ArticleLiterature Review
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Abstract

Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet.

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... The size of molar teeth and the robustness of the mandibular and cranium reduced, the shape of incisor teeth altered, jaws and front teeth became stronger. These alterations suggest an increase of more soft foods which requires more tearing and less grinding from the dental apparatus, which suggest the inclusion of meat in the human diet (Eaton et al. 2002;Pereira and Vicente 2013). ...
... The current brain chemistry also supports the human consumption of meat. Brain's communication network is essentially composed by lipids (60%) which, in turn, are rich in long chain fatty acids, namely docosahexaenoic (DHA) (22:6n:3) and arachidonic (AA) (20:4n:6) fatty acids (Pereira and Vicente 2013). DHA and AA, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and other polyunsaturated fat acids (PUFA), perform important roles in human health, such as gene expression modulation and the regulation of the physical properties of membranes (Guesnet and Alessandri 2011). ...
... DHA and AA, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and other polyunsaturated fat acids (PUFA), perform important roles in human health, such as gene expression modulation and the regulation of the physical properties of membranes (Guesnet and Alessandri 2011). PUFA and the respective derivatives can be mainly obtained from animal sources, namely meat and fish (Anderson et al. 1990; Guesnet and Alessandri 2011;Pereira and Vicente 2013). Besides meat, there are also several derived meat products consumed by humans, such as chorizo, salami, sausages, patties, among others. ...
Chapter
In the human diet, meat is an important source of protein, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acids and highly bioavailable iron. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, around 20% of the world’s meat production is lost or wasted, every year. In industrialized countries, especially in the United States and in European countries, these losses mainly occur at the end of the food supply chain, at the retail and consumer levels. The meat and meat products with lower shelf-life periods are usually fresh products with few or no additives at all. These products must be packaged with materials that could delay their natural degradation as much as possible. Active packaging, both releasing/emission and absorption types, are relatively new technologies that could provide longer shelf-life periods for meat and meat products. On the other hand, most of the meat derived products are highly processed, with high levels of synthetic and natural food additives which, according to latest research studies, may represent a concern for human health. Releasing active packages appear as a solution for both cases. In a releasing active package, an active compound with biological activity (e.g. antimicrobial, antioxidant) is incorporated in the package polymer and gradually migrates to the food’ surface where performs its action (e.g. inhibiting microorganisms or delaying the lipid oxidation). In this chapter, a consistent review on the application of releasing active systems to meat products will be carried out, comparing and discussing their main components, methods of production, properties and effectiveness.
... Meat and meat products contain various nutrient compositions, including high-quality protein content, essential amino acids, B-group vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients [3] ideal for the growth and propagation of meat spoilage micro-organisms and common foodborne pathogens. Atmospheric oxygen, temperature, moisture, light, endogenous enzyme activity, and growth of microorganisms determine the quality and shelf life of meat [4] of which the growth of micro-organisms is regarded so far, the most significant factor in maintaining the safety and quality of meat although deteriorations can occur without micro-organisms [5]. ...
... The major principle of meat quality control is to eliminate or reduce microbial deterioration by following Food safety objectives (FSO) and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems. The spoilage of meat and meat products is associated with bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium spp, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacter, etc., as well as molds and yeasts, which can cause outbreaks which severely affect public health and the economy [3,5]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, natural phytochemicals gained much attention due to antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Previously, synthetic preservatives widely used in meat industry to control pathogenic bacterial and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation in order to extend the shelf life and to improve the acceptability of meat and meat products. Due to consumer's awareness and demand and ban on synthetic additives in Europe, demand of plant derived natural products increased. Cinnamon is a wonderful spice that has been used from ancient's time to improve food flavor and sensory and organoleptic characteristics. Due to antioxidant and anti-microbial behavior potential of cinnamon bioactives, the natural antioxidants have been found effective in extending the shelf life and to increase the acceptability of meat by the consumers. Due to non-toxic, natural, residue free and easy availability of natural products make them highly acceptable as food additive and preservative. Cinnamon have been reported precious spice due to various beneficial effects like increased digestive enzymes, appetizer, immune stimulant, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-viral activities. Cinnamon is most widely used spice in poultry industry due to its vital phytochemicals and safe use.
... Owing to their heme iron content, which is higher for beef than pork and poultry, meats are highly valued sources of iron, with an absorption of approximatively 25%, which is not affected by dietary factors, except calcium [10,76,[121][122][123]. Moreover, the presence of heme iron in a meal enhances the nonheme iron absorption from foods consumed at the same time via an unclear mechanism. ...
... Otherwise, an iron-enriched formula must be chosen and used after 1 year and if possible, for up to 3 years [10,22,23,34,64,67,98,[100][101][102][103][104][105]. When solid foods are introduced, the prevention aims primarily to improve the quality of the diet, by favoring natural bioavailable iron-containing foods, especially red meat, poultry, or fish (Table 5), and food rich in vitamin C [10,76,[121][122][123]. The complementary options are to promote the supply of iron-fortified foods [10,82,92,[141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][149][150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159] or biofortified foods [139,[162][163][164][165][166][167][168][169][170] and to delay the introduction of cow's milk at least until after the age of 1 year or even after 2 years [76,82]. ...
Article
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Iron is an essential nutrient, and individual iron status is determined by the regulation of iron absorption, which is driven by iron requirements. Iron deficiency (ID) disproportionately affects infants, children, and adolescents, particularly those who live in areas with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. The main reason for this is that diet provides insufficient bioavailable iron to meet their needs. The consequences of ID include poor immune function and response to vaccination, and moderate ID anemia is associated with depressed neurodevelopment and impaired cognitive and academic performances. The persistently high prevalence of ID worldwide leads to the need for effective measures of ID prevention. The main strategies include the dietary diversification of foods with more bioavailable iron and/or the use of iron-fortified staple foods such as formula or cereals. However, this strategy may be limited due to its cost, especially in low-income countries where biofortification is a promising approach. Another option is iron supplementation. In terms of health policy, the choice between mass and targeted ID prevention depends on local conditions. In any case, this remains a critical public health issue in many countries that must be taken into consideration, especially in children under 5 years of age.
... Meat and meat products contain various nutrient compositions, including high-quality protein content, essential amino acids, B-group vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients [3] ideal for the growth and propagation of meat spoilage micro-organisms and common foodborne pathogens. Atmospheric oxygen, temperature, moisture, light, endogenous enzyme activity, and growth of microorganisms determine the quality and shelf life of meat [4] of which the growth of micro-organisms is regarded so far, the most significant factor in maintaining the safety and quality of meat although deteriorations can occur without micro-organisms [5]. ...
... The major principle of meat quality control is to eliminate or reduce microbial deterioration by following Food safety objectives (FSO) and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems. The spoilage of meat and meat products is associated with bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium spp, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacter, etc., as well as molds and yeasts, which can cause outbreaks which severely affect public health and the economy [3,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, natural phytochemicals gained much attention due to antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Previously, synthetic preservatives widely used in meat industry to control pathogenic bacterial and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation in order to extend the shelf life and to improve the acceptability of meat and meat products. Due to consumer's awareness and demand and ban on synthetic additives in Europe, demand of plant derived natural products increased. Cinnamon is a wonderful spice that has been used from ancient's time to improve food flavor and sensory and organoleptic characteristics. Due to antioxidant and anti-microbial behavior potential of cinnamon bioactives, the natural antioxidants have been found effective in extending the shelf life and to increase the acceptability of meat by the consumers. Due to non-toxic, natural, residue free and easy availability of natural products make them highly acceptable as food additive and preservative. Cinnamon have been reported precious spice due to various beneficial effects like increased digestive enzymes, appetizer, immune stimulant, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-viral activities. Cinnamon is most widely used spice in poultry industry due to its vital phytochemicals and safe use.
... Dietary protein is important for the growth and development of the human brain, especially during the early stages of life (Redoy et al., 2017). Quail products also contribute signi cant dietary amounts of amino acids, namely lysine, threonine, methionine, cysteine and tryptophan (Dowarah, 2013) as well as Omega-6 and Omega-3 essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (Pereira and Vicente, 2013). These polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the risk of developing obesity and its associated metabolic diseases (Marangoni et al., 2015). ...
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Marula nut meal (MNM) can substitute soyabean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in Japanese quail diets without compromising growth performance and egg production. However, MNM has a high residual oil content which may impact metabolic health. The effects of MNM on hepatic lipid content and general, liver and kidney health have not been determined in both broilers and layers. Accordingly, two studies were run. In the broiler study two hundred 9-days old Japanese quail were randomly allocated to five diets wherein MNM replaced SBM on a crude protein (CP) basis at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively, in both grower and finisher diets. In the layer study, sixty 5-weeks old Japanese maiden hens, individually housed, were randomly allocated to five-layer diets where MNM replaced SBM on a graded CP basis as for the broilers and fed for 8 weeks. At study termination the birds were slaughtered, blood collected and plasma harvested. Livers were excised, weighed and liver lipid content determined. Plasma surrogate markers of general health, liver and kidney function were determined. Dietary MNM had no effect (P > 0.05) on liver lipid content as well plasma surrogate markers of general health, liver and kidney function of the broiler quail. Dietary MNM at 75% of SBM CP significantly increased plasma phosphorus concentration of quail hens compared to that of counterparts fed control. Dietary MNM can be used in broiler and layer Japanese quail diets without risking development of fatty livers and compromising liver and kidney function.
... Beef, chicken, and tuna all exhibit high protein, low fat, and low cholesterol levels. The protein content of beef and tuna is as high as 22% and 26%, respectively, while the fat content is only approximately 5% [43][44][45]. In contrast, pork is a fatty meat, with a fat content of approximately 25-30% and a protein content of less than 20%, exhibiting the highest fat content among meats [46]. ...
Article
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Inappropriate and disproportionate antibiotic use contributes immensely to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial species associated with food contamination. Therefore, alternative strategies to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections are urgently needed. In this study, verbascoside was shown to exhibit excellent antibacterial activity and synergistic effects in combination with cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics, indicating that it can be used as an adjuvant to restore or increase the activity of antibiotics against resistant pathogens. In a mechanistic study, higher concentrations of verbascoside resulted in a longer lag phase and a lower specific exponential-phase growth rate of bacteria. Furthermore, verbascoside exerted its antimicrobial activity through multiple mechanisms, including cell membrane dysfunction, biofilm eradication and changes in cell morphology. The promising antibacterial activity and in vitro safety assessment results suggested that verbascoside can be used as a food additive for fresh meat preservation. Treatment with medium and high doses of verbascoside caused significant bacterial death in meat samples, slowed the spoilage rate, and extended the shelf life. Collectively, verbascoside is expected to be useful as an antibiotic adjuvant to prevent or treat resistant bacteria-related infections and an alternative novel antimicrobial additive in the food industry.
... The nutritional profile of meat (on average consisting of 75% water, 19% protein, 2.5% fat, 1.2% carbohydrates and 1.65% nitrogen compounds [45]) is heavily influenced by the species, feeding regimen, cut and cooking techniques utilized [46]. ...
Article
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Physical activity (PA) and sport play an essential role in promoting body development and maintaining optimal health status both in the short and long term. Despite the benefits, a long-lasting heavy training can promote several detrimental physiological changes, including transitory immune system malfunction, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress, which manifest as exercise-induced muscle damages (EIMDs). Meat and derived products represent a very good source of bioactive molecules such as proteins, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive molecules represent dietary compounds that can interact with one or more components of live tissue, resulting in a wide range of possible health consequences such as immune-modulating, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and antioxidative activities. The health benefits of meat have been well established and have been extensively reviewed elsewhere, although a growing number of studies found a significant positive effect of meat molecules on exercise performance and recovery of muscle function. Based on the limited research, meat could be an effective post-exercise food that results in favorable muscle protein synthesis and metabolic performance.
... Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B 12 and other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. In fact, the elimination of meat from the diet could increase the risk of severe nutritional deficiencies and impair human health and nutritional status [31]. Moreover, pork has a favorable balance between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA), and our data were in agreement with these authors. ...
Article
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An investigation was carried out on the effect in pig diet of supplementation with exhausted bergamot by-product, stemming from pharmaceutical industry after extraction of phenolic compounds, on growth performance and on the quality of meat and meat products. Twenty pigs were assigned to two dietary treatments and fed a conventional concentrate (control) or a concentrate including exhausted bergamot by-product at the level of 15% on a DM basis (EB). No significant differences between dietary treatments were found for final weight (p = 0.243), carcass weight (p = 0.679), dry matter intake (p = 0.321). In EB pork, the proportion of docosapentaenoic acid was significantly increased (p < 0.05); it tended to have a greater proportion of n-3 PUFA (p = 0.09), and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was lower in EB treatment (p = 0.01). In salami from EB pigs fed, the proportion of α-linolenic acid and the total n-3 PUFA were higher than in the control group (p < 0.001). In salami, the TBARS value was lower after 5 days of storage (p < 0.001) in the EB group. Therefore, the present results suggest that the inclusion of exhausted bergamot by-product in pig diet resulted in a qualitative improvement of meat and meat products.
... It is well known that beef and meat products are an important source of protein, fat, vitamins, trace minerals, and other nutrients with significant health benefits (Pereira and Vicente, 2013). However, some beef product characteristics might not be attractive, like the dark color and strong flavour, resulting in unacceptability for the consumers. ...
... This leads to environmental and ethical concerns. Still, as a food product, meat is a condensed source of high biological value proteins and other nutrients, among them easily absorbed heme iron, zinc, vitamin B1, B12, niacin [13][14][15]. However, it also naturally contains saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, the consumption of which should be limited due to the fact that many studies indicate them as risk factors for heart diseases [16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Reducing the consumption of meat constitutes an important part of the global shift towards more sustainable food systems. At the same time, meat is firmly established in the food culture of most human beings, and better understanding of individual behaviors is essential to facilitate a durable change in contemporary eating patterns. To determine the level and nature of attachment to meat among consumers, the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ) in relation to the phases of behaviour change in the meat consumption reduction process was utilised. Data collected through a survey carried out among Poles aged 25–40 years living in cities were analysed with the use of Spearman’s correlations and one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc tests. The biggest share of the studied group of millennials (N = 317) never considered reducing their meat consumption (Phase 1–41%) and was described by the highest level of MAQ score in all its categories: hedonism, affinity, dependence, and entitlement. More than half of the respondents in Phase 2 participants (“planners”) declared a willingness to cut down meat consumption but had not yet put their intentions into practice. Respondents qualified in Phase 3 declared the highest willingness to reduce meat consumption and were significantly less attached to meat regarding all MAQ categories than respondents in Phase 1. The 9% of the study participants (Phase 4) had already limited the frequency of their meat consumption to “several times a week”, this however still remains insufficient compared to the ambitious goals of sustainable healthy diets. Results indicated that meat attachment categories, especially hedonism and dependence, were identified as predictors of willingness to reduce meat consumption. Research exploring the determinants of change and possibilities of effective communication about meat reduction on an individual level in different cultural settings are needed.
... Meat has a relevant role in the human diet as it provides important nutrients, such as high-value proteins, vitamins, minerals, and essential FAs (Schmid, 2010;Pereira & Vicente, 2013). Porcine fat depots and their FA composition influence pork technological quality and its sensory attributes such as tenderness, juiciness, and aroma (Wood et al., 2008). ...
Article
This study was conceived to evaluate the variations between backfat (BF) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscle fatty acid (FA) composition in 789 heavy pigs and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations and the heritability values of these variations. Most FAs showed a common genetic basis controlling their proportion in SM muscle and BF, while the n-6/n-3 ratio, α-linolenic and erucic acids displayed a genetic control more oriented towards tissue-specific molecular pathways. All variations between the FA composition of BF and SM muscle showed low-to-medium heritability values, suggesting that there are also genetic mechanisms capable of differentiating the deposition of FAs in BF from those in SM muscle. This result implies that a better knowledge of the genes differentiating the FA composition of BF and SM muscle could provide new tools allowing to select, in a partially independent manner, the FA composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat.
... Meat has been and is an indispensable product of the human diet, both as a food in itself, and as an essential ingredient in many other foods, due to its chemical composition and valuable biological value [1][2][3]. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the world production of beef in 2021 increased by 4.8 million tons compared to the level of 2012, which amounted to 6.8%. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the dry-aging method on the sensory properties, chemical composition, and profile parameters of the texture of beef obtained from local farms. The qualitative characteristics of the beef were investigated for five samples, respectively, fresh meat, and dry-aged beef for 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, in aging rooms with controlled parameters: temperature (1 ± 1 °C), relative humidity (80 ± 5%), and air circulation speed (0.5–2 m/s). During the dry-aging period, there was a decrease in humidity by about 6.5% in the first 21 days, which allowed the concentration of fat, protein, and total collagen content. The dry-aging process considerably influenced the pH value of the meat, which, in the second part of the dry-aging process (14–35 days), increased from 5.49 to 5.66. These values favored the increase by 37.33% of the water retention capacity and the activation of the meat’s own enzymes (calpain, cathepsin, collagenase). This influenced the solubilization process of proteins and collagen, thus contributing to the improvement of the texture profile. Because variations in organoleptic and physicochemical parameters occurred simultaneously during dry-aging and storage, the method of analyzing the information was applied. Mutual information on the influence of physicochemical indicators on the texture profile parameters was followed, a factor of major importance in the consumer’s perception. The degree of influence of soluble proteins, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, fats, and soluble collagen content on the texture profile parameters (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness) of the dry-aged beef for 35 days was established. These investigations allowed the optimization of the beef dry-aging technological process in order to obtain a product with a sensory profile preferred by the consumer.
... The proteins from animal-based food sources may have better effects on gut microbiota compared to plant-based food sources due to the higher protein digestibility of animal proteins and the fact that the digestion of plant proteins may be limited by the presence of antinutritional factors found in plants [67]. Animal proteins have more balanced essential amino acids than plant proteins [68,69] and are thus considered higher quality protein. ...
... The proteins from animal-based food sources may have better effects on gut microbiota compared to plant-based food sources due to the higher protein digestibility of animal proteins and the fact that the digestion of plant proteins may be limited by the presence of antinutritional factors found in plants [67]. Animal proteins have more balanced essential amino acids than plant proteins [68,69] and are thus considered higher quality protein. ...
Article
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The effect of diet on the composition of gut microbiota and the consequent impact on disease risk have been of expanding interest. The present review focuses on current insights of changes associated with dietary protein-induced gut microbial populations and examines their potential roles in the metabolism, health, and disease of animals. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol was used, and 29 highly relevant articles were obtained, which included 6 mouse studies, 7 pig studies, 15 rat studies, and 1 in vitro study. Analysis of these studies indicated that several factors, such as protein source, protein content, dietary composition (such as carbohydrate content), glycation of protein, processing factors, and protein oxidation, affect the digestibility and bioavailability of dietary proteins. These factors can influence protein fermentation, absorption, and functional properties in the gut and, consequently, impact the composition of gut microbiota and affect human health. While gut microbiota can release metabolites that can affect host physiology either positively or negatively, the selection of quality of protein and suitable food processing conditions are important to have a positive effect of dietary protein on gut microbiota and human health.
... The quality and availability of protein contained in meat is further improved through heating and this has been found to be directly correlated to the increased cognitive ability of man, making the species successful. High level of B complex vitamins especially vitamin B12 and folic acid are also found in meat (Pereira and Vicente, 2013;Biesalski, 2005;Klurfeld, 2015;(Muchenje et al., 2018;(Fenech, 2012). ...
... It is known that a good source of protein is poultry meat, which is also more affordable in terms of price (Tan, de Kock, Dykes, Coorey & Buys, 2018). On the other hand, pork meat has the highest fat content compared to chicken meat (Pereira & Vicente, 2013). In addition, some religious restrictions (amongst communities of religious Muslims and Jews) have a problem with pork meat and its products' consumptions (Yayla & Ekinci Dogan, 2021). ...
Article
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This work has aimed to create a PCR test to identify avian and mammalian DNA in meat products. The test is based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of four major groups of Tetrapod: Amphibia, Reptilia, Mammalia, and Aves. 18S rDNA complete coding sequences from GenBank have been used for phylogenetic analysis by the Maximum Likelihood method. The alignment of these 18S rDNA sequences has been used for PCR primers modeling. We have received the following PCR fragment for these primers: for birds – 97 base pairs (bp), and for mammals − 134 bp. The difference between them in 37 bp is sufficient for separating these fragments in standard agarose gel. We have tested this PCR to identify avian or mammalian DNA in sausage products and confirmed the suitability of this test for avian (chicken) and mammalian (sheep, cows) meat identification and meat identification in sausage products.
... Traditionally meat is a very important source of essential amino acids in the human diet [21]. Ma et al. [22] mentioned in their review that glutamic acid characterises the flavour of pork; however, histidine, arginine, methionine, valine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine produced more bitter flavours, while alanine, serine, threonine, glycine, lysine, proline, and hydroxyproline produced sweeter flavours. ...
Article
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Lactobionic acid is an innovative product obtained in the fermentation process of cheese or curd whey, and it has several beneficial properties. Therefore, it may have potential application in animal feeding. Currently, lactobionic acid is not widely used yet in feeding farm animals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of lactobionic acid (LBA) on pig growth performance and pork quality. Two groups of pigs (control and trial, 26 piglets each) were completed. The control group received compound feed, whereas the trial group's feed was supplemented with LBA (0.17 kg per 100 kg of feed). Carcass weight and meat pH were determined. The subcutaneous fat layer S (mm) was measured. Lean meat content was determined using the SEUROP classification. Amino acids and fatty acids in pork were evaluated. The addition of LBA to pig feed significantly increased the live weight gain and slaughter yield of pigs, but the samples had a slightly thicker backfat layer. Results obtained showed higher concentration of amino acids in the trial group but slightly lower pork fat quality in the same group. Lactobionic acid has the potential for applications in pig feeding.
... In addition, high protein diets are beneficial in reducing body weight and fat, but it is unclear whether the effect is influenced by protein sources [14,15]. Some studies [16,17] have reported that meat proteins are highquality protein sources for body growth and health maintenance, with a higher proportion of essential amino acids (EAAs) and better absorption and utilization effects than plant proteins [18][19][20]. Amino acid contents of proteins fluctuate between sources, resulting in diverse impacts on physiology, metabolism, gene, and protein expression [21]. ...
Article
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In this study, an obese C57BL/6J mice model was induced to compare the effect of different high protein diets (soybean protein and pork protein) on obesity. The obese mice were randomly divided into four groups: natural recovery (NR), high-fat diet (HF), high soybean protein diet (HSP), and high pork protein diet (HPP) groups. After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, the obesity-related indexes of mice were measured, such as body weight, fat coefficients, blood lipid indexes and so on. Results showed that HSP and HPP decreased the weight and fat coefficients of mice, the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and leptin (p < 0.05). Soybean protein was shown to be more effective in reducing the weight and fat mass of obese mice, although pork protein seemed to have a better effect on regulating serum triglyceride (TG). In addition, the two high protein diets both alleviated hepatic fat deposition effectively. Furthermore, HPP and HSP decreased the expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the protein expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the study shows that high protein diets based on both pork protein and soybean protein alleviated abdominal obesity in mice effectively by regulating lipid metabolism, probably via the UCP2-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway.
... 3 : BPO was calculated as a proportion of the LMY. Previous studies [128,129] have reported that beef contains an average of 21% protein. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to see how dietary supplementation with essential oils (EOs) affected rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance and meat quality of beef cattle through a meta-analysis. In addition, a simulation analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of EOs on the economic and environmental impact of beef production. Data were extracted from 34 peer-reviewed studies and analyzed using random-effects statistical models to assess the weighted mean difference (WMD) between control and EOs treatments. Dietary supple-mentation of EOs increased (p < 0.01) dry matter intake (WMD = 0.209 kg/d), final body weight (WMD = 12.843 kg), daily weight gain (WMD = 0.087 kg/d), feed efficiency (WMD = 0.004 kg/kg), hot carcass weight (WMD = 5.45 kg), and Longissimus dorsi muscle area (WMD = 3.48 cm 2). Lower (p < 0.05) ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen (WMD = −1.18 mg/dL), acetate (WMD = −4.37 mol/100 mol) and total protozoa (WMD = −2.17 × 10 5 /mL), and higher concentration of propionate (WMD = 0.878 mol/100 mol, p < 0.001) were observed in response to EOs supplementation. Serum urea concentration (WMD = −1.35 mg/dL, p = 0.026) and haptoglobin (WMD = −39.67 μg/mL, p = 0.031) were lower in cattle supplemented with EOs. In meat, EOs supplementation reduced (p < 0.001) cooking loss (WMD = −61.765 g/kg), shear force (WMD = −0.211 kgf/cm 2), and malondialde-hyde content (WMD = −0.040 mg/kg), but did not affect pH, color (L* a* and b*), or chemical composition (p > 0.05). Simulation analysis showed that EOs increased economic income by 1.44% and reduced the environmental footprint by 0.83%. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of EOs improves productive performance and rumen fermentation, while increasing the economic profitability and reducing the environmental impact of beef cattle. In addition, supplementation with EOs improves beef tenderness and oxidative stability.
... Meat and meat products represent an important part of the human diet, being rich in protein, vitamins, mineral elements, and other nutrients [1]. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported that the global meat production by 2025 is anticipated to be 356 million tons, 16% higher than the baseline period (2013)(2014)(2015), and is expected to increase to 470 million tons by 2050 [2]. ...
Article
Previous studies have evaluated pork quality by omics methods. However, proteomics coupled with metabolomics to investigate pork freshness by using pork exudates has not been reported. This study determined the changes in the profiles of peptides and metabolites in exudates from pork stored at different temperatures (25, 10, 4, and -2 °C). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed similar changes in profiles in exudates collected from pork stored at -2 and 4 °C, and additional changes following storage at higher temperatures. We identified peptides from 7 proteins and 30 metabolites differing in abundance between fresh and spoiled pork. Significant correlations between pork quality and most of the peptides from these 7 proteins and 30 metabolites were found. The present study provides insight into changes in the peptide and metabolite profiles of exudates from pork during storage at different temperatures, and our analysis suggests that such changes can be used as markers of pork spoilage.
... Meat ranks among one of the most significant, nutritious and energy-rich natural food product, utilized by the humans to fulfill their regular body requirements (Pereira and Vicente, 2013). Despite high nutritional value of meat, it ranks among the high perishable food material, as it contain around more than 70% of moisture in it. ...
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Meat is highly vulnerable to pathogens as well as it is very sensitive to contamination during handling. Therefore, in order to provide a safe product to the consumer, these meats must be sterilized. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ozone treatment (0.5 ppm/ 20 minutes) at 4 °C on the sensory attributes of untreated and treated retail meat samples. A total of 50 samples of retail meat encompassing [chicken quarters (n=30) and cattle meat (n= 20)],were obtained at random from different markets of Wasit governorate. An ozone generator (A2Z/AQUA-6, USA) was used to produce ozone, CHE-Mets ®-Kit, USA, was used to assess its concentration (ppm) in water. Ozone treated samples revealed an enhancement in the meat quality characteristics including surface color, odor and consumer acceptability as compared to control. Our results suggested that ozone treatment could be used as the foundation for a new and healthy method of sanitizing meat and meat products at slaughterhouses, as well as before cooking in homes and restaurants.
... Meat is a valuable source of protein of high biological value, as well as iron, vitamin B 12 and other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, always a matter of concern in the case of meat consumption, are highly dependent on the animal species, feeding system, and cut of meat (Pereira & Vicente, 2013). In some countries red meat has been viewed negatively in recent decades due to its potential carcinogenic effect, leading to efforts to reduce its consumption (Sobral, Cunha, Faria, & Ferreira, 2018). ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the effect of methods of heat treatment on selected quality parameters of longissimus thoracis muscle of Limousin calves, subjected to grilling, steaming, and sous vide cooking. The type of heat treatment did not significantly affect shear force or water activity. Cooking loss in the grilled and steamed meat was significantly higher than in the sous vide. While the content of vitamin E was significantly lower in the cooked meat, it was retained to the greatest degree in the grilled meat and least in the steamed meat. The TBARS index significantly increased during all cooking methods with the highest level in steamed meat. The sensory analysis revealed a preference for the sous vide and grilled meat, while the steamed meat received the lowest scores. Although veal is commonly assumed to be highly nutritious and palatable, its quality can be significantly influenced by the type of heat treatment.
... Rabbit meat is often popular with consumers mainly for its high-quality protein, which shows a higher digestibility value compared to other meats such as beef or pork [7,8]. The quality of meat proteins is affected by various factors and complex interactions among the biological traits of an animal [9,10]. ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the sire genotype, sex and carcass part on the composition of the meat of rabbits, which were fattened under conditions where no synthetic drugs were used. As for carcass parts, the higher content of both total amino acids (AA) and all essential AA (EAA) monitored was found in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle as compared to hind leg meat (p ˂ 0.001). Significant effects of the rabbit sire genotype and the genotype x sex interaction on proportions of some AA in meat were found (p ˂ 0.001). Crossbreeding of the Mecklenburger Schecke (MS) sires with a commercial dam line of HYLA rabbits resulted in a lower proportion of the total AA and all EAA monitored in meats of MS sired males as compared to MS sired females and HYLA rabbits (p ˂ 0.05). The sex-related effect on AA profile was not so noticeable in final commercial crossbreds of HYLA rabbits when compared to MS sired progeny. These findings point to a possible risk of alterations in the nutritional quality of meat proteins when using different rabbit sire genotypes than those originally intended for the specific commercial crossbreeding scheme. However, on the contrary, higher contents of magnesium (p ˂ 0.05), manganese (p ˂ 0.001) and zinc (p ˂ 0.05) were found in meats of MS sired progeny as compared to HYLA rabbits.
... In addition, excessive fat is the main source of waste in the slaughterhouse and an important factor increasing costs (Tůmová and Teimouri, 2010). However, fat deposition and fatty acid composition in muscles contribute to attributes of meat quality, including juiciness, flavor, tenderness and other organoleptic properties (Wood, 1990;Wood et al., 1999;Jeremiah et al., 2003;Williams, 2007;Pereira and Vicente, 2013). Although the presence of fat in the muscle and skin confers high eating quality, and meat provides essential fatty acids and other nutrients for humans, there is an increased demand for high-quality meat consumption that is conducive to human and animal health and well-being, with the implication of a reduction in fat deposition in poultry (Wood et al., 2008;Del Gobbo et al., 2016;Forouhi et al., 2018). ...
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Increasing evidence indicates that fetal programming may cause permanent effects on offspring adipose tissue and body composition. Previous study showed reduction in newly-hatched broiler chick adiposity by manipulating incubation temperature during fetal development. The present study examined whether incubation temperature during fetal development has long-term effects on post-hatching fat deposition in broilers. Broiler breeder eggs (Cobb-500®) were incubated under constant low (36°C, LT), control (37.5°C, CT) or high (39°C, HT) temperature from day 13 onward, giving to eggshell temperature of 37.3 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.2°C, and 38.8 ± 0.3°C, respectively. Male chicks were reared under recommended temperatures until 42 days old. LT 21 days old broilers exhibited higher blood cholesterol than CT broilers, and higher triglycerids, VLDL, and LDL, and lower HDL than CT and HT broilers. LT broilers presented higher liver cholesterol than CT broilers and lower ether extract percentage than CT broilers. Adipocyte count was lower in the abdomen than in the thigh. Until day 21 of age, feed intake was higher in LT than in HT broilers. At day 42 of age, blood cholesterol and LDL were higher in HT broilers than in CT and LT broilers. Liver cholesterol was higher in LT than in HT broilers. LT treatment reduced neck and increased thigh adipocyte size compared to CT treatment, while the HT treatment reduced abdomen and neck adipocyte size compared to other two treatments and in the thigh compared to LT treatment. In CT broilers, thigh adipocytes were smaller than abdomen and neck adipocytes. HT treatment increased adipocyte number per area in the neck compared to LT and CT treatment, and LT and HT treatments reduced adipocyte count in the thigh compared to CT treatment. CT broilers presented higher adipocyte count in the thigh than the abdomen and neck, while HT broilers presented higher adipocyte count in the neck than the abdomen and thigh. Cell proliferation was lower in the abdomen than in the thigh. The results show incubation temperature manipulation during fetal development has long-term and distinct effects on regional adiposity, and can be used to modulate broiler fat deposition.
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Oxidation is a major cause of meat quality deterioration during broiler production, leads to the undesirable meat color, impaired water holding capacity (WHC) and thereby impacting consumer appeal and satisfaction....
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The exhaustion of ready-to-eat (RTE) products, have become growingly popular over recent years. In the United States, for example, 82.6% of consumers frequently eat fast food in restaurants at least once a week. Frozen storage is easiest way to preserve food from the negative impact of temperature, so It is included thorough evaluation of the quality parameters. In general, a reasonable temperature to store food is -18 °C for most frozen foods, and this will keep the quality in commercial storage meat products, in specially, the very popular meat products and widely consumed world wide. Meat and Its products are essential component for human nutrition. They compose of proteins, vitamins and minerals, as well as vital fatty acids. Meat is necessary to meet all of the dietary requirements, on the other hand, they are subjected to degrading processes, such as microbial deterioration, oxidative processes which are the most important among them. Oxidative processes cause oxidation of lipids, pigments, proteins and vitamins. Furthermore, there is a nutritional loss that leads to produce hazardous compounds, therefore the meat industry’s control of oxidative processes is requisite. The purpose of this study is to determine the significant alterations that happening in frozen meat products quality.
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Duck meat is known for its taste and high nutritive value. To preserve local genetic diversity while maintaining commercial viability, we obtained a crossbreed (CB) between high-performing Cherry Valley (CV) and traditional Chinese crested (CC) ducks. We compared carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of CB and parental breeds. Meat from the above ducks at their respective marketable ages was evaluated for proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and selected mineral content. The live weights, carcass weights, and breast muscle percentage of CB were higher than CC but lower than CV; the leg muscle of CB was lower than CV and CC. CB had higher intramuscular fat content than CV; its collagen content was lower than CC but higher than CV in breast and thigh muscles. Additionally, the saturated fatty acid content of CB muscle was lower than CV and higher than CC. CB contained more monounsaturated fatty acids than CV and CC. Zn content was higher in CB breast than CV and CC. CB, obtained by crossing CV and CC, has partial advantages over both the breeds suggesting that these characteristics aligned with standards to breed ducks with high-quality meat.
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An innovative amperometric immunosensor has been developed to detect antibiotic colistin from the chicken liver. Colistin is a antibacterial peptide that has been barred for human consumption, but it is being commonly used as a veterinary drug, and as a feed additive for livestock. In the present work, an immunosensor was developed by immobilizing an anti-colistin Ab onto the CNF/AuNPs surface of the screen-printed electrode. The sensor records electrochemical response in the chicken liver spiked with colistin with CV. Additionally, the characterization of electrode surface was done with FE-SEM, FTIR, and EIS at each step of fabrication. The lower LOD was 0.89 μgKg −1 , with a R 2 of 0.901 using CV. Further validation of the immunosensor was conducted using commercial chicken liver samples, by comparing the results to those obtained using traditional methods. The fabricated immunosensor showed high specificity towards colistin, which remained stable for 6 months but with a 13% loss in the initial CV current.
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The current study aimed to evaluate the fatty acids (FAs) profile of five different locations in pure Lori-Bakhtiari (LL genotype) fat-tailed sheep and their crosses (RL genotype) with the Romanov-tailed breed. After slaughtering, samples were collected from longissimus thoracis (LT) and semi-membranous (SM) as muscle, and fat-tail (FT), subcutaneous (SC), and abdominal (AB) fat as adipose tissues. After extracting the ether extract of samples according to the recommendations by the AOAC, the fatty acid composition of the samples was determined using gas chromatography. The main FAs were C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 for all locations. These FAs accounted for about 80-88% and 85-90% of the total FAs in muscle and adipose tissues, respectively. The results showed that for many of the FAs in muscle tissues, there were no significant differences between the LL and RL genotypes; However, the genotypes had a significant difference in proportions of C14, C16:1, C18:0, C18:3, C20:0, and C20:1 (P<0.05) in all locations, as the LL genotype had lower C18:0 and C20:0 than the RL genotype. Genotypes did not show significant differences in classic ratios and health indices in muscle tissues and AB fat; While in FT and SC tissues, the genotypes had significant differences regarding saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), the unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S), the saturation index (SI), and the trombogenic index (TI). The comparison of fatty acids and indices between muscle (LT and SM) and adipose (FT, SC, and AB) tissues showed that these two tissues were statistically different in terms of many individual fatty acids and indices (P<0.05; P<0.01). Also, adipose tissues had different amounts of C12:0 (0.22 vs. 0.45), C15:0 (0.82 vs. 0.36), C16:0 (26.51 vs. 27.73), C16:1 (3.37 vs. 2.75), C17:1 (1.29 vs. 0.49), C18:1c (39.05 vs. 43.80), C18: 1t (1.57 vs. 0.76), C18: 2n6 (3.15 vs. 3.86), and C20:1 (0.84 vs. 0.58). The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were significant difference between fat and muscle tissues (P<0.05). it can be concluded that RL genotype was not superior than the LL genotype regarding the FAs, the ratios, and health indices. Therefore, crossbreeding native fat-tailed Lori-Bakhtiari sheep with Romanov sheep does not improve the meat quality; however, it can decrease the total body fat content.
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Fish-based food products play important roles in our daily diet. The related food safety is vitally essential for human health, thus it is very necessary to screen the freshness of fish-based foods. In this work, we presented a ratiometric fluorescent probe PTCN for the determination of cadaverine, a metabolic biomarker of the spoilage of fish. PTCN displayed a ratiometric fluorescence response towards cadaverine with good specificity, high sensitivity (LOD = 46 nM) and ultra-fast response (<15 s), and thus has been successfully utilized to determine cadaverine from the spoilage of fish. PTCN was fabricated into cheap and portable sensing tags, which can visually detect gaseous cadaverine with obvious fluorescence color transformation from red to green and a low detection limit (8.65 ppm). Moreover, the PTCN tags were used as smart fluorescent tags for non-contact and visual monitoring of cadaverine in fish. Furthermore, the ratiometric fluorescence signals were utilized to create a smartphone-adaptable digital sensing profile for indicating cadaverine in fish products.
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The purpose of the scientific monograph was to investigate fat, cholesterol and fatty acids in the muscles of the shoulder and leg obtained from lambs in the system of grazing in the conditions of Slovakia. Samples of shoulder and leg muscles were obtained from a lamb of a cross Tsigai and Suffolk male with a carcass weight of 30 kg and 7 months of age. The lambs were fed on grazing on the farm. Samples of 13 shoulder muscles and samples of 11 leg muscles were used for chemical analysis. Chemical analysis of the samples was performed according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).
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The aim of this study was to explore the purchase willingness of Chinese consumers for pork, beef, lamb, and rabbit meat. A conceptual framework and focus group discussions were adopted to design the questionnaire which included experience, eating habits, purchase drivers, purchase location, seasonality, and willingness to purchase red meat among Chinese consumers. Data collection was undertaken using an online platform questionnaire, with 4039 meat consumers participating in this study. By constructing the partial least squares – path modeling (PLS-PM) to explore the concerns of Chinese consumers while purchasing various types of red meats as well as the effect of these questions on consumers' willingness intensity to purchase red meat. Willingness intensity to purchase lamb is significantly affected by experience, seasonality, purchase location, eating habits, willingness, purchase drivers, and personal information; beef is affected by experience, seasonality, purchase location, eating habits, willingness, and personal information; pork is mainly affected by eating habits and purchase drivers; while eating habits, purchase location, and personal information have positive impacts on willingness intensity to purchase rabbit meat. This study developed the orthogonal matching pursuit – stochastic gradient descent (OMP-SDG) model, which integrated the questionnaire collecting personal information with the questionnaire on Chinese consumers' perceptions of red meat. The program can more precisely forecast which types of red meat people like and their degree of willingness. Finally, Chinese consumers preferred beef, lamb, pork, and rabbit meat in that order. They also prefer local meat, believing it to be of high quality and providing a satisfactory sensory experience, appearance, and saturation.
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Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) exists naturally as a precursor of creatine, which possesses several biological functions. In the present study, the effects of dietary GAA supplementation on skeletal muscle mass and meat quality of lambs were investigated. The GAA supplementation increased final body weight, promoted muscle mass and changed the distribution of myofiber size. Meanwhile, elevated ultimate pH and water holding capacity (WHC) of resulting meat were observed in GAA fed lambs. Moreover, the total antioxidative capacity was elevated. Dietary GAA accelerated myofibril protein synthesis through regulation with IGF-1/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and minimized protein breakdown via regulating abundances of myostatin and phosphorylated FoxO1. In vitro, GAA treatment inhibited sheep primary myoblasts proliferation, and enhanced its myogenic potential. Collectively, these results suggested that GAA might be a feed additive for use by the lamb meat industry as it has potential to improve growth performance, antioxidant status and WHC of resulting meat.
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Edible proteins with high solubility, designable nutritional properties, and tunable digestibility are attractive. Scallop muscle proteins (SMPs) are representative marine proteins, which have a poor water‐solubility and thus inferior solubility‐related physicochemical properties. Here, by unfolding SMPs and soy proteins at pH 12.0 followed by shifting to pH 7.0 to refold them together, soluble composite structures were formed, characteristic of uniform nanospheres with a diameter of ~100 nm. Owing to embedment of hydrophobic pockets whereas exposure of hydrophilic moieties, the solubility of SMPs was enhanced from 26% to 91%, depending on the mass ratio of β‐conglycinin/glycinin (7S/11S). Furthermore, the digestibility of the composites can be delicately modulated by harnessing the same stimulus, which highlighted future design of edible proteins with controllable digestion. This study provides a robust and facile strategy for developing edible proteins with tailorable structures and structure‐related functional and nutritional characteristics.
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The literature suggests that wild boar meat structure is unique among pork meats, being less juicy and tender. However, a deeper analysis of wild boar meat consumption from the oral processing and sensory perception perspectives is lacking. This research reports on how boiling, grilling, and sous-vide cooking methods affect wild boar ham color, texture, mastication, bolus formation, and dynamic sensory perception. The examined cooking methods produced steaks of different colors, where the sous-vide was lighter and redder on cross-section. Meat having higher redness had lower hardness and chewiness. That was also further observed for oral processing, where the sous-vide and grilled meat demanded less effort for mastication, absorbed less saliva, and produced boluses with fewer and bigger particles than did the boiled meat. In contrast, boiling led to higher cooking loss, which further affected bolus formation, with more saliva needed. Regarding sensory perception, boiled meat was firm and fibrous compared to grilled and sous-vide meats that were juicier.
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Meat consumption is gradually increasing and its impact on health has attracted widespread attention, resulting in epidemiological studies proposing a reduction in meat and processed meat intake. This review briefly summarises recent advances in understanding the effects of meat or processed meat on human health, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Meat consumption varies widely among individuals, populations, and regions, with higher consumption in developed countries than in developing countries. However, increasing meat consumption may not be the main cause of increasing incidence of chronic disease, since the development of chronic disease is a complex physiological process that involves many factors, including excessive total energy intake and changes in food digestion processes, gut microbiota composition, and liver metabolism. In comparison, unhealthy dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle with decreasing energy expenditure are factors more worthy of reflection. Meat and meat products provide high‐value protein and many key essential micronutrients. In short, as long as excessive intake and overprocessing of meats are avoided, meat remains an indispensable source of nutrition for human health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Clarifying the water-food-carbon nexus is the key to promoting the harmonious development of human society and environmental resources. The sustainable development of agricultural production systems is being challenged by water scarcity and climate change. Crop growth and irrigation consume large amounts of water, and greenhouse gases are generated due to processes such as fertilizer application and enteric fermentation. These environmental impacts accompany the agricultural production process and are thus embedded in the entire life cycle of diverse food items; in turn, consumers’ food choices indirectly impact water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing agricultural water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions during food production have become crucial issues in mitigating the projected water, climate, and food crises. From the consumer perspective, diets vary regionally due to different natural conditions for food production and varying socio-economic and income levels. This review delves into the interactions between diet and its potential environmental impacts, including water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in order to support further development of the water-food-carbon nexus.
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Artificial meat shows great promise as a method for use in future food production. It is predicted that traditional meat will be insufficient with the increasing human population. In addition, artificial meat has many advantages in terms of human health, such as being sustainable for the environment, controlled fat content, and absence of antibiotics and hormones compared to traditional meat. Artificial meat, also known as cultured meat, is produced through in vitro myogenesis, which includes muscle tissue-based protein products, stem cell culture, and differentiation, and mature muscle cell processing for flavor and texture. Artificial meat production consists of a sequential process; firstly muscle sampling for stem cell collection and followed by muscle tissue dissociation and muscle stem cell isolation, primary cell culture, high cell culture, and ending with muscle differentiation and maturation. A deep understanding of the process by considering its pros and cons will help not only artificial meat production but also the food industry in business sectors seeking new biomaterials. By explaining the methods utilized for artificial meat production, this study is created to prepare for the new era of cellular agriculture as well as for application in academia and industry.
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Beef represents an important source of high-quality dietary protein and several micronutrients including iron, zinc and Bb-vitamins. Consumption of lean-meat including lean beef is recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025 as part of overall healthy diet. Given beef intake has been declining, the objective of this study was to provide updated evaluation of the nutritional contribution of beef types. 24-hour dietary recall data from adults age 19+ years (n=19,766) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 was used to assess intakes. On the day of recall, 49.3%, 40.2%, 26.3%, and 15.3% adults consumed total beef, lean fresh beef, ground beef, and processed beef, respectively with mean intakes of 45.6, 36.6, 21.3 and 6.23 g/day respectively. Intake of total beef contributed to daily intakes of energy (5.4%), protein (14%), vitamin B12 (20%), zinc (21%), choline (11%), niacin (9.4%), vitamin B6 (8.3%), iron (7.6%), phosphorus (6.8%), potassium (5.6%) and magnesium (3%). Lean fresh beef contributed most to the daily intakes of energy and nutrients followed by ground and processed beef. Beef intake also contributed to daily intakes of fat (8.7%), saturated fat (11%) and sodium (2.9%) and lean fresh beef contributed less intakes of fat and saturated fat than ground and processed beef. Beef and particularly lean fresh beef were efficient sources of nutrients and provided more nutrients per 100 kcal than the total diet. In conclusion, based on nutrient contribution, these findings provide evidence to support inclusion of beef (especially lean fresh beef) in dietary recommendations.
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This study investigated the influence of a protease from Staphylococcus (S.) epidermidis on the hydrolysis and flavor development in pork myofibrillar protein (MP). The surface hydrophobicity, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and atomic force microscopy analysis indicated that hydrolysis significantly changed surface hydrophobicity and secondary structure of MP (p < 0.05), and improved the stability of MP in water. The contents of free amino acid from MP, especially glutamic and alanine, significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the production of volatile compound such as aldehydes, alcohols and acid were promoted under the action of protease. MP treated with S. epidermidis protease is non-cytotoxic to the HEK-293 cells. Molecular docking analysis suggested that the interaction between the protease and actin was spontaneous and mainly involved hydrogen bonding forces. In summary, this study provides a theoretical basis for the future application of S. epidermidis protease in fermented meat products.
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The ripening process of fermented/ dry cured foods is considered a favourable stage for the development of filamentous fungi on the product’s surface. In general, some species are beneficial, as they contribute to the aroma and flavour characteristics, while some species such as Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium nordicum, and Penicillium verrucosum can produce mycotoxins. The most common mycotoxin in such kind of meat product is the ochratoxin A (OTA) which is a toxic secondary metabolite classified as possible carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer). This brief review will approach the microbiota found in different cured meat products, and some studies demonstrating the main species able to produce OTA. Studies assessing intrinsic and extrinsic conditions that affect fungal ecophysiology and factors that can lead to reduction or increase in OTA production in cured meat products are also described.
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The development of myofibrillar proteins drinks (MPDs) can provide meat protein nutrition to specific groups of people. However, one major challenge is that myofibrillar proteins (MPs) are insoluble in solutions with a low ionic strength. Another functional constraint is the susceptibility of MPs to heat-induced aggregation. Currently, the primary approach used to improve the water solubility of MPs is to inhibit the assembly of myofilaments. Increasing the thermostability of MPs primarily inhibits the aggregation of myosin or oxidizes myosin to soluble substances. This review focuses on the description of several chemical and physical strategies, with an emphasis on the advantages, disadvantages, and recent progress. Under the myosin filament assembly process and the cross-linking aggregation mechanism, this summary helps improve our understanding of the solution and thermostability of MPs in low-ionic-strength solutions, thus providing new ideas to the development of MPDs.
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In this study, carnosine (0‒0.20%, w/v) was introduced to improve the dispersibility of myosin under a low-salt condition (0.1 M NaCl). The underlying dispersion mechanism was investigated. Carnosine has positive effects on the dispersibility of myosin, as evidenced by the significantly improved solubility and turbidity. After the addition of carnosine, the average particle size in each sample remarkably decreased, and the mole mass of the aggregates decreased from 6.74 × 10⁷ g/mol to 4.00 × 10⁷ g/mol as the carnosine increased from 0.10 to 0.20%. Changes in protein secondary structure, ζ-potential, and ITC (Isothermal titration calorimetry) results indicated that electrostatic interaction is the main force between myosin and carnosine. Moreover, carnosine may hinder the formation of large aggregates by affecting the structure and charge distribution of the myosin tail when carnosine was ≤ 0.10%. However, excess carnosine (˃ 0.10%) had a negative effect on the long-term stability of the protein solution. Turbiscan stability index, visual appearance, and hydrophobicity analyses showed that the instability of the system was possibly due to increase in the hydrophobicity of myosin head after excess carnosine was applied. Our research may contribute to the improvement of the functional properties of myosin under low-salt condition and regulation of protein behavior. Graphical Abstract
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This study investigated the electrostatic interaction between water-soluble myofibrillar protein (MP) and chitosan (CH) for further developing muscle protein-based functional foods. Effects of pH (3.0–7.5), protein/polysaccharide mixing ratio (20:1–1:1), ionic strength (0.05–0.6 M KCl) and deacetylation degree (DD) of CH (70–95%) on the interactions were studied by turbidity analysis, phase behavior, zeta-potential, particle size, microstructure and rheological properties. Lower mixing ratios (5:1 and 1:1) improved the colloid stability of MP in mildly acidic environments (pH < 6.5). KCl (0.05–0.6 M) destroyed the colloidal stability and promoted phase separation. A high DD of CH (95%) promoted complexation by increasing the available cationic groups. Rheology displayed that the maximum viscoelasticity for each factor was occurred at a MP/CH ratio of 1:1, pH 6.5 and 95% DD of CH due to the enhanced intermolecular interactions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that the electrostatic interactions contributed to complex formation, while hydrogen bonds also participated in. This research provided great insight for understanding the interaction of water-soluble MP with CH to further exploit low-salt meat protein-based foods.
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The impact of the protease from Staphylococcus carnosus on the structural characteristics, hydrolysis and flavour development of pork myofibrillar protein (MP) and sarcoplasmic protein (SP) were assessed. Hydrolysis altered the surface hydrophobicity and secondary structure of MP and SP, as measured by surface hydrophobicity, intrinsic fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Atomic force microscopy and automated amino acid analysis revealed that the S. carnosus protease degraded the native proteins into low-molecular-weight hydrolysates with uniform distribution and free amino acids, especially glutamic and glycine acid. Moreover, the hydrolysis of MP and SP by the protease promoted the production of volatile compounds, such as aldehydes, alcohols, acids and esters. Molecular docking revealed the binding sites and the major interaction forces (hydrogen bonding) between actin and the protease. The molecular dynamics analysis showed that the binding process of the protease to actin induced a conformational change in actin. In summary, the potential application value of the S. carnosus protease in improving the flavour of Harbin dry sausage is suggested.
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Background Red meat is a nutrient-dense food and a dietary staple. A new generation of plant-based meat analogs (PBMA) have been designed to mimic the experience of eating meat, but there is limited evidence about their digestive efficacy and nutritional quality. Objectives We compared the postprandial digestive response of a single meal containing meat commercially raised in New Zealand including lamb, on-farm pasture-raised beef (Pasture), or grain-finished beef (Grain) with a PBMA (Beyond Burger) sold through consumer retail. The primary outcome was the appearance of amino acids in plasma. Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin, appetite assessment, and anthropometry. Design Thirty healthy men (20–34 years) participated in a double-blinded randomized crossover trial. Each consumed one of the four test meals on four occasions separated by a washout period of at least one week, following an overnight fast. The meal was a burrito-style wrap containing meat or PBMA, vegetables, salsa, and seasonings in a flour tortilla. The amount of Pasture, Grain, Lamb, or BB was 220 g raw (∼160 g cooked). Venous blood samples were collected over 4 hrs. Appetite and hunger status was scored with visual analog scales. Results Pre-meal amino acid concentrations in plasma did not differ by group (P > 0.9) although several non-essential amino acids differed strongly according to participant BMI. Postprandial amino acids peaked at 2–3 hours in all groups. The BB meal produced significantly lower plasma concentrations of total-, essential-, branched-chain- and non-proteogenic amino acids, than the Lamb, Pasture, or Grain meals, based on area under the time-course curves (AUC). There were no significant differences between meal groups in scores for hunger, fullness, or cravings. Conclusions Red meat meals exhibited greater bioavailability of amino acids compared to the PBMA (BB). Pasture versus Grain origins of the beef had little influence on participants’ responses. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04545398.
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Scope: Both plant and animal products provide protein for human demands. However, the effect of protein sources on the physiological responses and the composition and functions of gut microbiota during the early stage of life have received little attention. Methods and results: In the present study, chicken protein and soy protein were fed to young weaning rats for 14 days based on the AIN-93G diet formulation. The growth performance was recorded, and the morphology of the small intestine was analyzed to estimate the absorptive capacity. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was applied to analyze the cecal microbiota. The chicken protein-based diet enhanced growth performance and absorptive capacity in young rats compared to the soy protein-based diet. The chicken protein-based diet maintained higher levels of Lactobacillus species, associated with glutathione synthesis. Conclusion: The chicken protein-based diet seems favorable for young growing rats in relation to growth performance and absorptive capacity, correlated with changes in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Cell-based meat has attracted great attention in recent years as a novel product of future food biomanufacturing and a breakthrough in the global food industry. Previous reports mainly focus on the relatively independent investigation of the nature and consumer acceptance of cultured meat, and there is limited research upon its commercialization, safety, and quality control. Based on the existing literature, we overview current cultured meat startups distribution, product varieties, investment, and financing status. Furthermore, the challenges of commercializing cultured meat products are systematically discussed from the aspects of key technologies, safety and supervision, and market expectation. Finally, some strategies and prospects related to the marketing of cultured meat are put forward. Although some cultured meat startups’ development and financing results are exciting, the greatest obstacles to the market promotion of cultured meat products are the large-scale production, safety assessment, improvement of a supervision system, and product-based market survey influenced by technology challenges.
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The main objective of this review is to discuss human feeding behavior based on evolution. With regard to feeding, the human species has undergone various changes during its evolutionary and social history, from the hunting and gathering phase, including the discovery of fire, to modern times, mainly after the implementation of agriculture. These changes exerted a direct influence on feeding habits and behavior and a considerable impact on some aspects of human health. The present review also discusses some of the foods consumed by the human species that are controversial among investigators from an evolutionary perspective.
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This study provides data on the total heme and non-heme iron contents in poultry (chicken, turkey), beef, veal, lamb, horse, ostrich, rabbit, and pork meat cuts. The effect of cooking on heme iron content was also studied. Total iron and heme iron contents markedly differed between muscles in poultry. Heme iron in red meats ranged from 72 to 87%. Heme iron in rabbit and pork was 56 and 62% of total iron. Heating decreased heme iron, the severity of the losses depended on cooking methods: in poultry, losses ranged from 22 to 43%; less severe impact was detected in pan-cooked meat, where the losses ranged from 1 to 24%.
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The present study focuses on two aspects of meat quality: the concentration of trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin) in meats having the highest consumption in Italy and in some meats recently introduced in the markets and on the influence of cooking processes on the retention of these micronutrients. A number of meat cuts were analysed: beef (sirloin, fillet, roast beef, topside, thick flank), veal (fillet), lamb (chop) horse (fillet), ostrich (fillet, sirloin, leg), pork (saddle, loin, chump chop), chicken (breast, leg-lower part, leg-thigh, wing), turkey (breast, leg-lower part, leg-thigh) and rabbit (whole). Results showed differences in both trace elements and B vitamins not only among meats of different species but also among cuts of the same species. Micronutrients content in horse and ostrich meats were in some cases of relevance compared to the most consumed meats. Cooking methods utilized in this study did not require water, which allowed a high retention of trace elements affecting mainly B vitamin concentration.
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This article is a summary of the publication "Iron and Health" by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research.
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Iron metabolism and superoxide metabolism are clearly interactive, especially under pathological conditions. Each can exacerbate the toxicity of the other. Iron overload may amplify the damaging effects of superoxide overproduction in a very broad spectrum of inflammatory or ischemia-related conditions. Furthermore, chronic oxidative stress may modulate iron uptake and storage, leading to a self-sustained and ever increasing spiral of cytotoxic and mutagenic events.
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Publisher Summary Taurine, a sulfur‐containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammals, plays an important role in several essential biological processes. Taurine is not incorporated into protein and is the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. The ideal biomarker or biological measure should be reliable, reproducible, noninvasive, simple to perform, and inexpensive. Samples for biological measures should be easily obtained from physiological fluids such as blood or urine. Taurine levels in physiologic fluids have been useful for both diagnosing pathology and establishing a disease modifying therapy. In the specific case of taurine, it is important that patient information include nutritional supplementation as well as information on disease status and medications. Taurine has been measured in biological fluids due to the importance of this simple amino acid and its relative ease of determination. Taurine has been measured in animal models of disease as well as a variety of human conditions. However, it remains unclear how taurine should be used as a biomarker and in which situations this measurement would be a good prognostic or diagnostic indicator.
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Perspectives have shifted recently from the traditional view that early hominids were hunters to one which now sees them as opportunistic scavengers. However, both views share the common underlying nutritional assumption that meat inevitably provides a “high quality” food that will be incorporated into human diet more or less to the extent that animals are avaible and accessible. This paper argues that meat may actually have been a relatively marginal source of sustenance for early hominids, because physiological limits to total protein intake (plant and animal), scarcity of fat in most African ungulates, comparatively high levels of protein in many plant foods, and the inability of early hominids to extract lipids from the cancellous tissue of bones, acted together to maintain their total meat intakes at modest levels, particularly during seasonal or inter-annual periods of resource stress.
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Dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and possibly the incidence of some cancers, asthma and diabetes among other conditions. Meanwhile, animal products have been criticised for their high content of saturated fatty acids (SFA), being damaging to health. Modification of animal diets can now easily increase the proportion of UFA in meat, milk and eggs. Consuming a greater proportion of these beneficial fatty acids as part of an everyday diet will appeal to the public, as opposed to taking dietary supplements. This study encompasses a review of the literature on dietary sources of UFA available for animals and their subsequent transfer into milk, meat (beef, lamb, pork, poultry) and eggs. Including these fatty acid sources in the diet of animals improves the fatty acid profile of milk, meat and eggs by increasing the ratio of UFA:SFA, decreasing the ratio of n−6:n−3 fatty acids and, with ruminant products, increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels. Care must be taken however, when introducing these fatty acid sources into animal diets as some adverse effects can result. For example, large amounts of UFA in the diet of dairy cows may affect rumen activity, reducing milk yield, fat and protein concentrations, while the impact of increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat on shelf life and flavour parameters is an area that warrants further investigation. Novel fatty acid sources such as hemp, camelina or lupin, although effective in some instances, are so far proving an expensive option for commercial purposes. Current thinking on the relevance of the dietary n−6:n−3 ratio to cardiovascular risk in humans is also examined.
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We review literature on effects of dietary forages on milk and tissue fatty acid composition of cattle and sheep, with particular emphasis on changes induced by leguminous and biodiverse forages versus intensive ryegrass. Differences are discussed in relation to changes in rumen or duodenal digesta to explain the origin of the differences as, in most cases, increased omega-3 PUFA (i.e., linolenic acid and/or long chain omega-3 PUFA) in milk and intramuscular fat due to feeding of red or white clover and botanically diverse forages could not be attributed to increased dietary supply of linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3). Hence, increased forestomach outflow of C18:3 n-3 has been suggested to originate from reduced rumen lipolysis, with literature providing some evidence for the role of polyphenoloxidase, which is particular active in red clover, to inhibit rumen lipolysis. Increased proportions of CLA c9t11 in milk and intramuscular fat of ruminants fed botanically diverse forages have been associated with increased forestomach outflow of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11), which is the main precursor of endogenous CLA c9t11 production. Despite the lack of direct evidence, some plant secondary metabolites, present in herbs of botanically diverse forages, are suggested to be potential modifiers of rumen biohydrogenation based on their effects on rumen methanogenesis.
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We examined the ability of n−3 FA in flaxseed-supplemented rations to increase the n−3 FA content of bovine muscle. Two groups of animals were used in each of two separate trials: (i) Hereford steers supplemented (or not) with ground flaxseed (907 g/d) for 71 d, and (ii) Angus steers supplemented (or not) with ground flaxseed (454 g/d for 3 d followed by 907 g/d for 110 d). For the Hereford group, flaxseed-supplemented rations increased 18∶3n−3 (4.0-fold), 20∶5n−3 (1.4-fold), and 22∶5n−3 (1.3-fold) mass as compared with the control, and increased total n−3 mass about 1.7-fold. When these data were expressed as mol%, the increase in 18∶3n−3 was 3.3-fold and in 20∶5n−3 was 1.3-fold in the phospholipid fraction, and 18∶3n−3 was increased 4-fold in the neutral lipid fraction. For the Angus group, flaxseed ingestion increased masses and composition of n−3 FA similarly to that for the Herefords and doubled the total n−3 FA mass. The effect of cooking to a common degree of doneness on FA composition was determined using steaks from a third group of cattle, which were Angus steers. We demonstrated no adverse effects on FA composition by grilling steaks to an internal temperature of 64°C. Because n−3 FA may affect gene expression, we used quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to quantify the effect of feeding flaxseed on heart-FA binding protein, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and α (PPARα) gene expression in the muscle tissue. PPARγ mRNA level was increased 2.7-fold in the flaxseed-fed Angus steers compared with the control. Thus, we demonstrate a significant increase in n−3 FA levels in bovine muscle from cattle fed rations supplemented with flaxseed and increased expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism.
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Energy consumption and blood flow allocations were studied in human subjects who were induced to stand and walk in a bent-head, bent-knee way, which is one of the different bipedal behaviours that could be considered for the posture and locomotion of Australopithecus afarensis. In these subjects oxygen consumption was intermediate between modern humans standing/walking normally and humans standing/walking on all fours, and blood flow was lower for the internal carotid and subclavian arteries and higher for the external carotid and femoral arteries. When erect posture is similar to that of modern humans the demands of blood supply required by the general musculature are diminished in view of the relatively efficient modes of human posture and locomotion, but blood flow to the enlarged human brain is markedly increased.
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Phytate is the primary storage form of both phosphate and inositol in plant seeds. It forms complexes with dietary minerals, especially iron and zinc, and causes mineral-related deficiency in humans. It also negatively impacts protein and lipid utilisation. It is of major concern for individuals who depend mainly on plant derivative foods. Processing techniques, such as soaking, germination, malting and fermentation, reduce phytate content by increasing activity of naturally present phytase. Supplementation of phytase in diets results in increase in mineral absorption. Apart from negative effects, its consumption provides protection against a variety of cancers mediated through antioxidation properties, interruption of cellular signal transduction, cell cycle inhibition and enhancement of natural killer (NK) cells activity. It has therapeutic use against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease and reduces kidney stone formation, HIV-1 and heavy metal toxicity; however, information on the dosage for humans for eliciting beneficial effects is limited.
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Phytate is the primary storage form of both phosphate and inositol in plant seeds. It forms complexes with dietary minerals, especially iron and zinc, and causes mineral-related deficiency in humans. It also negatively impacts protein and lipid utilisation. It is of major concern for individuals who depend mainly on plant derivative foods. Processing techniques, such as soaking, germination, malting and fermentation, reduce phytate content by increasing activity of naturally present phytase. Supplementation of phytase in diets results in increase in mineral absorption. Apart from negative effects, its consumption provides protection against a variety of cancers mediated through antioxidation properties, interruption of cellular signal transduction, cell cycle inhibition and enhancement of natural killer (NK) cells activity. It has therapeutic use against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease and reduces kidney stone formation, HIV-1 and heavy metal toxicity; however, information on the dosage for humans for eliciting beneficial effects is limited.
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Distribution of heme and total iron in heat-processed poultry products was investigated with light and dark chicken meat in the form of deep fried chicken breasts and legs purchased from fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Heme iron content was determined by the Hornsey method, and total iron was determined with Ferrozine on a wet-ashed digest. The heme and total iron were respectively, 1.7 ± 0.5 and 6.5 ± 2.0 μg Fe/g meat (mean ± SD) for light chicken meat and 7.6 ± 1.6 and 19.3 ± 2.2 μg/g for dark chicken meat. Heme iron values averaged 29 and 40% for light and dark chicken meat, respectively. Keywords: Iron; analysis; poultry; meat; heme
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Contents and retention of nutrients in raw and cooked (broiled, roasted and grilled to medium-well stage) ground beef patties were established. Fat levels of the raw patties were 18.4, 21.5, and 27.0%. Cooking yields were slightly lower and energy contents were higher for patties containing 27.0% fat than 18.4 or 21.5%. Total lipids, energy content, thiamin and pantothenic acid were the least retained nutrients while zinc was the highest. Generally, retentions after broiling or grilling were the same but were higher than after roasting. The polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S) rose slightly after cooking. For most nutrients, differences due to fat levels or cooking methods appear to be too small to be of practical nutritional significance.
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DNA methylation is the most extensively studied mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation. Increasing evidence indicates that DNA methylation is labile in response to nutritional and environmental influences. Alterations in DNA methylation profiles can lead to changes in gene expression, resulting in diverse phenotypes with the potential for increased disease risk. The primary methyl donor for DNA methylation is S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a species generated in the cyclical cellular process called one-carbon metabolism. One-carbon metabolism is catalyzed by several enzymes in the presence of dietary micronutrients, including folate, choline, betaine and other B vitamins. For this reason, nutrition status, particularly micronutrient intake, has been a focal point when investigating epigenetic mechanisms. Although animal evidence linking nutrition and DNA methylation is fairly extensive, epidemiological evidence is less comprehensive. This review serves to integrate studies of the animal in vivo with human epidemiological data pertaining to nutritional regulation of DNA methylation and to further identify areas in which current knowledge is limited.
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Lean red meats are: • An excellent source of high biological value protein, vitamin B12, niacin, vitamin B6, iron, zinc and phosphorus • A source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fats, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, selenium and possibly also vitamin D • Mostly low in fat and sodium • Sources of a range of endogenous antioxidants and other bioactive substances including taurine, carnitine, carnosine, ubiquinone, glutathione and creatine.
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It is argued that Homo sapiens is a habitual rather than a facultative meat eater. Quantitative similarity of human gut morphology to guts of carnivorous mammals, preferential absorption of haem rather than iron of plant origin, and the exclusive use of humans as the definitive host by Taenia saginata and the almost complete human specificity of T. solium are used to support the argument.
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The brain shares with other organs the need for a constant and readily available supply of iron and has a similar array of proteins available to it for iron transport, storage, and regulation. However, unlike other organs, the brain places demands on iron availability that are regional, cellular, and age sensitive. Failure to meet these demands for iron with an adequate supply in a timely manner can result in persistent neurological and cognitive dysfunction. Consequently, the brain has developed mechanisms to maintain a continuous supply of iron. However, in a number of common neurodegenerative disorders, there appears to be an excess accumulation of iron in the brain that suggests a loss of the homeostatic mechanisms responsible for regulating iron in the brain. These systems are reviewed in this article. As a result of a loss in iron homeostasis, the brain becomes vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a confounding variable in understanding the cell death that may result directly from a specific disease and is a contributing factor to the disease process. The underlying pathogenic event in oxidative stress is cellular iron mismanagement.
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This contribution has two main aims. The first is to assess the applicability of allometric techniques for purposes of predication and comparison, and the second is to test the possibility that the relationship between weight and stature was more significantly different in AL 288-1 (Australopithecus afarensis) and other Plio-Pleistocene hominids than it is in modern humans.It is argued that in the great majority of cases, the reduced major axis (RMA) is the preferred allometric technique. The reason for this is that the slope of the RMA is totally independent of the correlation coefficient. Both the least squares slope (LSR) and the major axis (MA) (which are both highly affected by the correlation coefficient) converge on it as the correlation coefficient approaches unity. It is also argued that the RMA provides the best estimate of the functional relation between the two variables in the analysis when the error variance is unknown, as is most frequently the case in allometric analyses. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the MA produces a particularly spurious best-fit line when the correlation coefficient deviates from unity and the variance of the dependent variable (e.g., body weight) is particularly large in relation to the variance of the independent variable (e.g., stature). This has important implications not only for general allometric analysis but also particularly for the prediction of body weight from skeletal measurements.When RMA is used as the basis of inference and comparison, AL 288-1 (based on the best current estimates for stature and weight) has an inferred weight for its stature that would be highly unusual for modern humans, but similar to that observed for living African apes. OH 62 is similar to AL 288-1 in this respect.
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It has been well documented that ascorbate enhances iron uptake, with a proposed mechanism based on reduction to the more absorbable ferrous form. We have performed a study on the effects of ascorbate on ferric iron uptake in the human epithelial Caco-2 cell-line. Ascorbate increased uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with a significant difference between iron uptake and reduction. Uptake kinetics are characteristic of a non-essential activator and the formation of an Fe3+–ascorbate complex. This investigation provides evidence that ascorbate enhances the apical uptake of ferric iron into Caco-2 cells through the formation of a Fe3+–ascorbate complex.
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Meat is frequently associated with a “negative” health image due to its “high” fat content and in the case of red meat is seen as a cancer-promoting food. Therefore, a low meat intake, especially red meat is recommended to avoid the risk of cancer, obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, this discussion overlooks the fact, that meat is an important source for some of micronutrients such as iron, selenium, vitamins A, B12 and folic acid. These micronutrients are either not present in plant derived food or have poor bioavailability. In addition, meat as a protein rich and carbohydrate “low” product contributes to a low glycemic index which is assumed to be “beneficial” with respect to overweight, the development of diabetes and cancer (insulin resistance hypothesis). Taken together meat is an important nutrient for human health and development. As an essential part of a mixed diet, meat ensures adequate delivery of essential micronutrients and amino acids and is involved in regulatory processes of energy metabolism.
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When estimating the iron bioavailability of a meal, the amount and type of meat consumed should be considered; therefore, animal products commonly consumed in Thailand were analyzed for iron attached to hemoglobin (heme iron) and other iron compounds (nonheme iron). Conventional household cooking methods, i.e., blanch- ing, boiling and steaming, were used for sample preparation. The results showed that cooked chicken breast and drumsticks contained small amounts of heme iron (0.1 and 0.3 mg/100 g) and nonheme iron (0.3 and 0.6 mg/100 g). Heme and nonheme iron in cooked beef loin was found to be 1.1 and 1.3 mg/100 g, respectively. Liver is a good source of iron, particularly pork liver (12.6 mg/100 g), with approximately 2.3 mg/100 g of heme iron. Cooked blood curds from pork and chicken were the best sources of heme iron; the average was 9.2 and 15.4 mg/100 g, respectively. Cooked meatballs and sausage products contained only small amounts of heme and nonheme iron, ranging from trace to 0.3 and 0.2 to 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively. A good source of total and heme iron was also found in cooked shellfish, especially steamed green mussels and blanched cockle with approximately 14.7 and 17.7 mg/100 g for total iron, and 4.0–9.1 mg/100 g for heme iron, respectively. Of the animal products analyzed in this study and commonly eaten by Thai people, cooked blood curds were determined to be the richest source of dietary heme iron.
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This review summarises the known effects of forages, animal fats or marine oils on bovine milk fat secretion and composition. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a positive role for human health, such as butyric acid, oleic acid, C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The efficiency of the transfer of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from diet to milk is reviewed. Milk fat from pasture fed cows seems to be higher in linolenic acid than milk fat from cows receiving preserved grass or maize, but the magnitude of this difference is limited. Indirect comparisons show that milk fat from maize silage diets is richer in short-chain FA and linoleic acid when compared to grass silage diets. Compared to fresh grass, grass silage favours myristic and palmitic acids at the expense of mono- and polyunsaturated FA, including CLA. Protected tallow allows for a large increase in milk fat yield, and in the percentage of milk stearic and oleic acids, at the expense of medium chain FA. Non-protected tallow has a similar effect on medium chain FA without increasing so much C18 FA yield, which explains that it does not increase milk fat yield. Dose–response curves of milk CLA are reviewed for marine oil supplements, as well as the relationship between milk CLA and trans-C18:1 contents. The potential of marine oil supplementation to increase the mean CLA content in cow milk fat is large (more than 300% above basal values). A specific role for dietary C20:5 n-3 in the sharp decrease in milk fat secretion after fish oil supplementation is suggested. However, there is a need to evaluate how the different feeding strategies could change the other aspects of milk fat quality, such as taste, oxidative stability or manufacturing value.
Article
1.1. A comparison has been made of the fatty acids found in meat and fat from (a) wild ruminants free to select their own food (free-living) and (b) domestic bovid meat.2.2. The lipids of the meat from the free-living state were predominantly phospholipid. The lipids of adipose tissue from both free-living and domestic animals were predominantly triglyceride.3.3. The meat from free-living animals was low in total fat but rich in both linoleic acid and linolenic acid and their elongation products; adipose tissue in both free-living and domestic animals was low in polyenoic acids.4.4. The relatively low proportion of polyenoic acids in meat from domestic animals may therefore be attributable to infiltration of muscle by adipose tissue.5.5. These findings are discussed in relation to human diets vis-à-vis (a) modern and (b) evolutionary contexts.
Article
Meat, a concentrated nutrient source, was traditionally considered essential for optimal growth and development. This reputation diminished as enthusiasm for the lipid hypothesis gathered pace. The meat industry has worked steadily to reduce the fat content of red meat achieving significant results. Progress continues with both total fat reduction and modifications to the fatty acid profiles.Recent concerns over intakes of certain micronutrients in vulnerable age groups, particularly iron, zinc and vitamin D are highlighted. Is this a positive opportunity for lean meat—now a relatively low fat, natural, nutritional supplement?This review summarizes the changes in the nutritional composition of red meat over the past 20 years, focusing on the positive nutritional opportunities, within the confines of current scientific opinion and policy on human nutritional needs.
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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention in the last two decades for its variety of biologically beneficial effects. CLA reduces body fat, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and modulates immune and inflammatory responses as well as improves bone mass. It has been suggested that the overall effects of CLA are the results of interactions between two major isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. This review will primarily focus on current CLA publications involving humans, which are also summarized in the tables. Along with a number of beneficial effects of CLA, there are safety considerations for CLA supplementation in humans, which include effects on liver functions, milk fat depression, glucose metabolism, and oxidative stresses.
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Thirty Hereford steers were finished either on pasture (n=10) or concentrate (n=20) to determine dietary and antioxidant treatment effects on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and quality of Uruguayan beef. Half of the steers finished on concentrate were supplemented with 1000 I.U. vitamin E head(-1) day(-1) for 100 days. Postmortem vitamin C was added to ground beef (0.05% v/w) displayed for 8 days at 2 °C. Carcasses from steers finished on concentrate had greater (P<0.05) carcass weight, conformation, degree of finishing, fat depth, and ribeye area than pasture finished animals. Carcasses from pasture-fed steers showed darker (P<0.05) longissimus color and yellower (P<0.05) fat at 24 h postmortem than concentrate-fed. Initial longissimus Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were similar (P>0.05) between pasture- and concentrate-fed animals. However, beef from pasture-fed cattle had lower (P<0.05) WBSF values at 7 and 14 days postmortem. Longissimus α-tocopherol concentrations were greater (P<0.01) for pasture- and concentrate-fed animals that were supplemented with vitamin E compared to concentrate-fed. Steaks from pasture-fed and vitamin E supplemented cattle had similar (P>0.05) TBARS values, which were lower (P<0.05) than steaks from concentrate-fed steers during 21 days of display. Ground beef from vitamin E supplemented steers had the lowest TBARS values; whereas samples from pasture-fed animals had the lowest lipid stability with higher TBARS levels than other treatments. Vitamin C addition to ground beef did not (P>0.05) reduce lipid oxidation. Vitamin E supplementation of concentrate-fed cattle had no effect (P>0.05) on color stability of ground beef or steaks. The a(∗) (redness) and b(∗) (yellowness) values were higher (P<0.05) when vitamin C was added to ground beef. Longissimus fatty acid content of concentrate-fed animals was twofold greater (P<0.01) than pasture-fed. The percentages of C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 fatty acids were higher (P<0.01) in the intramuscular fat of concentrate-fed steers, whereas pasture-fed cattle showed greater (P<0.01) proportions of C18:0, C18:2, C18:3, C20:4, C20:5, and C22:5. Total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and CLA isomer c9t11 were higher (P<0.01) for pasture- than concentrate-fed cattle. Vitamin E supplementation of concentrate-fed steers increased lipid stability of ground beef and steaks, but was unable to improve color stability; whereas vitamin C addition to ground beef increased color stability without altering lipid oxidation. Finishing cattle on pasture enhanced the unsaturated fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat in beef including CLA and omega-3 fatty acids.
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The effects of cooking and trimming of visible fatty tissue on the content of fat, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins was studied in six meat cuts (beef rib-eye and brisket, pork neck steak and belly, veal chop and rolled breast) in order to improve the estimates of the actual nutrient intake from meat. Cooking decreased the absolute fat content by about 17.9-44.4% and therefore concomitantly influenced the content of different fatty acids. The trimming of visible fatty tissue additionally decreased the fat content by about 23.8-59.1%. Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus decreased during cooking in all cuts and cooking processes, while iron and zinc were found to increase in beef. All vitamins decreased during cooking, with thiamine showing the highest losses, from 73% up to 100%. In conclusion, the cooking and trimming of meat cuts considerably affected the nutrients in various ways and to different degrees, which should be taken into account when the nutrient intakes of meat are estimated.