Characterization of cholecystokinin-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells in the blacktip grouper, Epinephelus fasciatus
Marine and Environmental Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 695-965, South Korea. Tissue and Cell
(Impact Factor: 1.25).
12/2012; 45(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2012.10.005
The characteristics and distributions of cholecystokinin (CCK)-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells were investigated in the digestive tract of the blacktip grouper (Epinephelus fasciatus). CCK-producing cells were scattered throughout the digestive tract. The highest frequency of CCK-producing cells was observed in the anterior intestine portion and pyloric ceca, with a very small number of cells distributed as far as the rectum. Mucus-secreting goblet cells were found to differ remarkably in their regional distributions and relative frequencies. High frequencies of mucus-secreting goblet cells were found in the digestive tract, mainly in the anterior intestine portion and pyloric ceca, but not the esophagus; the frequency decreased slightly toward the rectum. Our result suggests that food digested by gastric acid in the stomach moves on the anterior (including the pyloric ceca) and mid intestine portion, thereby ensuring effective stimulation of the CCK-producing cells. In addition, the distribution pattern of the CCK-producing cells closely resembled that of mucus-secreting goblet cells. In E. fasciatus, CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells seem to be well adapted to promoting optimal control of the digestive process.
Available from: Ana Isabel Valenciano
- "Partial and complete mRNA sequences of CCK have been reported for a number of fish species (Micale et al., 2012). The CCK-like peptides have a widespread distribution within the gastrointestinal tract and the central and peripheral nervous system in both mammalian and non-mammalian species (Volkoff et al., 2005; Hur et al., 2013; Yu and Smagghe, 2014). In fact, two principal sources of CCK are reported in mammals, the endocrine I cells in the duodenal wall that are in contact with the lumen of the intestine, and the peptidergic nerves both in the enteric nervous system and in the central nervous system (Wu et al., 2013). "
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ABSTRACT: Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a key role in digestive physiology of vertebrates. However, very little is known about the role of CCK on intestinal functions in fish. The present study identifies two CCK receptor subtypes in a stomachless teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and investigates by using an in vitro system their involvement mediating the effects of the sulfated octapeptide of CCK (CCK-8S) on motility of isolated proximal intestine. Partial-length mRNAs encoding two CCK receptors isoforms (CCKAR and CCKBR.I) were sequenced and the structural analysis of the sequences showed that both receptors belong to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. Both goldfish CCK receptors sequences were more closely related to zebrafish sequences, sharing the lowest similarities with cavefish and tilapia. The highest expression of goldfish CCKAR was observed along the whole intestine whereas the CCKBR gen was predominantly expressed in hypothalamus, vagal lobe and posterior intestine. Application of CCK-8S to the organ bath evoked a concentration-dependent contractile response in intestine strips. The contractions were not blocked by either tetrodotoxin or atropine, suggesting that CCK-8S acts on gut smooth muscle directly. Preincubations of intestine strips with devazepide and L365,260 (CCKAR and CCKBR receptor selective antagonists) showed that the CCK-8S-induced contraction could be partially mediated by the CCKAR receptor subtype, which is also the most abundant CCK receptor found in gastrointestinal tissues. In conclusion, two CCK receptors with a differential distribution pattern has been identified in goldfish, and the CCKAR subtype is the main involved in the regulation of intestinal motility by the CCK-8S.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Available from: Samad Rahimnejad
- "Two individual fish from each tank (6 per treatment) were euthanized with an overdose of 2-phenoxyethanol. Subsequently, the body cavity was opened and the entire gastrointestinal tract was dissected for histological examination of the anterior intestine for light microscopical analysis . The fragments of anterior intestine were fixed in Bouin's solution, dehydrated in graded ethanol concentrations and embedded in paraffin according to routine procedures. "
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwarsellia tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda and dietary inclusion of the hydrolysates resulted in significant enhancement of survival rate. The results of the current study indicated that the inclusion of the tested protein hydrolysates, particularly SH, in a LFM diet can improve growth performance, feed utilization, digestibility, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Available from: Helene Volkoff
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ABSTRACT: cDNAs encoding the appetite regulating peptides apelin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and orexin were isolated in red-bellied piranha and their mRNA tissue and brain distributions examined. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to that of other Characiforme fish, as well as to Cypriniformes. All peptides were widely expressed within the brain and in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract. In order to assess the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha, we compared the brain mRNA expression levels of these peptides, as well as the gut mRNA expression of CCK and PYY, between fed and 7-day fasted fish. Within the brain, fasting induced a significant increase in both apelin and orexin mRNA expressions and a decrease in CART mRNA expression, but there where were no significant differences for either PYY or CCK brain mRNA expressions between fed and fasted fish. Within the intestine, PYY mRNA expression was lower in fasted fish compared to fed fish but there was no significant difference for CCK intestine mRNA expression between fed and fasted fish. Our results suggest that these peptides, perhaps with the exception of CCK, play a major role in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha.
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