Current work focus on microplastic (MPs) occurrence in the water, sediment, and aquatic species (fish, crab, and snail) of the Buriganga River, Bangladesh, with an ecological risk assessment perspective. It also includes the distribution of MPs in different river ecosystem segments and the presence of heavy metal (loid)s (HMs) in water, sediments, and MPs surface. The MPs were inspected by stereomicroscope to identify the shapes, color, and size, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize polymer types. The samples concentration of four HMs viz., As, Cd, Cr, and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The possible MPs content in water, sediment, fish, crab, and snail were varied from 0.250 to 0.117 MPs/mL, 3.5–8.17 MPs/g, 0.65–3.82 MPs/g, 3.75–4.28 MPs/g, and 0.84–1.12 MPs/g, respectively. Fibers and fragments were the most dominant shape, less than 0.5 mm was dominant in size, and blue was the dominant color. In the evaluation of the chemical composition of MPs in water, sediment, fish, snail, and crab samples, Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE), Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Cellulose acetate (CA), and Nylon were identified. Regarding HMs load, the river demonstrated a highly polluted environment following the abundance pattern Cr > Pb > As>Cd. SEM-EDAX of MPs was conducted to investigate the surface MP's surface and elemental composition. It reveals that the MPs surface has characteristic flakes, cracks, and adhering particles along with Si, K, Au, C, and O on the surface studied MPs. There is no significant relationship found among the ecosystem segments. However, Ompok bimaculatus species show a negative relationship of MPs distribution with water and sediment. Moreover, according to the ecological risk of MPs pollution in the Buriganga River, it was in category-I, indicating pollution load due to the presence of considerable MPs.