Early Speech-Language Impairment and Risk for Written Language Disorder: A Population-Based Study

*Division of Neurology, Department of Speech Pathology and †Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN ‡Department of Developmental Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA §Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics ‖Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Science Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP (Impact Factor: 2.13). 01/2013; 34(1):38-44. DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e31827ba22a
Source: PubMed


: To compare risk of written language disorder (WLD) in children with and without speech-language impairment (S/LI) from a population-based cohort.
: Subjects included all children born between 1976 and 1982 in Rochester, Minnesota, who remained in the community after age 5 years (n = 5718). Records from public and private schools, medical agencies, and tutoring services were abstracted. S/LI was determined based on eligibility criteria for an individualized education plan. Incident cases of WLD were identified by research criteria using regression-based discrepancy, non-regression-based discrepancy, and low-achievement formulas applied to cognitive and academic achievement tests. Incidence of WLD (with or without reading disorder [RD]) was compared between children with and without S/LI. Associations were summarized using hazard ratios.
: Cumulative incidence of WLD by age 19 years was significantly higher in children with S/LI than in children without S/LI. The magnitude of association between S/LI and WLD with RD was significantly higher for girls than for boys. This was not true for the association between S/LI and WLD without RD.
: Risk for WLD is significantly increased among children with S/LI compared with children without S/LI based on this population-based cohort. Early identification and intervention for children at risk for WLD could potentially influence academic outcomes.

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    • "On the other hand, if RTI is not linked to the nature of an SLD, then failure to respond to whatever intervention is provided fails to provide diagnostic information regarding why the child struggles and how the intervention should be modified to facilitate RTI. Moreover, epidemiological studies conducted by the Mayo Clinic in the US of the incidence of SLDs affecting written language learning, with and without cooccurring ADHD and/or math disabilities, in otherwise typically developing students, have shown that, regardless of definitions used, about 20 % of school age children and youth in the United States probably have some kind of SLD that may interfere with school learning at some time in their education (Katusic et al., 2005; Katusic, Colligan, Barbaresi, Schaid, Jacobsen, 2001; Katusic, Colligan, Weaver, Barbaresi, 2009; Stoeckel et al., 2013; St. Sauver, Katusic, Barbaresi, Colligan, Jacobsen, 2001; Yoshimasu et al., 2011, 2012). Given the frequency with which V. W. Berninger et al. these SLDs occur in the school age population, the overall research goal of the current study, which is part of a larger interdisciplinary programmatic research program on diagnosis and treatment of SLDs during middle childhood and early adolescence, was to use both behavioral and brain data to evaluate potentially converging evidence for differentiating among three of the most prevalent SLDs in school age populations: dysgraphia, dyslexia, and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), also referred to as specific language impairment (SLI). "
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