Engaging Policy Makers in Road Safety Research in Malaysia: A Theoretical and Contextual Analysis
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Health Policy
(Impact Factor: 1.91).
11/2008; 90(1):58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.08.009
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.
Available from: Catherine Juillard
- "This is consistent with other literature in the region that shows males are at increased risk of RTI compared to females, probably as a result of greater mobility and an increased likelihood of work outside the home, but it is also consistent with data from police records from the inter-urban Yaoundé –Douala road section which show that men were more likely to be injured and killed compared to women   . More attention to RTI prevention in this group, especially with regard to motorcycle use, may have a significant impact on overall RTI morbidity and mortality  . The increased risk of death for motorcyclists was not statistically significant in this study; however, this may be due to selection bias; deaths in this sample did not include those who died on-scene. "
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Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In Cameroon, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, more data on RTI patterns and outcomes are needed to improve treatment and prevention. This study analyzes RTIs seen in the emergency room of the busiest trauma center in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
A prospective injury surveillance study was conducted in the emergency room of the Central Hospital of Yaoundé from April 15 to October 15, 2009. RTI patterns and relationships among demographic variables, road collision characteristics, injury severity, and outcomes were identified.
A total of 1,686 RTI victims were enrolled. The mean age was 31 years, and 73% percent were male. Eighty-eight percent of road collisions occurred on paved roads. The most common user categories were ‘pedestrian’ (34%) and ‘motorcyclist’ (29%). Pedestrians were more likely to be female (p < 0.001), while motorcyclists were more likely to be male (p < 0.001). Injuries most commonly involved the pelvis and extremities (43%). Motorcyclists were more likely than other road users to have serious injuries (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.68). RTI victims of lower economic status were more likely to die than those of higher economic status.
Vulnerable road users represent the majority of RTI victims in this surveillance study. The burden of RTI on hospitals in Cameroon is high and likely to increase. Data on RTI victims who present to trauma centers in low- and middle-income countries are essential to improving treatment and prevention.
Available from: Alex Donaldson
- "entific evidence of intervention efficacy or effectiveness is used directly in decision-making processes  . There has also been recognition that increased collaboration between researchers and policy makers is needed to translate such evidence into policy processes   . Falls prevention is one of the areas requiring a significant policy response because of the ageing population and predicted increasing acute health and aged care service utilisation needs. "
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ABSTRACT: Population modelling holds considerable promise for identifying the most efficient and cost-effective falls prevention measures, but the outcomes need to be in a readily useable form. This paper describes an iterative, collaborative process undertaken by researchers and falls prevention policy officers to develop such a format for falls prevention intervention evidence.
The researchers developed a draft template that underwent several iterations and improvements, through three collaborative consultations with policy officers.
Although the researchers initially identified many key information needs, active engagement with policy officers ensured that policy requirements were met and that the value of the reporting formats for policy decision-making was maximised. Importantly, they highlighted the need to articulate underlying modelling assumptions clearly. The resulting formats, with complete data, were given to policy officers to inform their local jurisdictional policy decisions.
There is strong benefit in researchers and policy officers collaborating to develop optimal formats for presenting scientific evidence to inform policy decisions. Such a process can reduce concerns of researchers that evidence is not incorporated into policy decisions. They also meet policy officers' needs for evidence to be provided in a way that can directly inform their decision-making processes.
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ABSTRACT: Real-world implementation of injury prevention interventions and evaluation of their effectiveness need to take into account the broad ecological context in which they are introduced. This chapter provides perspectives and guidance on (1) the design, conduct, and evaluation of studies that are concerned with the effectiveness of injury prevention and safety promotion interventions and (2) research to better understand the context for intervention delivery. It begins with an overview of why research into intervention delivery and evaluation of its outcomes is necessary for the broad field of injury prevention and control. This includes a comparison of the aims and approaches of efficacy and effectiveness studies and the recognized gap between the two. The ecological context for injury prevention is summarized and the implications for intervention delivery and evaluation are described. The chapter then covers key theoretical, conceptual, and methodological issues involved in evaluation research and introduces some of the current thinking about translation research. Particular emphasis is given to Intervention Mapping as a tool to assist in the intervention development process, Diffusion of Innovations theory to guide efforts in the planning of intervention strategies and the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) health promotion framework and their reported applications to injury prevention interventions to date.
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