Phase II pilot study of oral dasatinib in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who failed conventional therapy
University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, United States.Leukemia research (Impact Factor: 2.35). 12/2012; 37(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2012.11.001
Given evidence for the role of Src family kinases, especially Lyn kinase, in myeloblast proliferation and the in vitro inhibitory activity of dasatinib on Src and Lyn, we conducted a phase II study to assess overall response to 100mg/day dasatinib in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, or acute myeloid leukemia arising from MDS and who had failed prior treatment with azanucleoside analogs. Among 18 patients treated, 3 responded, 4 had stable disease, and 10 experienced disease progression. Toxicities were limited and consistent with previous reports. Dasatinib appears to be safe but with limited efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: After being a neglected and poorly-understood disorder for many years, there has been a recent explosion of data regarding the complex pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). On the therapeutic front, the approval of azacitidine, decitabine, and lenalidomide in the last decade was a major breakthrough. Nonetheless, the responses to these agents are limited and most patients progress within 2years. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only potentially curative therapy, but it is associated with significant toxicity and limited efficacy. Lack or loss of response after standard therapies is associated with dismal outcomes. Many unanswered questions remain regarding the optimal use of current therapies including patient selection, response prediction, therapy sequencing and combinations, and management of resistance. It is hoped that the improved understanding of the underpinnings of the complex mechanisms of pathogenesis will be translated into novel therapeutic approaches and better prognostic/predictive tools that would facilitate accurate risk-adaptive therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Although hypomethylating agents (HMAs) significantly improve outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), only half the patients achieve objective responses, and most responders lose response within 1-2 years. Azacitidine prolongs survival by a median of only 9.5 months. Failure of HMA therapy is associated with a very dismal prognosis. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are clearly needed. The sequential use of the alternative HMA after failure of first line HMA is associated with modest efficacy. The improved understanding of the biologic underpinnings of the disease have opened the door to study investigational agents that target disrupted molecular pathways critical to the pathogenesis of MDS. Combination treatment strategies using an azacitidine backbone are demonstrating promising early results. Expanding the applicability of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), the only curative modality, by reducing toxicity and relapse rates is another area of active research. Sequential switching to the alternative HMA, clinical trials of novel targeted therapies, azacitidine-based combination therapeutic strategies, and improvements in the alloSCT platform are the main directions in improving outcomes of MDS post HMA failure.
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