[Concepts, effectiveness, and perspectives of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines].
For the first time in history, the conditions to influence the course of an influenza pandemic through vaccination were set during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The specific requirements for pandemic vaccines are to be highly immunogenic in immunologically naive individuals and to be producible quickly in large quantities. In contrast, seasonal influenza vaccines induce a booster response and a broadening of preexisting immunity. In this article the concepts of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines and data on their immunogenicity and clinical efficacy are reviewed and discussed. In the upcoming years, seasonal influenza vaccination will continue to be based on inactivated split-virion and subunit vaccines or the live attenuated cold-adapted vaccine. The pandemic vaccines used in 2009 proved to be more immunogenic than expected from prepandemic vaccine trials, while the adverse events observed with AS03-adjuvanted vaccines call their future use into question. However, neither seasonal nor pandemic influenza vaccines can be regarded to be an ideal solution, because they have to be frequently adapted to new virus strains and they lack effectiveness in particular risk groups. They can be regarded as interim approaches to highly immunogenic vaccines that hopefully become available in the future. The underlying principles of future vaccines are also presented in this article.
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