T1, younger siblings were 12.55 (SD = .60) and older siblings were 15.48 (SD = 1.57) years old. Findings indicated that, with sibling and friend characteristics in the models, mother and father acceptance and conflict were significantly linked to youth positive and negative adjustment, respectively. Both sibling conflict and, consistent with a “partners in crime” process (Slomkowski et al., 2001; p. 273), sibling intimacy (of younger adolescents only), were linked to risky behavior. Same-gender friend conflict also was linked to risky behavior, but neither sibling nor friend relationships were linked to depressive symptoms. Some relationship effects were moderated by gender and age. Together, our findings have implications for programs aimed at preventing adjustment problems.
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Many studies have established that there are important life‐long benefits of attending pre‐K. At the same time, recent research suggests that pre‐K attenders may enter and exit kindergarten exhibiting less optimal social and learning behaviours than their non‐attending peers, and little attention has been paid to what factors may contribute to these patterns of development after children enter kindergarten. The current study will address these gaps in knowledge using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2011 to examine the social and learning behaviours of pre‐K attenders and nonattenders at kindergarten entry and exit. Moreover, we will determine the extent to which children's social and behavioural skills change at differential rates across the kindergarten year as a function of pre‐K attendance and their kindergarten classroom experiences, with a focus on the academic rigour, activity settings and teacher‐student relationships.
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China has become one of the leading study abroad destinations worldwide. Recent research also indicates that international students encounter diverse life challenges and mental health issues in China. Therefore, scholars have shown increasing interest in their adjustment in Chinese social and academic settings. Seeking theoretical guidance from the Job Demands-Resources Model with mediation and moderation assumptions, our study aimed to test the dual processes (i.e., the health impairment process and the motivational process) leading to academic, sociocultural, and psychological adjustment, among international students sojourning in China. Using a convenience sampling method, our study recruited 1,001 participants (535 males and 466 females; Mage = 22.73; SD = 1.62) who completed an online survey including scales of perceived cultural distance (contextual demands), social support from local members (contextual resources), coping self-efficacy (personal resources), acculturative stress, intercultural engagement, as well as three types of cross-cultural adjustment (academic, sociocultural, and psychological adjustment). Results based on the structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived cultural distance had indirect relationships with the three types of adjustment through the mediator of acculturative stress. Social support from locals had indirect relationships with the three types of adjustment through the mediators of acculturative stress and intercultural engagement. Coping self-efficacy had indirect relationships with academic and sociocultural adjustment through the mediator of intercultural engagement. Additionally, social support from locals was revealed as a moderator that buffered the relationship between perceived cultural distance and acculturative stress. These mediated and moderated relationships not only confirmed the dual processes underlying international student adjustment, but also added new knowledge of how demands and resources can interplay to predict the dual processes.
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