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Abstract

This paper presents our recent experiences with the design of game-like applications in 3-D virtual environments as well as its impact on student motivation and learning. Therefore our paper starts with a brief analysis of the motivational aspects of videogames and virtual worlds (VWs). We then go on to explore the possible benefits of both in the area of foreign language learning. For our research study we have designed a VW-platform, called VirtUAM. This permits us to store and record data related to users' behaviour within the VW. Furthermore the platform has been employed to build several islands (virtual spaces), which implement different game levels. The virtual spaces themselves are used to give students a basic training in different language skills related to the German language. In order to obtain data regarding the game's impact on student learning and motivation, we designed several tests, which were completed both before and after the student participants played the game. Additionally we gave them a general questionnaire, which was only filled out after the game and which aimed at getting personal feedback from the learners. Quantitative and qualitative results shown in this work are part of a larger project which intends to study the impact of game-like applications within virtual environments and with regard to teaching and learning processes in general.

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... The study employed a survey research design difficulties in reading can be explained and viewed in and data were collected from questionnaire distributed to term of a memory deficit. Thus, there is a strong emphasis 30 Year 5 Primary ESL pupils and in semi-structured on identifying the pupils' insights on the reading interview with three pupils from a sub urban school. The comprehension activities through Frog VLE. ...
... As stated by [29], the use of ICT such as Frog VLE in teaching and learning came on board because of the need to create new aspects of education that suits the twenty-first century learning. It is evidenced by [30] who stated that the user friendly environment of VLE is suitable to provide users with any sort of instructional facility that educators may need in order to make it easier to teach and to learn such as graphics, videos, animations, sounds, and hyperlinks. Therefore, the virtual learning environment valued efficiency, it extends the speed of communication in the world and it helps teachers and students to keep up to date. ...
... Based on the above findings, the user-friendly learning environment such as instant feedbacks and interactive web affect the pupils' performance on the reading comprehension activities and also give them positive insights on how the use of ICT gives impact not only on their motivation however, their engagement in learning and performance [30]. The pupils' perception on the challenges of integrating Frog VLE in the teaching and learning of reading comprehension activities are crucial in answering the second research question. ...
... Ini menunjukkan bahwa belajar dengan GBL Flow di dalam Kelas Pembelajaran Berbasis Gim (Roki Ranjani Sanjadireja) Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan ISSN 1412-565 X e-ISSN 2541 tidak hanya menyenangkan tetapi juga memotivasi. Demikian pula, penelitian lain juga menyebutkan bahwa belajar dengan pembelajaran berbasis permainan itu menyenangkan dan memotivasi dari dalam (Berns, Gonzalez-Pardo, & Camacho, 2013;Lai, Lee, Jong, & Hsia, 2012;Tüzün, Yilmaz-Soylu, Karakuş, Inal, & Kizilkaya, 2009). ...
... Dengan kata lain, navigasi dengan desain gim sudah cukup baik untuk dipelajari, dan yang diwawancarai merasa mudah untuk mengakses. Demikian pula, dalam percobaan dengan pembelajaran berbasis permainan, di mana siswa merasa bahwa belajar dengan permainan itu mudah (Berns et al., 2013). Menurut Anda, apakah teman-teman yang lain kira-kira menyukai gim-based atau tidak? ...
... Selain itu, berdasarkan penelitian lain, siswa merasa bahwa menulis adalah tugas yang sulit. Dengan demikian, siswa merasa bahwa pembelajaran berbasis-gim mampu meningkatkan kosa kata mereka, tetapi terbatas pada keterampilan menulis (Berns et al., 2013). Peneliti lain dapat mencoba untuk menanamkan skor menulis dalam desain permainan di mana siswa dapat merefleksikan perkembangan mereka pada proses peningkatan kualitas penulisan. ...
Article
Vidio gim memiliki sejumlah nilai untuk pengajaran di kelas seperti menyediakan lingkungan multimodal dan lingkungan dengan permasalahan yang dapat dieksplorasi. Sekitar 183 juta pemain bermain gim di AS, dan sekitar 17 % dari populasi dunia terlibat dalam aktivitas bermain gim. Para peneliti telah mencoba memanfaatkan permainan untuk pendidikan saat ini. Namun, penggunaan pembelajaran berbasis-gim masih baru dan perlu diuji. Pemanfaatan gim untuk pengajaran di kelas dipertanyakan karena karakteristik permainan yang lebih bersifat menghibur daripada belajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana siswa mempersepsikan pengalaman belajar dalam pembelajaran berbasis gim. Penelitian ini dilakukan di perguruan tinggi dengan 24 peserta. Mereka belajar menulis narasi melalui pembelajaran berbasis-gim. Pada penelitian ini, gim dibangun khusus dalam platform HTML5. Para siswa harus terhubung daring untuk mengakses permainan. Setelah melaksanakan pembelajaran, kuesioner dan wawancara disebarkan. Kuesioner mengadaptasi teori flow untuk mengukur pengalaman belajar. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa siswa dalam keadaan flow ketika belajar dengan menggunakan metode berbasis-gim. Mereka tidak memiliki pengalaman berbasis-gim sebelumnya, dan mereka merasa belajar menulis melalui GBL itu menyenangkan, menantang, serius dan mudah diikuti.
... A total of nineteen studies have utilized VWs in K-12 subjects including of History [Wang et al. 2018], Life Science topics [Barab et al. 2005;Dede et al. 2017;Ketelhut 2007;Lim et al. 2006;Loula et al. 2014;Metcalf et al. 2018;Tüzün, 2007], Computer science [Jakos & Verber, 2016;Pellas 2014;Pellas & Peroutseas 2016;Pellas & Vosinakis 2018;Rico et al. 2011], Information Technology [Barab et al. 2012;Twining 2009;Young et al. 2012], Language learning [Zheng et al. 2009], and Mathematics [Kim & Ke 2016;Şimşek 2016]. Additionally, a total of nine studies applied in several learning tasks using various VWs to develop game prototypes in different HE subjects encompassing Computer science [Christopoulos et al. 2018;Granic et al. 2019], Engineering [August et al. 2016;Callaghan et al. 2013], Language learning [Berns et al. 2013], Economics [Hornik & Thornburg 2010], Medical education [Toro-Troconis & Mellström 2010], and Instructional design [Franetovic 2016;Yilmaz & Cagiltay 2016]. ...
... In HE settings, the studies reviewed relating to project-based (n=7) and problembased (n=5) learning approaches. Project-based approaches were featured predominantly not only in Computer Science Problem-based learning approaches were also applied in multiple HE subjects, such as Engineering [August et al. 2016;Callaghan et al. 2013], Language learning [Berns et al. 2013], Economics [Hornik & Thornburg 2010], and Computer Science [Granic et al. 2019]. In all studies, students interacted with scripted, interactive 3D objects and simulated, game-like environments developed by instructional designers. ...
... These resources were used for visualization and interaction with data [Callaghan et al. 2013], comprising highly interactive engineering demonstrations and complex simulations to assess understanding and engage users' critical thinking through active exploration [Granic et al. 2019]. These games allowed students not only to test and improve their knowledge and skills [Berns et al. 2013] but also to apply taught theoretical concepts to practical problems [August et al. 2016]. GBL activities enabled students to move actively and gradually from rote facts memorization to knowledge comprehension and application towards the achievement of higher-order skills [Hornik & Thornburg 2010]. ...
Article
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While a substantial body of literature has well-documented and demonstrated considerable potentials of virtual worlds (VWs) across a variety of learning subjects, little is known today regarding game-based learning (GBL) approaches that can be applied. This systematic literature review presents the current state of knowledge and practice about GBL approaches in VWs from Primary and Secondary (K-12) to Higher education (HE). It provides guidance for instructional designers and scholars by systematically appraising and summarizing the most relevant existing research articles published from 2006 until December 2019. Twenty-eight studies were finally included for a detailed analysis and synthesis during the selection and screening process. The results indicated that GBL in VWs gained popularity from 2014 until 2016. Many studies in K-12 and HE settings were focused on describing and evaluating the appropriateness or the effectiveness of the applied instructional design processes using various game prototypes to disseminate their findings on user experience, usability issues, students’ outcomes, and/or learning performance. This study contributes by reviewing how GBL approaches in VWs can potentially benefit students’ learning performance, leading to a higher level of satisfaction and dimensions of disciplinary understanding. It also proposes six concrete recommendations guiding game design and development to support learning in VWs.
... The relevant studies were classified as fields of higher education according to the Joint Academic Coding System [65]. The main subject areas under research, as can be seen in Figure 2, were business and economics (n = 5) [66,67], computer science (n = 5) [68,69], education (n = 5) [70,71], languages (n = 5) [72,73], science (n = 3) [74], and health and medical education (n = 3) [75]. Additionally, a chronological publication diagram of these scientific subjects appears in Figure 3. ...
... In terms of the studied DML domains, twenty-nine studies focused on the cognitive domain, twentyeight on the affective domain, and eighteen on the social domain. The most common research design (n = 15) was a cognitive and affective domain combination [67,70,[72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84]. These studies researched the effect of SVREs on student learning and also recorded aspects of the learners' emotional states and perceptions. ...
... A tabular representation of those studies in the time limits we included in our study is illustrated in Table 4. Regarding the studied learning outcomes, most articles in the cognitive domain focused on cognitive knowledge (n = 15) [74,78], while a significant minority studied procedural knowledge (PK) (n = 8) [77,83]. The majority of studies with an affective focus researched perceptions (PERC) (n = 25) [79,80,88], with motivation (MOT) (n = 5) [72,81] being the second most studied construct. In the social domain, the qualities and char-acteristics of collaboration (COLL) (n = 7) [89,92,93] along with social presence (SPRES) (n = 6) [87,95,96] and connectedness (CONN) (n = 3) [71] were the primary studied outcomes [6]. ...
Article
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Deep and meaningful learning (DML) in distant education should be an essential outcome of quality education. In this literature review, we focus on e-learning effectiveness along with the factors and conditions leading to DML when using social virtual reality environments (SVREs) in distance mode higher education (HE). Hence, a systematic literature review was conducted summarizing the findings from thirty-three empirical studies in HE between 2004 (appearance of VR) and 2019 (before coronavirus appearance). We searched for the cognitive, social, and affective aspects of DML in a research framework and studied their weight in SVREs. The findings suggest that the use of SVREs can provide authentic, simulated, cognitively challenging experiences in engaging, motivating environments for open-ended social and collaborative interactions and intentional, personalized learning. Furthermore, the findings indicate that educators and SVRE designers need to place more emphasis on the socio-cultural semiotics and emotional aspects of e-learning and ethical issues such as privacy and security. The mediating factors for DML in SVREs were accumulated and classified in the resultant Blended Model for Deep and Meaningful e-learning in SVREs. Improvement recommendations include meaningful contexts, purposeful activation, learner agency, intrinsic emotional engagement, holistic social integration, and meticulous user obstacle removal.
... In terms of listening practice in foreign language learning, a number of experimental studies were found in the relevant field [5]- [8]. The findings of these research indicated that most foreign language learners have strong interest toward the game-like applications in virtual environments and both their listening and pronunciation were improved in the VR-assisted learning environment. ...
... Berns, Gonzalez-Pardo and Camacho [5] designed gamelike applications in 3-D virtual environments to examine its impact on student motivation and learning in German as a foreign language. The authors designed several pre-and posttests to identify the effects of the VR application. ...
... Some studies found that the game-based VR learning environment significantly was helpful for vocabulary knowledge. However, most of these studies found the negative influence of VR on foreign language writing practice [5], [6], [16]- [18]. ...
... The widespread use in the last two decades of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) among students, teachers and educational institutions has triggered a continuing interest in exploring its potential, paving the way for the development of new teaching-learning environments [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. ...
... Those questions are: (1) When and in which learning scenarios should digital interventions be implemented?; (2) what would be the best outcome, one where all interventions are digitized or one where only some of them are?; (3) how do we know exactly in which conditions we should exploit the advantages of the digital interventions and in which we should better use the analogous ones?; (4) can we improve digital interventions so that we can overcome their weaknesses?; (5) what type of studies are required to answer these questions? and finally, (6) based on the results and observations obtained from the present study, how could we improve the current digital version of Terminkalender to guarantee better learning outcomes? ...
Article
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The introduction of mobile devices such as smartphones provides new opportunities to enhance the teaching–learning process of a foreign language. However, its use can affect not only the students’ type and form of writing but also their ability to achieve the academic competencies targeted. Thus, aspects such as the development of linguistic and communicative competencies could be affected. In this paper, a comparative analysis of two different versions (a paper and a digital version) of the same learning task is carried out in order to analyze the impact of each on the development of students’ linguistic and communicative competencies. The study is conducted with undergraduate students enrolled in a course called German II. Modern Language I (level A1.2, Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). The results obtained illustrate, on the one hand, the advantages of the paper version for developing students’ linguistic competence and, on the other hand, that the digital version, despite facilitating students’ interaction amongst each other, does not seem to be more suitable for developing students’ communicative competence. Future studies will, therefore, focus on identifying those features that might increase the potential of the digital version for fostering the targeted competencies
... 3D technology can simulate the same learning environment as the real-life environment and the application environment. This can in turn solve the problem of knowledge transfer and adapting situational knowledge that is not easily taught by ordinary teaching methods, such as English learning (Berns, Gonzalez-Pardo, & Camacho, 2013), scientific experiment simulation (Lamb, 2016) and company project management (Maratou, Chatzidaki, & Xenos, 2014). ...
... Essentially, students are fully engaged in the learning process. Students believe that games, like face-to-face teaching, offer many opportunities for interaction, but unlike face-to-face teaching, interactions in games enable students to be able to face the fear of failure (Berns et al., 2013). ...
Article
With the rapid development of technology, the variety, quality, performance, and social penetration of video games has reached an unprecedented height. The cross‐border combination of education and games has received extensive attention from various areas of society, including education, technology, and so forth. Educational games can create an attractive learning environment for students, make learning more interesting, and enable students to learn by doing, thus improving students' high‐level abilities. Educational games can make learning more scientific, enjoyable, and more effective. Many scholars and institutions have carried out a lot of research and practice about educational games. Based on the educational games research, this review will answer four questions: What are educational games? What is educational games research currently studying? What are the outcomes and benefits of educational games? What are the research directions of future educational games?
... The devices are resources for entertainment, but they can also serve as resources for education. There is evidence that games play a crucial role in assisting learners in learning vocabulary (Berns et al., 2013;Dalton & Grisham, 2011;Juffs & Friedline, 2014). Moreover, considerable literature has grown around the theme of online games and web-based games that one can play via the Internet. ...
... Learning vocabulary by looking up words using online games enabled the Arabic and Korean students in their study to improve their vocabulary learning. In addition, the use of VirtUAM enabled undergraduates to learn German vocabulary related to different supermarket products (Berns et al., 2013). The vocabulary presented in context integrated into VirtUAM made it easier to understand and learn new words. ...
Article
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Today, the use of technology has made education more enjoyable. Vocabulary retention becomes a challenging task for both teachers and learners. They may learn the vocabulary but may not retain it. Yet, the use of web-based games may assist them in maintaining words known for short and long-term retention. The current study was conducted to identify students' abilities in retaining words learned after they were assigned to play a web-based vocabulary learning game, namely OnVac. Both short and long-term retention were measured after they were required to play the game as a treatment. Also, the study investigated students' perceptions about the system operation of OnVac. The use of quantitative research design, particularly quasi-experimental research and survey showed gains in vocabulary retention among students for short and long-term retention. The study also found that OnVac can support vocabulary learning among students in their learning of the specialized vocabulary. In terms of the system operation, the participants reported that the tool could assist them in learning engineering and technology words as it was convenient to use. The study provided implications to the teaching pedagogy in that teachers need to be wise and analytical in developing the online game to assist learners in learning English specialized vocabulary.
... The findings also revealed that VR not only offered an open, immersive, and creative venue that enhanced the ESL students' communication skills and vocabulary acquisition, but above all, instilled the fun element in their English learning. Similarly, Berns et al. (2013) found that 3D VR games made vocabulary learning easier as they visualise and situate vocabulary in context and provide immediate feedback. ...
... It not only fostered students' interaction with the content (Parmaxi, 2020), but also made learning academic content more appealing. Hence, the fun factor can manifest in increased student engagement (Gadelha, 2018;Makransky & Lilleholt, 2018) and content-specific vocabulary acquisition (Berns et al., 2013;Johnson et al., 2020;Tai et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
English as a second language (ESL) students generally struggle to learn mainstream school subjects (Humanities, Social Sciences, Science, and Art) due to the lack of adequate content-specific vocabulary support. Their mainstream teachers attribute this to students' limited vocabulary in addition to their low English proficiency. To address this pedagogical concern, this case study explored the perceptions of six Year 9 Middle Eastern students during their engagement with virtual reality (VR) games to learn content-specific vocabulary using Google Cardboard headsets. Qualitative data was collected using class observations of VR implementation and student responses to exit slip prompts targeting their VR experiences, followed by a semi-structured group interview. A thematic analysis approach was employed to interpret their experiences and provide in-depth descriptions, supported by triangulated data sources. Two thematic categories emerged: ESL learners' attitudes towards headset-enabled 3D educational VR games, and the impact of those games on vocabulary acquisition. Findings indicated that, despite technical issues encountered and the lack of adequate educational features, the VR games provided a fun element that not only enhanced students' engagement but also reinvigorated content and vocabulary learning.
... In this context, one of the main affordances of VR technology is that novel learning scenarios could be developed offering students highly immersive and interactive "real-world" environments (Lee & Wong, 2008;Merchant et al., 2014;Ryan, 2015;Walsh & Pawlowski, 2002). Such environments could allow students to move in and directly interact with the environment itself, rather than interacting by means of avatars, which until today has been the norm when learning through virtual environments such as Second Life or multiplayer online games (Berns et al., 2013;Christoforou et al., 2019;Lin & Lan, 2015). By using technologies such as VR-headsets (e.g., Google Cardboard or Samsung Gear VR) in combination with mobile devices such as smartphones, learning processes, in general, and foreign language learning, in particular, could be enriched, providing learners with novel opportunities to experience and practice learning contents in environments that are usually difficult to implement in conventional learning environments (Freina & Ott, 2015). ...
... A review of the literature shows that although VR is not a new concept and appeared a long time ago (Freina & Ott, 2015) and in many different forms (Berns et al., 2013;De Freitas, 2006;Garrido-Iñigo & Rodríguez-Moreno, 2015;Jauregi et al., 2011;Lin & Lan, 2015), the understanding of VR and its characteristics have changed throughout time due to the rise of new and more sophisticated technologies (Andujar & Buchner, 2019). Currently, VR is understood as "(...) replacing one's surroundings with new digitally created environments through the use of a head mounted display (...)", providing "(...) new ways (...) to immerse users in wholly novel situations and environments" (Lege & Bonner, 2017, p. 149). ...
Article
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Research in the area of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) has shown that the use of mobile devices such as smartphones may offer multiple opportunities for supporting foreign language learning. In addition, the development and increasing accessibility of emerging technologies such as virtual reality (VR) has opened new perspectives in the area of MALL, paving the way for a new research field called virtual reality assisted language learning (VRALL). In this context, the present study aims to identify the trends as well as challenges of VRALL by analysing the most popular of the currently available VR apps that can be downloaded from commercial platforms such as Google Play Store and App Store. However, results suggest that most of the retrieved apps are not specifically designed for foreign language learning, although they can be used for such a purpose. Furthermore, very few of the apps explore the real potential of VR, either providing novel teaching and learning approaches and new types of interaction, or offering novel learning scenarios that could allow the learner to experience a greater sense of immersion and thus facilitate the process of language immersion and language acquisition.
... For instance, in [65], the word-based pronunciation training system, PARLING, displays well-known children's stories. In [156], personalized activities in significant 3-D virtual environments are shown. Duolingo offers activities related to particular stories which can change with game progress, presented by an owl character, Duo. ...
... For instance, in [150] a warrior-based avatar represents each group of students in the game. In [156], 3-D human-based avatars can interact with the whole environment. In [157], human-based avatars permits also more than two people to be involved in the conversations. ...
Thesis
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The quality of speech technology (automatic speech recognition, ASR, and text–to–speech, TTS) has considerably improved and, consequently, an increasing number of computer-assisted pronunciation (CAPT) tools has included it. However, pronunciation is one area of teaching that has not been developed enough since there is scarce empirical evidence assessing the effectiveness of tools and games that include speech technology in the field of pronunciation training and teaching. This PhD thesis addresses the design and validation of an innovative CAPT system for smart devices for training second language (L2) pronunciation. Particularly, it aims to improve learner's L2 pronunciation at the segmental level with a specific set of methodological choices, such as learner's first and second language connection (L1–L2), minimal pairs, a training cycle of exposure–perception–production, individualistic and social approaches, and the inclusion of ASR and TTS technology. The experimental research conducted applying these methodological choices with real users validates the efficiency of the CAPT prototypes developed for the four main experiments of this dissertation. Data is automatically gathered by the CAPT systems to give an immediate specific feedback to users and to analyze all results. The protocols, metrics, algorithms, and methods necessary to statistically analyze and discuss the results are also detailed. The two main L2 tested during the experimental procedure are American English and Spanish. The different CAPT prototypes designed and validated in this thesis, and the methodological choices that they implement, allow to accurately measuring the relative pronunciation improvement of the individuals who trained with them. Both rater's subjective scores and CAPT's objective scores show a strong correlation, being useful in the future to be able to assess a large amount of data and reducing human costs. Results also show an intensive practice supported by a significant number of activities carried out. In the case of the controlled experiments, students who worked with the CAPT tool achieved better pronunciation improvement values than their peers in the traditional in-classroom instruction group. In the case of the challenge-based CAPT learning game proposed, the most active players in the competition kept on playing until the end and achieved significant pronunciation improvement results.
... Asimismo, solo 2 de los 72 estudiantes usaron los materiales únicamente antes de preparar alguno de los exámenes (test) periódicos o entregas de videos que se hicieron a lo largo del cuatrimestre en el que se impartió la asignatura. Dichos resultados destacan aún más al analizar el uso que los mismos estudiantes hicieron de otras herramientas para su aprendizaje autónomo como, por ejemplo, del Campus Virtual o incluso del manual de curso (Berns, 2013). Así, es de notar que aunque 11 de los 72 estudiantes usaron el Campus Virtual a diario, seguido por 14 que lo usaron más de 2 veces por semana, 21 semanalmente y 6 únicamente antes de un examen, hubo sin embargo un total de 20 de los 72 estudiantes que no lo usaron ni una sola vez. ...
... Los resultados del estudio dejan intuir que es, ante todo, el formato dinámico, interactivo y de fácil acceso el que diferencia al WhatsApp de otras herramientas como Moodle que, pese a ofrecer propiedades interesantes y muy variadas para apoyar el aprendizaje autónomo, no resulta demasiado atractivo al alumnado actual. De hecho los datos del presente estudio indican que plataformas como Moodle, que hasta hace poco estuvieron consideradas como uno de los recursos más valorados en la enseñanza mixta (Garrison y Kanuka, 2004;Berns, González-Pardo, y Camacho, 2013;Bates, 2015), parecen estar en claro declive, al menos, en términos de popularidad entre el actual alumnado. De ahí que se hace necesario un cambio de paradigma y la búsqueda de herramientas alternativas de aprendizaje junto a la revisión de los actuales modelos de enseñanza y la búsqueda, no sólo de nuevas vías de comunicación con el alumnado, sino también de herramientas más eficaces de aprendizaje. ...
Chapter
Con el cada vez más fácil acceso a las tecnologías emergentes no solo han surgido nuevas formas de comunicación entre nuestros estudiantes, sino además la necesidad de adoptar e integrar estas nuevas formas de comunicación en nuestra enseñanza. Con esto no sólo nos referimos a la necesidad de buscar nuevos canales y vías de comunicación con nuestros estudiantes, sino también nuevas formas de confeccionar materiales de aprendizaje, aprovechando la diversidad de formatos que nos brindan las distintas tecnologías. En este contexto, plataformas como el WhatsApp se han ido convirtiendo poco a poco en canales de comunicación y, a la vez, en herramientas de aprendizaje más eficientes que otras más convencionales (foros, correo electrónico, plataformas de aprendizaje, etc.). Esto se debe, tanto a su carácter y servicio de mensajería instantánea, como al hecho de que brindan la posibilidad de usar formatos muy variados de comunicación (archivos de audio, videos, fotos, chats o, incluso, videollamadas).Teniendo en cuenta el conjunto de factores mencionados, el objetivo del presente proyecto es explorar dentro de la enseñanza de idiomas el potencial educativo y motivador que se desprende del uso de plataformas y herramientas como el WhatsApp, frente a otras herramientas más convencionales a la hora de proporcionar a los estudiantes materiales de aprendizaje para trabajar determinados contenidos y competencias lingüísticas.
... Some speci¯c video games, such as the ones based on Virtual Worlds 49-51 or 3D-based games, 52,53 have been successfully applied to teaching languages, like German, 54,55 or French. 50 The bene¯ts of playing video games have made them useful in a wide variety of sectors of the society such as education, [56][57][58] sports, 59 training, 60-62 marketing, 63 or clinical practice, 64 among others. ...
Article
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Radicalization, as a violent form of extremism, is a growing problem for Europe. Currently, it is possible to find extreme ideologies regarding almost every topic such as religion, politics or sports. This problem, which ranges from personal identity conflicts to complex societal issues, has an impact on several people everyday, especially on youngsters. To confront this situation, the European Union found several initiatives, as a way to face this problem from a scientific perspective. Some of these initiatives face the problem trying to reduce radicalization by working on personal and social skills through education, in such a way the youngster’s resilience is improved. This paper aims to present YoungRes, a European project whose goal is to improve the resilience of youngsters. To do so, it unifies an already created intervention — named Fortius — through the inclusion of video games in the learning process. This paper describes both: (1) how the Fortius program is modified to allow video games sessions and (2) the software architecture designed to allow students and educators to participate in YoungRes project. Finally, different suggestions to include in future versions of the game are discussed.
... Garcia, Laesker, Andujar, Kauer, and Nguyen (2019) introduced a VR experience created in Unity and deployed in Oculus Rift for learning about household items in the Spanish Language. Berns et al. (2013) developed a 3D virtual world for learning German language and found that games in a 3D virtual world help students to learn faster and easier. Moreover, according to Schwienhorst (2002), several researchers have concluded that VR can be used to create authentic language learning environments in terms of tools, space and speakers that are better than the physical classroom. ...
Chapter
Learning how to give and follow directions in English is one of the key topics in regular English as a Foreign Language (EFL) courses. However, this topic is commonly taught in the classroom with pencil and paper exercises. In this chapter, a scaffolded virtual reality (VR) environment for learning the topic of following directions in English is introduced. An eye tracking study was conducted to determine how students perceive the scaffolds for completing the learning task, and an evaluation of acceptance and usability was conducted to identify the students’ perceptions. The results show that scaffolds in the form of text and images are both effective for increasing the students’ learning performance. The gaze frequency is higher for the textual scaffold, but the duration of gaze fixations is lower for the scaffolds in the form of images. The acceptance and usability of the VR environment were found to be positive.
... Systems that are virtually immersive are equipped with a 3D virtual world (VW) and are used across a variety of domains for multiple purposes. Berns[19], Gonzales-Pardo, & Camacho[20] define virtual worlds as "3D environments where users' graphical representations, called avatars can interact with other avatars as well as objects within the environment". They argue that Virtual Worlds are 'highly immersive' environments because of their ability to reproduce or simulate a tremendous amount of real-life activities. ...
Thesis
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Students who learn foreign languages have limited exposure to conversations in the target language as, by definition, a foreign language is the one that is not commonly spoken where they live. However, exposure to the target language is key to acquiring it. This gap is commonly filled by international foreign language immersion programs. International foreign language immersion programs enable a student to move temporarily to a foreign country for several months where opportunities to interact in the target language are ample. However, the overhead of moving to a foreign country makes foreign language education less accessible. This dissertation explores how extensions to state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) integrated with Extended Reality (XR) can bring experiences like the ones found in international immersion programs to a student and help them acquire a foreign language; without requiring them to travel extensively. To bring this experience to the students, we rely on two key theories --- Physical immersion and social immersion. Physical immersion lets the students feel as if they are somewhere else while social immersion gives them a context to practice their conversational skills. Extended Reality (XR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are two technologies that can bring these theories to life. Specifically, recent developments in XR make it possible to enable physical immersion by creating a sense of suspended disbelief. Whereas, social immersion can be brought by embodied AI Agents situated in the visual scenes that can hear, see, and speak to students. We show that by bringing AI and XR together, we can create an experience that provides authentic conversational opportunities like the ones found in international immersion programs and thus improve students' target language proficiency. Specifically, we articulate a pedagogical framework that involves learning a foreign language with AI in XR. We show how AI can be extended from its state-of-the-art and integrated with XR technology to enable the said pedagogical framework. The learning methodology and technology are novel and resulting interactions are unique in that they immerse students without requiring intrusive wearables thereby allowing long-term collaborative experiences in a virtual world where students can communicate multi-modally with several AI Agents and each other. We test the novel interactions to observe users' characteristics in Human-AI conversational interactions and solve key challenges. The resulting novel interactions with AI in XR environments contributed by this dissertation are shown to improve foreign language learners’ proficiency across vocabulary, listening, comprehension and conversation.
... Many language teachers have integrated innovative technology into classrooms that students can use when they enter the workforce. In English language teaching and learning, ESP also has used technology in its various forms of high-tech digital technology such as interactive whiteboards [20]- [23], Web 2.0 [24]- [26], mobile technologies [27]- [35], virtual environment [36]- [39], and Skype/online conferencing [40], [41]. ...
... In recent years many experts have recognised the enormous educational and motivational potential of video games and VWs [8][9][10][11] yet, to date, there are few empirical studies directly exploring their impact on learning processes [12][13][14]. ...
Article
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Virtual Worlds (VWs) are popular tools for teaching/learning in the twenty-first century classroom. The challenge remains however, to provide the means by which teachers could sustainably analyse and assess the performance of large groups of students in such environments. Unfortunately, external game features such as game scores and play duration have turned out to be unfair in some assessments. In this context, a case study was carried out in a foreign language course, illustrating how teachers could easily retrieve a number of performance indicators from VW-interaction logs and harness them to conduct a fine-grained analysis of students’ performance, while facilitating at the same time valuable tools for their assessment. Objective performance indicators in a server database were made accessible using an end-user development programming language. This way, a range of data visualisation methods could be employed to contrast different assumptions regarding learner performance when playing a VW-based game, which was designed to help CEFR A1 level students to learn German. This way, factors such as randomisation of game tasks, which could negatively affect learner performance, were alleviated.
... Teachers need only have some basics computer skills to start applying this learning method. Moreover, (Fenton, 2015) said that Moodle has more than 70 million users globally, which is aligned with (Berns, et al. 2013). ...
Article
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This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of ICT-based learning on improving all aspects of the English skills of Elementary School Teacher College students. To achieve that goal, we use an experimental methodology with a pretest and post-test design of two groups, using the cluster random sampling. For this research, there were nine classes of Elementary School Teacher College students who enrolled in the Integrated English course with a total of 311 people as the population. From that population, we took samples consisted of four classes: two classes, consist of 76 people that treated with blended learning, and the other two classes, consisting of 73 people, using conventional learning. In this research, we focus on the skillsets of the English Language they are reading, writing, listening, and speaking. To test students' ability in the first three skills, we used some form of descriptions, while for the speaking skills, we collected data using observation sheets. SPSS version 20 was used for the analysis of pretest and post-test data using the Manova test and Normalized gain (N-gain). Manova's result showed that a significant difference in English language skills, which can be concluded that the treatment that combines the Moodle-based e-learning and face-to-face classes has effectively impacted students' English skills.
... Zheng et al. 25 developed an avatar-embodied virtual environment for native and non-native English speakers in English language learning, which many participants found useful for practicing the language. Berns et al. 26 developed a 3D virtual world for foreign language learning and found that students' motivation and learning efficiency were positively impacted by the virtual world. ...
Article
Previous research has shown that student-instructor interaction is vital to motivating students to learn a second language. However, it is unclear whether learners' demographics affect in-game immersion and interactions with virtual instructors. This study's purpose is to investigate whether the number of years learning Japanese (foreign language familiarity) influences students' immersion levels in serious games and their interactions with virtual instructors. We developed a 3D animated Japanese roleplaying game with a virtual in-game instructor. Eighty-four college students enrolled in 200- and 300-level Japanese language courses voluntarily participated in the study. Participants played the game and then answered a questionnaire concerning virtual character appearance, attentiveness to the instructor, and immersion in the game. The findings indicated that gender and the number of years studying Japanese significantly impact multiple measurements.
... Avatars are included to enrich the user experience during games. They are widely used in virtual environments of language learning games [77], [78]. An avatar represents the user in the game, and allows interaction with other users through their respective avatars. ...
Article
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Learning games have a remarkable potential for education. They provide an emergent form of social participation that deserves the assessment of their usefulness and efficiency in learning processes. This study describes a novel learning game for foreign pronunciation training in which players can challenge each other. Native Spanish speakers performed several pronunciation activities during a onemonth competition using a mobile application, designed under a minimal pairs approach, to improve their pronunciation of English as a foreign language. This game took place in a competitive scenario in which students had to challenge other participants in order to get high scores and climb up a leaderboard. Results show intense practice supported by a significant number of activities and playing regularity, so the most active and motivated players in the competition achieved significant pronunciation improvement results. The integration of automatic speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech (TTS) technology allowed users to improve their pronunciation while being immersed in a highly motivational game.
... As it was said before, interactions between native and non-native speakers are helpful in second language learning, and games are a greater learning intermediary since some allow communication between communities. Therefore, cooperative game-play becomes a component that contributes to second language acquisition [46] since it provides real-time feedback and the learner is presented with vocabulary in context, making it easier to learn and understand the target language [48,57], and, also, improving their writing competence [45]. According to some students' observations, this learning method is enjoyable, fun, motivating, improves their learning interest and decreases cognition load [50,56]. ...
Article
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Virtual reality has shown to have great potential as an educational tool when it comes to new learning methods. With the growth and dissemination of this technology, there is a massive opportunity for teachers to add this technology to their methods of teaching a second/foreign language, since students keep showing a growing interest in new technologies. This systematic review of empirical research aims at understanding whether the use of gaming strategies in virtual reality is beneficial for the learning of a second/foreign language or not. Results show that more than half of the articles proved that virtual reality technologies with gaming strategies can be used to learn a foreign language. It was also found that “learning” was the most evaluated dependent variable among the chosen records, augmented reality was the leading technology used, primary education and lower secondary was the most researched school stages, and the most used language to evaluate the use of gamified technology was by far the English language. Given the lack of directed investigation, it is recommended to use these technologies to support second language learning and not entirely replace traditional approaches. A research agenda is also proposed by the authors.
... Nowadays, game-based learning can support formal education at different school levels, besides improving students' learning outcomes in fields like science (Hwang, Wu and Chen, 2012;Lester et al., 2014), mathematics (Núñez Castellar et al., 2015;McLaren et al., 2017;Kiili, Moeller and Ninaus, 2018) and language learning (Berns, Gonzalez-Pardo and Camacho, 2013;Yeh, Hung and Hsu, 2017). Moreover, a variety of skills can also be obtained through the use of serious games for education, such as problem-solving (Sánchez and Olivares, 2011;Al-Washmi, Hopkins and Blanchfield, 2013;Sun, Chen and Chu, 2018) and critical thinking (Yi, 2011;Checa-Romero, 2016). ...
... Online vision-based motion games [29] Nori School [32] The request game [53] Virtual Language Patient [107] Medicina [36,138] It's a Deal! [75] Immersive RPG for English pragmatics [37] Speech-Enabled Virtual Scenarios [89] ELMORPG [114,119] VirtUAM [39] Word Score [122] HOPSCOTCH exer-game [109] VocaMono [118] eBook-based game [76] Digital game based on the board game Fresco [110] GeCALL [41] Children Make Terrible Pets made by Microsoft Games Studio [78] Alphabetical sound ariculation game [40] MEL [77] ...
Article
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Considerable changes have occurred in language learning with the introduction of gameful approaches in the classroom and the increase in the popularity of language applications like Duolingo. A review of existing studies on such approaches to language learning shows that gamification tends to be the most popular approach. However, this popularity has been achieved at the expense of other gameful approaches, such as the use of digital games. To gain a clearer picture of the developments and gaps in the digital game-based learning research, this paper examines and categorizes observations about game elements used in published papers (n = 114) where serious and digital games were tested in language education settings. Game element analysis reveals that (1) the most frequently occurring elements in digital game-based language learning (DGBLL) are feedback, theme, points, narrative, and levels; (2) even though there was significant variance in the number of elements observed in DGBLL, both the bespoke and off-the-shelf games show similar high-frequency elements; (3) DGBLL has been applied to vocabulary acquisition and retention in many cases, but lacks implementation and testing in input and output language skills; (4) although there is some consensus on the most frequent elements, the design patterns of common elements according to age group and target language skill show considerable variance; (5) more research is needed on less common design elements that have shown promise in encouraging language acquisition. The synthesis of information from the collected papers contributes to knowledge regarding DGBLL application design and will help formulate guidelines and detect efficacy patterns as the field continues to grow.
... Studies conducted to date have shown that implementing new practices in the process of language instruction and web-based learning models provide greater benefits than conventional models (Yusofa & Saadon, 2012); students have a positive attitude toward independent and individual learning in various technology-based language learning environments (Shih-Yin, 2005); newly developed instruction models improve the self-efficacy of students (Baltrus, 2003), and custom systems developed for language instruction have a positive effect on student achievement (Yamada, 2009;Wang et al., 2009;Arias et al., 2010). The technology-assisted language instruction activities developed by researchers, include digital narrations (Connolly, 2008), game-like applications and platforms (Berns et al., 2013), blogs (Pontydysgu, 2007) and online lessons, and these have helped students develop positive attitudes toward learning, have increased their interest and motivation, have facilitated and streamlined learning, have made the process of learning fun and have decreased levels of anxiety. In this context, utilizing new and contemporary approaches to language instruction, and vocabulary instruction in particular, allows learners to engage in independent and individual learning, provides rich learning environments, makes the learning process fun, and increases interest and motivation. ...
Article
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This study aims to scrutinize the effects of gamified Turkish vocabulary teaching on vocabulary development, and motivation on learning words. A nested mixed-method experimental design (gamification-based vocabulary learning for the experimental group instructor-led vocabulary learning for the control group) and was conducted with 34 fourth-grade students. Data were collected using the Vocabulary Achievement Test (VAT) and the Vocabulary Learning Motivation Scale (VLMS), interview forms, diaries and activity notebooks, video recordings, and researchers' diaries. Significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores of the gamification-based and instructor-led vocabulary learning groups measuring vocabulary achievements and motivation. There were considerable differences in favor of the experimental group between mean pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control groups for vocabulary achievement, whereas no significant differences were found in terms of motivation. It was found that experimental group's vocabulary achievement, awareness and competencies were improved; as well as their willingness and motivation to engage in vocabulary learning, use of previously unknown words, vocabulary development, and embracing of the gamification application and its components, and also showed indicators of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. On the other hand, quantitative results of the control group were at acceptable levels, although their qualitative results were poorer in terms of generating themes and being able to evaluate learning progress. The study was concluded with recommendations for practitioners and future research.
... These studies have also analyzed, for example, the relationship between the communicative focus and the use of a simulated environment in the videogames, insisting on what is adequate for the use of this tool for the current focus of learning of a FL. On their part, Berns, González- Pardo and Camacho (2013) have focused their research on the use of 3D videogames, showing that this new context increases the interaction and the use of language, thereby improving the linguistic competence of the user. Lastly, the work by Calvo-Ferrer and Belda-Medina (2015) is underlined, which studied the acquisition of specialized terminology, highlighting that the users were more motivated and satisfied with his or her learning thanks to the immersive character and the feedback offered by the videogames. ...
Article
With the understanding that videogames have become a powerful resource not only for entertainment but also as an educational resource for foreign language teaching today, the objective of this study was to examine the use of the videogame Broken Sword for the teaching of French as a second language in a higher education setting. To assess the suitability of the video game as a foreign language teaching tool, a quantitative methodology based on a 22-item ad hoc questionnaire was used, through which we collected the assessment of the students. Despite the expectations and the high degree of participation and cooperation of the students surveyed, the results revealed an attitude of indifference regarding the videogame’s contributions to language learning. We considered the results to be very positive, as for many of the students this exercise was not only a test with a language that they did not master yet, but also had technical difficulties that they had to overcome. The challenge of this experience invites us to continue working with new videogames titles and to improve our future methodological interventions.
... This was observed during our study where VR participants "broke" lab equipment and simply restarted the same steps immediately with new digital equipment. Similar to the findings in game-based environments, the VR laboratory environment welcomed exploratory learning habits with immediate feedback, minor consequences, and the opportunity to easily repeat experiences (Berns et al., 2013;Lau & Lee, 2015). Given the opportunity to fail and learning from that failure is a powerful learning strategy (Edmondson, 2011;Straehler-Pohl & Pais, 2014). ...
Article
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Recent global events and educational trends have led schools to heavily rely on digital media to educate their students. Science classes, in particular, stand to lose substantial learning opportunities without the ability to provide physical laboratory experiences. Virtual reality (VR) technology has the potential to resolve this issue, but little is known if VR environments can produce similar results to real-life (RL) science learning environments. This 2 × 1, between-subjects study compares students’ learning results and safety behaviors in VR and RL chemistry laboratories. The study attempts to identify differences in learning experience (i.e., general chemistry content, experiment comprehension, laboratory safety knowledge) and laboratory safety behavior. Results indicate learning general content knowledge, laboratory skills, and procedure-related safety behaviors were comparable between RL and VR conditions, but clean-up behaviors were less frequent in VR. Also, the exploratory, risk-free nature of VR environments may have allowed the learners to elaborate and reflect more on general chemistry content and laboratory safety knowledge than in the RL environment.
... Analysing the studies of other foreign scholars, we noted that [19] developed and designed video games to learn a foreign language, using already known video games (SIM 3, SHAIEx) Other researchers [20] studied digital a game of the Adaptive Hypermedia system, and [21]- [23] used the virtual 3D world to learn the language. ...
Article
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The article presents an analysis of innovative teaching technologies as a way to increase students’ competitiveness. The author found that innovative technologies in education are information and communication technologies relying on computer-based learning. The structure, content of educational software, organization of Web-space are important when using innovative teaching technologies in English classes. We conducted the study in several stages: comparative analysis, synthesis, classification and systematization of the results of psychological and pedagogical, educational and methodological research; study of legislative acts, periodicals in order to identify the state of the research issue, and determining the directions of its solution, as well as subject, goal and objectives of the study. We used modelling to create situations of foreign language professional communication of future IT specialists. Empirical methods involved questionnaires used for identifying the motives of professional development and determining the features of the educational activities of future IT specialists in the process of training. The methods of mathematical statistics allowed to scientifically describe and systematize the obtained data, to identify the quantitative relationship between the studied phenomena, to analyse and summarize the results. We conducted a socio-psychological study during 2016 - 2019. It involved 255 first- and fourth-year students of National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute.” Innovative information and communication technologies that improve the educational and cognitive activity of students, as well as increase the level of their knowledge have become important in teaching a foreign language in higher educational institutions. These technologies include MOODLE — Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, business game, integrated pedagogical technology, case study technology. Thus, the information-rich learning process in combination with the use of innovative technologies, well-organized e-learning, interactive training courses, multimedia tools improves the program of teaching and learning foreign languages in general, and English in particular, improves the level of knowledge of future IT specialists and motivation to study and learn foreign languages, allows students to use a variety of authentic materials. We state that all these factors influence the process of individualization of learning and contribute to the successful mastery of a foreign language.
... Based on the open source platform Open Simulator, Anke et al. designed and developed the VirtUAM three-dimensional virtual German learning game platform [10]. The platform records learners' relevant data about interactions with the system, studies learners' learning motivation and learning effects, and provides real-time feedback on learners' wins in language games. ...
... Game-like 3D virtual learning environments (30.8%). Berns et al. (2013) explored the impact of video games on learning motivation within the virtual world and confirmed the motivational aspects of game-like applications. The integration of instructional materials into games and interacting with simulated game characters in the VWLL environment enhances learning efficiency and motivation (Alfadil, 2020;Yeh et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The purpose of this systematic review was threefold: (a) to convey technology-assisted language learning (TALL) affordances that facilitate catering to the nonlinearity and dynamicity of the second language (L2) motivational factors, (b) to identify TALL challenges that inhibit the integration of educational technologies to enhance L2 motivation and (c) to predict the future direction of TALL research on L2 motivation. One hundred forty-eight articles published from 2010 to 2021 were systematically reviewed to gain insights into affordances, challenges, adopted theories, settings, research methods and motivation constructs in different TALL subfields (computer, mobile, robot, virtual worlds). Pedagogically, 30 affordances were identified in the reviewed articles that can enable teachers to enhance L2 motivation in the TALL environment. Theoretically, 12 challenges were reported by the reviewed studies that need to be overcome in future TALL research. Drawing on the obtained results, some suggestions are provided for future TALL research directions. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Games are known to capture attention [142] through cognitive, emotional, physical, and social demands [27]. Further, previous work has shown that harnessing the game-based technique of avatar customization is one way to increase engagement with a system: avatar customization has been shown to increase identification with the avatar (and resulting engagement with the system) not only in digital games [98], but also in serious games [17], and in therapeutic scenarios [21]. In the context of social anxiety, customization may elevate the experience of fear in a social simulation that involves performance and potential judgement from others. ...
Article
The treatment of social anxiety through digital exposure therapy is challenging due to the cognitive properties of social anxiety-individuals need to be fully engaged in the task and feel themselves represented in the social situation; however, avatar customization has been shown to increase both engagement and social presence. In this paper, we harness techniques used in commercial games, and investigate how customizing self-representation in a novel digital exposure task for social anxiety influences the experience of social threat. In an online experiment with 200 participants, participants either customized their avatar or were assigned a predefined avatar. Participants then controlled the avatar through a virtual shop, where they had to solve a math problem, while a simulated audience within the virtual world observed them and negatively judged their performance. Our findings show that we can stimulate the fear of evaluation by others in our task, that fear is driven primarily by trait social anxiety, and that this relationship is strengthened for people higher in trait social anxiety. We provide new insights into the effects of customization in a novel therapeutic context, and embed the discussion of avatar customization into related work in social anxiety and human-computer interaction. ?
... Reading skills alone were not investigated in any study, but they were assessed with other skills. For example, one NMGBLL study explored the co-development of speaking and reading skills through a VirtUAM game (Berns et al., 2013;Chen & Kent, 2020). Kondo et al. (2012) improved learners' reading and listening skills together through a mobile Nintendo DS game. ...
Article
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Recent studies have increasingly investigated the effectiveness of both mobile and non-mobile digital game-based language learning. To gain an in-depth understanding of the differences in the effectiveness of mobile and non-mobile games, we compared studies from January 2000 to August 2020 investigating mobile game-based language learning (MGBLL) and non-mobile game-based language learning (NMGBLL). Sixty-four articles were analyzed from four aspects: game types, game elements, target languages, and learning outcomes. The results showed that (a) gamification, simulation games, and immersive games were applied most; (b) all games possessed the game elements of goals or rules; (c) the most investigated target languages were English and Chinese; and (d) the most discussed learning outcomes were language acquisition and psychological/affective state. The similarities and differences between MGBLL and NMGBLL were also identified. The current review provides an overview and in-depth analysis of mobile and non-mobile games for language learning, guiding practitioners to select appropriate digital games to cater to specific language teaching goals. Future directions of research are also discussed.
... Not only can you integrate more gestures, you can actually physically engage with the types of actions and objects that we might describe in the classroom by saying "imagine" or "try to remember a time when", such as walking into a shop, taking items you want to buy from the shelf and paying with your credit card at the cash register, further reinforcing the communicative connection between action and utterance. Finally, in a study by Berns et al. (2013) that combined competitive, game-like elements and a virtual environment with interaction between learners, objects and the environment, beginner learners' vocabulary, reading, writing and pronunciation skills improved. These are just some examples from studies on the effect of interactivity in VR on language learning. ...
Research
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Academic blog written for Immerse. Please cite as: Kern, N. (2021, February 25). Why Interaction in Virtual Reality Matters. The Immerse Blog. https://www.immerse.online/post/why-interaction-in-virtual-reality-matters
Research on vocabulary acquisition in digital game-based learning has been increasing over the years, with advancements in technology giving rise to numerous learning alternatives in second language acquisition. As virtual reality gaming offers new opportunities to explore its effectiveness in language learning, it is thus important to investigate the benefits of virtual reality gaming on English vocabulary learning, as well as the potential in incorporating virtual reality to teaching practices in the classroom. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR) and personal computer (PC) gaming on language learners’ vocabulary learning, as well as their affective perception. Thirty Grade 12 high school students participated in this study and were randomly assigned to either the VR or PC group. The VR group played a Sci-fi VR visual novel game, Angels and Demigods, using the Oculus Go whereas the PC group played the same game in the PC version without the VR elements. The gaming session lasted for fifty minutes for both groups. A vocabulary translation and recognition pretest, posttest and delayed posttest were adopted to compare their performance, along with a questionnaire to probe into their perception towards their respective treatment. The results revealed that both the VR group and the PC group were able to gain vocabulary knowledge in both the translation and recognition tests. In comparison, the VR group demonstrated a significantly higher mean score than the PC group in the vocabulary translation delayed posttest. The questionnaire showed that learners in both groups enjoyed playing the visual novel game and were willing to adopt it as a tool for learning vocabulary.
Article
Various studies over the past few decades have been exploring the educational advantages and potential of virtual reality (VR) and the idea that students engage with their learning materials more effectively when using their own devices. This study uses a newly created VR game-based English mobile learning application and investigates student English learning effectiveness, student game engagement, and self-regulated learning from a cognitive and psychological perspective. In total, 274 students from a Taiwan university of science and technology participated in this study. Statistical results indicate that both game engagement and game experience were significantly influenced by self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and test anxiety. Immersion, flow, and presence enhanced self-efficacy while absorption and immersion enhanced self-regulation. Self-efficacy and self-regulation affected each other. Student self-regulation in the learning environment was at a moderate level. The results imply that the interaction feature of the VR application and the challenges of game-based design enable students to enter the state of flow easily and enhance their motivation to learn.
Article
Motivation is one of the important factors that increase the success of athletes, especially who lift weights. It increases not only the success of the athletes but also influences other notions such as increasing self‐confidence, decreasing anxiety, and improving endurance. Although motivation has a key role in the performance of athletes, most of the athletes may be fully motivated only in competition environments. However, being motivated only in competition environments is not enough for athletes since they spend most of their time in training. If they are motivated in training environments as motivated as in competition environments, they can increase their performance, however, being motivated during training sessions is not easy since there are not enough motivational factors, such as spectators, in training environments. In order to solve this problem, this study aims to increase the motivation levels of powerlifters during training sessions by developing a virtual competition environment. In this environment, the athletes experience a virtual competition environment by using HTC Vive. To understand the efficiency of the virtual environment, it was tested with 32 professional athletes. The findings illustrated that using VR technology was beneficial to increase the level of motivation of powerlifters during training sessions. Motivation is one of the important factors that increase the success of athletes. Most of the athletes may be fully motivated only in competition environments. If there would be a chance to increase their motivation during training sessions, their performance and success may be increased. To achieve this issue, a virtual competition environment was designed by benefiting from VR technology. The findings illustrated that VR technology was beneficial to increase the level of motivation of powerlifters during training sessions.
Article
This study aims to help international students learn the language and cultural knowledge of their future study destination by collaborating with local students through coplaying games in online virtual rooms. Therefore, this study explores whether the 3D interactive game with specific contexts on a virtual platform can support intercultural collaboration and improve the students’ language and cultural learning. This study created novel 3D contextual interactive games (3DCIGs) in a gamified virtual environment (GVE), established on a unique virtual platform named Terf ® . Terf ® enables the observing and recording of data related to the conversations and behaviors of users. To investigate the effects of 3DCIGs on students, a focus group consisting of newly arrived Chinese students and Irish students from an Irish university participated in this study. The study adopted mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis to examine whether 3DCIGs effectively motivate the collaborative learning of intercultural students compared with text-based assignments set in the Game Play Rooms. The findings reveal that the novel 3DCIGs developed in this study have a positive potential to motivate intercultural students to engage in team collaboration and help their cultural and language knowledge exchange.
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) has been used to enhance EFL learners’ speaking skills due to its immersive and interactive features. This study thus investigated the effects of VR on elementary school students' English-speaking performance and such affective variables as their willingness to communicate (WTC) and learning autonomy. Fifty-six EFL sixth graders participated in a tour in a museum. When learning and practicing dialogues and vocabulary related to the museum, students in the experimental group ( n = 28) were guided with Cospaces, a VR software package, with VR headsets, while their counterparts ( n = 28) were guided with pictures only. Instruments included a validated speaking test on (1) pronunciation, fluency, and intonation and (2) grammar and lexical use, adopted questionnaires on WTC and learning autonomy, and semi-structured interviews. Results demonstrated that VR significantly increased students’ grammar and lexical use in their speaking performance, but not their pronunciation, fluency and intonation, WTC, or learning autonomy.
Article
The study is the second in a series of mixed-methods studies on the integration of The Sims 4, a life-simulation game, into language classrooms. In this study, the researcher explores the effect of game-based language learning (GBLL) on students' English communicative competence from three aspects, interaction, fluency and content, in a Japanese university. In class, students received instruction from the teacher on game language and gameplay skills, played the game on their own and presented gameplay stories. The presentations were recorded for evaluation. Surveys were also administered for students' perceptions on the GBLL classroom. Results showed that no clear improvement in communicative competence was suggested by quantitative evaluation. Qualitatively data, however, indicated that the game afforded students interesting events and proper expressions in presentations and that the teacher played a vital role in ensuring ample interactional opportunities and linguistic support. Suggestions for future research in classroom-situated GBLL were also proposed.
Chapter
Being able to communicate in a foreign language is a very pleasant experience. Moreover, in different working environments and scenarios, it is necessary. For this reason, there is a tremendous need to continue the research and development of techniques, tools, applications, strategies, and experiences related to the teaching and learning of foreign languages, adapted to the different needs, abilities, and interests of the learners. This chapter explores the important role that technology is playing in supporting the learning of languages through the facilitation of ubiquitous learning, where techniques such as informatics technology, mobile technology, or cloud computing, and tools such as learning management systems (LMSs) and massive open online courses (MOOCs) can be of great help.
Article
Extremist ideologies are proliferating nowadays in both political and social levels. Considering that youngsters are in a development stage where they are still conforming their own social identity, they become especially vulnerable to these ideologies’ influence. Therefore, it becomes critical to provide them with the psychological skills to rationalize and resist those influences. Video games, which are already a technology commonly consumed by these generations, provide a way to motivate and engage youngsters. Therefore, implementing these video games in interventions to increase psychological resilience represents an opportunity to create an innovative learning approach. Following this motivation, this paper has three main objectives: adapting a traditional emotional intelligence training program to a novel serious game based intervention, called YoungRes; providing a metric to measure the student’ evolution based on in-game behavioural patterns, instead of indirect measures; and evaluating the impact of the intervention itself after its implementation. To do so, an 11 sessions intervention was applied to 36 students from two primary schools in Spain. Quantitative and qualitative data was extracted from the experience, consisting on data extracted from the player’s behaviour and a final survey. A detailed statistical analysis carried out showed two main outcomes: first, the serious game based intervention was very appreciated by the students, specially by those who frequently play video games; second, the intervention allowed to improve several emotional intelligence competences, such as active listening and controlled breathing, as well as to promote knowledge about the Islamic culture. Finally, the authors discussed about how the game could be improved for future applications in schools.
Article
This study explored youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) learning social competence in the context of innovative 3D virtual learning environment and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The empirical study retrospectively compared the social interactions of 11 adolescents with ASD in game-and nongame-based 3D collaborative learning activities in the same social competence training curriculum. We employed a learning analytics approach - association rule mining to uncover the associative rules of verbal social interaction and nonverbal social interaction contributors from the large dataset of the coded social behaviors. By comparing the rules across the game and nongame activities, we found a significant difference in youth with ASD’s social performance. The results of the group comparison study indicated that the co-occurrence of verbal and nonverbal behaviors is much stronger in the game-based learning activities. The game activities also yielded more diverse social interaction behavior patterns. On the other hand, in the nongame activities, students’ social interaction behavior patterns are much more limited. Furthermore, the impact of game design principles on learning is then discussed in this paper.
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From 2007 and now on, it is a common premise for scholars and educators to use multi-user virtual worlds (VWs) in order to enhance students’ technological literacy with contemporary learning strategies. The corollary of interactivity and social formalization of modeling processes in an open source, server-based (standalone) virtual environment is a unique dimension that allows all users (students and instructor) to design a plethora learning activities in conjunction with the most contemporary pedagogical approaches. Accordingly to these provisions, this study focused on the implementation of a collaborative project-based course in computer science by taking advantage of the open source virtual world Open Simulator (Open Sim). The current case study seeks to present preliminary findings from collaborative experiences of an effort that thirty-five (35) postgraduate and undergraduate students participated with the hybrid instructional format in order to investigate the value of this effort for learning introductory programming lessons. This effort tries to articulate initial perceptions of students’ assessments based on an inquiry-based collaborative learning (IB[C]L) script that they involved, and secondarily to demonstrate the multisensory-multimodal potential perspectives or educational implications that are being emerged from the exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) technologically-advanced environments.
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Virtual Reality can be used effectively to enhance collaborative learning. This article will give an example of how a virtual world within a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) uses collaboration to construct knowledge, share and learn together in a semester program on intercultural education for graduate and undergraduate students. Much of the collaborative work takes place within an immersive virtual world. The program is designed to gradually increase the collaboration between members of small multicultural groups. The experience shows the value of virtual worlds to the increase of online collaboration between students, and suggests these environments are effective for building collaborative skills. Virtual worlds are particularly effective when face to face meetings are not possible.
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Web-based tools and applications that have the potential to increase motivation and interaction among learners have attracted a lot of attention in the English language learning community. One of the newest web-based technologies used for educational purposes is Moodle, a virtual learning environment with open source. Considering the importance of technology in general and the rarity of studies on the use of Moodle in Second Language Education, this paper examines the impact of second language teaching with the help of Moodle on the ability to understand Iranian learners. For this purpose, in this study, a sample of 46 students of the English language school in one of the Islamic Azad University units in Iran was used as research subjects. In line with the purpose of the research, the students of the experimental group (25) received a combination of learning, in which the Moodle was added to in-class education, while the control group students (21) trained only in the same traditional method of in-class education. This study was conducted over a semester for 16 weeks. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the comprehension function of the experimental group at the end of the period was better than the control group. These findings could have remarkable theoretical implications for teaching English as a second language.
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1: Principles of language acquisition – theory and application. 2: Free voluntary reading: Still a very good idea. 3. Current issues and controversies: Does grammar teaching work? What about “comprehensible ouput”? 4. How reading and writing make you smarter, or, how smart peope read and write
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Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online models be beneficial in a peer mentoring context? This article describes a literature review and case study that considers the advantages and disadvantages of three potential virtual models to facilitate a peer mentoring scheme. The case study, undertaken at Northumbria University, UK, involved an investigation of mentoring needs and current usage of electronic media where special attention is afforded to a diverse student body. The three models discussed are virtual learning environments (VLE), social networking sites and virtual worlds. We find that the VLE is established within institutions but lacks excitement; social networking is popular particularly with younger students but there may be resentment if this appears to be appropriated by the institution; whilst virtual worlds are unfamiliar to many students and require advanced skills to use successfully. Based on these findings the social networking model is now being run as a pilot study by business programmes at Northumbria University.
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This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. Full text is not available on IEEE Xplore for these articles.
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Much attention has been directed to the use of video games for learning in recent years, in part due to the staggering amounts of capital spent on games in the entertainment industry, but also because of their ability to captivate player attention and hold it for lengthy periods of time as players learn to master game complexities and accomplish objectives. This review of the literature on video game research focuses on publications analyzing educational game design, namely those that present design elements conducive to learning, the theoretical underpinnings of game design, and learning outcomes from video game play.
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In recent years videogames have been recognized as a powerful tool in education, attracting the interest of researchers from a wide range of areas. Nevertheless, there is still a considerable lack of good videogames in the field of foreign language teaching. This paper sets out to explore the use of Virtual Worlds combined with videogame-like applications in order to enhance the language learning process. It shows the authors’ experiences with the design of several game-like applications in a 3-D virtual environment and their benefits for the teaching of German as foreign language. Therefore the paper commences with a short analysis of the specific features of videogames as well as their deployment in educational games. It then continues by outlining the advantages of integrating them into blended learning. The aim of this analysis is to explore new ways of guaranteeing a highly interactive, motivating and effective environment, not only in a face-to-face learning context, but also in an online learning environment. The latter is considered to be complementary to, rather than different from the dynamic of the face-to-face learning situation. Our work combines theoretical research in language learning with a number of empirical studies using a 3-D virtual game environment to measure the effectiveness of videogame-like applications on foreign language learning. Finally, the paper includes an empirical evaluation of five language learning sessions during which students played the videogame-like application we had designed for the purposes of our research.
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Since Virtual Worlds (VWs) have been recognized as a powerful tool in education, they have been attracting the interest of many educational institutions and instructors. Our paper intends to explore the possibilities of using Virtual Worlds in foreign language teaching, focusing specifically on the A1 level (CEFR) of German language learners. The present research demonstrates the authors’ experiences with the design of several game- like applications in a 3D virtual environment as well as their benefits for the teaching and learning process. The paper commences with a short analysis of the specific features of videogames. It then continues by outlining the advantages of integrating them into Virtual Learning Platforms. The aim of this analysis is to explore new ways of guaranteeing a highly interactive, motivating and effective learning environment, not only in face-to-face teaching, but also in the autonomous online learning process. The latter is considered to be complementary to, rather than different from the dynamic of the face-to-face learning situation. Our work combines theoretical research in language learning with a number of empirical studies using a 3D virtual game environment to measure the effectiveness of videogame-like applications on foreign language learning. Finally, the paper concludes with an empirical evaluation of different language learning sessions in which students played the videogame-like application we had designed for this research project.
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Virtual Worlds have become a very popular domain and its high inmersive characteristics can be used to extract infor-mation about the avatars behaviour. In this kind of environ-ment it is possible to obtain interesting data about avatars, such as their exact position in the world, what they are look-ing at (eye-gazing) or what they are talking about. This paper studies how this information, obtained from avatars interactions, can be integrated in order to apply clustering techniques. Monitoring avatars in a virtual world is a useful task that allows the identification of behavioral groups. The meaning of these groups depends on the application domain, for example in educational virtual worlds, they can represent whether students are paying attention to the teacher's ex-planation or not.
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This paper summarizes the results from a series of studies designed to test the hypothesis that making learning more fun will produce corresponding increases both in learning and retention and in subsequent interest in the subject matter itself. Each study examined the effects of two or more versions of an educational activity, each designed to involve identical instructional content, but to differ in motivational appeal. The data from the studies presented provide good general support for the hypothesized cognitive and motivational benefits of appropriately designed motivational embellishments of educational activities. Exceptions to this rule, however, and a more general theoretical analysis of the conditions under which such positive effects are (and are not) expected to occur, are also discussed.
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This study has two purposes. First is to explain possible educational utilization of Web 2.0 tools, namely blogs, wikis, podcasts and social networks, from the point of importance of interaction for distance education. The second purpose of this study is to investigate adoption process of Web 2.0 tools in distance education by defining theories and models which have different construct that effect this process. Because the nature and structure of both distance education and Web 2.0 include multifaceted and dynamic variables, the limitation of utilization from only single diffusion, adoption or acceptance model or theory is underlined and it is proposed to handle a holistic view or using different models and theories suitable for research variables.
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of the transformative potential of blended learning in the context of the challenges facing higher education. Based upon a description of blended learning, its potential to support deep and meaningful learning is discussed. From here, a shift to the need to rethink and restructure the learning experience occurs and its transformative potential is analyzed. Finally, administrative and leadership issues are addressed and the outline of an action plan to implement blended learning approaches is presented. The conclusion is that blended learning is consistent with the values of traditional higher education institutions and has the proven potential to enhance both the effectiveness and efficiency of meaningful learning experiences.
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Serious games are becoming a powerful tool in education. However, there are still open issues needing further research to generalize the use of videogames and game-like simulations in the educational system. On the one hand, how to take advantage of the videogames' inherent adaptation behaviour in order to maximize the effectiveness of the learning experiences is still a world worth to be explored. On the other, there is still a need to develop mechanisms to track and evaluate the performance of the students when they use these learning tools. Finally, it is necessary to elaborate further game-based learning architectures that facilitate the delivery and distribution of the games to the students. In this paper we propose how to deal with all these issues taking also into account other relevant aspects such as development cost and instructor implication. This is exemplified with the HCT game, produced in cooperation with professors of the Complutense University School of Medicine at Madrid.
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The widely used e-learning technology is facing new challenges such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to the needs of each student. Those objectives should be met in a standard compliant way to simplify general adoption. In this context, educational videogames are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of the students' performance for assessment purposes. However, there are still barriers between the gaming and e-learning worlds preventing their mutual interaction. In this paper we propose a middleware to bridge this gap, integrating adaptive educational videogames in e-learning environments with a special focus on the ongoing standardization efforts.
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Good computer and video games like System Shock 2, Deus Ex, Pikmin, Rise of Nations, Neverwinter Nights, and Xenosaga: Episode 1 are learning machines. They get themselves learned and learned well, so that they get played long and hard by a great many people. This is how they and their designers survive and perpetuate themselves. If a game cannot be learned and even mastered at a certain level, it won't get played by enough people, and the company that makes it will go broke. Good learning in games is a capitalist-driven Darwinian process of selection of the fittest. Of course, game designers could have solved their learning problems by making games shorter and easier, by dumbing them down, so to speak. But most gamers don't want short and easy games. Thus, designers face and largely solve an intriguing educational dilemma, one also faced by schools and workplaces: how to get people, often young people, to learn and master something that is long and challenging--and enjoy it, to boot.
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Abstract Social network,sites,(SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic,and,industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach.,This special theme section of the,Journal,of Computer-Mediated,Communicationbrings ,together scholarship on these emergent phenomena.,In this introductory article, we describe features of SNSs and propose a comprehensive definition. We then present one perspective on the history of such sites, discussing key changes and developments. After briefly summarizing existing scholarship concerning SNSs, we discuss the articles,in this special section and conclude with considerations for future,research.
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Game-based learning is becoming popular in the academic discussion of Learning Technologies. However, even though the educational potential of games has been thoroughly discussed in the literature, the integration of the games into educational processes and how to efficiently deliver the games to the students are still open questions. This paper addresses the aspects of integration and automatic deployment of educational games in Learning Management Systems. This integration simplifies the introduction of games in educational settings, leveraging the pre-existing technological infrastructure. Our approach is based on the automatic packaging and exportation of games as self-contained Learning Objects that can be easily distributed through any LMS compliant with the current interoperability standards. We thus inherit the advantages of the Learning Object model in terms of interoperability and, when supported by the LMS, in terms of student tracking and assessment.
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This is the author's final draft of the paper published as Learning, Media and Technology, 2009, 34 (2), pp. 141-155. The final version is available from http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/17439880902923606. Doi: 10.1080/17439880902923606 Whilst recent studies suggest that over 95% of British undergraduate students are regularly using social networking sites, we still know very little about how this phenomenon impacts on the student experience and, in particular, how it influences students' social integration into university life. This paper explores how pre-registration engagement with a university Facebook network influences students' post-registration social networks. Research was conducted with first year undergraduates at a British university using an online survey. Students reported that they specifically joined Facebook pre-registration as a means of making new friends at university, as well as keeping in touch with friends and family at home. The survey data also illustrate that once at university, Facebook was part of the 'social glue' that helped students settle into university life. However, care must be taken not to over-privilege Facebook: it is clearly only one aspect of students' more general social networking practices and face-to-face interrelationships and interactions remain important. Students thought Facebook was used most importantly for social reasons, not for formal teaching purposes, although it was sometimes used informally for learning purposes.
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Cultivating motivation is crucial to a language learner's success - and therefore crucial for the language teacher and researcher to understand. This fully revised edition of a groundbreaking work reflects the dramatic changes the field of motivation research has undergone in recent years, including the impact of language globalisation and various dynamic and relational research methodologies, and offers ways in which this research can be put to practical use in the classroom and in research.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the use of an educational computer video game in teaching and learning. Cultural-historical activity theory is used heuristically to explore the social and cultural interactions during game play. It is argued that knowledge construction occurs when video games function as a tool to mediate learning rather than as instructional media. The unit of analysis is not the game as instruction but engagement with the game. Twelve 14 to 19 year old black orphans from Soweto, South Africa, participated in a case study. Groups of three participants, which included both sexes, played the game for at least six hours, kept a personal reflective journal, and after play answered a knowledge test and participated in a round-robin discussion. Results show that participants gained new knowledge, recognised that the game mediated their learning, identified the object of the activity and discussed how they might help their community. Results support the use of games as tools to mediate learning.
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Second Life is a virtual world that was created by Linden Labs in 2003 and that can be easily downloaded and accessed over the Internet. In the last few years, there has been a dramatic increase in its use as an educational tool. There are currently over 300 higher education institutions from all over the world that own a virtual campus in Second Life. A large number of interesting educational projects can be found across a range of subject areas, including language learning and teaching. This paper will explore the advantages offered by Second Life for language learning. More specifically, Second Life will be presented as a potential alternative platform for oral and written communication between language learners that may have a positive impact in the affective variables that come into play when learning a language, i.e. self-esteem, motivation and, particularly, anxiety. According to research carried out in the field of Sociology, computer-mediated communication seems to favour unhibited behaviour and decreased self-awareness. This may have an impact in anxiety level and in order to test this hypothesis, an experiment will be completed involving face to face communication and communication in a virtual environment. The aim will be to determine whether anxiety levels in both settings defer.
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This editorial introduction provides an overview of recent education commentary on social software. In particular it highlights gaps in current understanding and the corresponding need for robust empirical investigation of social software use in educational contexts.
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Traditional approaches to computer-aided learning have tended to minimize the role of the local teacher, despite their experience and close knowledge of their students' learning needs. A new approach to producing educational materials focuses on the construction of ‘learning objects’, storing these in ‘digital repositories’ and allowing for reuse in a variety of contexts. This paper reviews these basic concepts and provides information on their current state of development. It is also argued that whilst these new technologies offer tremendous potential benefits, more regard must now be paid to underlying pedagogical structures. This requires more explicit consideration of the types of learner activity and the social context within which the learning is situated.
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This paper represents a review of the second edition of Distance Education: A Systems View by Michael Moore and Greg Kearsley (Thomas/Wadsworth, 2005). This second edition reflects a view of current applications of distance education, based on the vantage of instructional systems design. The strengths of the book are reflected in the uniqueness of its consideration of online courses, in particular from the point of view of systematic development and management.
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The comparison of two treatments generally falls into one of the following two categories: (a) we may have a number of replications for each of the two treatments, which are unpaired, or (b) we may have a number of paired comparisons leading to a series of differences, some of which may be positive and some negative. The appropriate methods for testing the significance of the differences of the means in these two cases are described in most of the textbooks on statistical methods.
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This report documents a review of 48 empirical research articles on the effectiveness of instructional games. It also includes summaries of 26 other review articles and 31 theoretical articles on instructional gaming. Eased on this review the following 5 conclusions and 4 recommendations are provided. Conclusions: (1) The empirical research on the instructional effectiveness of games is fragmented, filled with ill defined terms, and plagued with methodological flaws. (2) Some games provide effective instruction for some tasks some of the time, but these results may not be generalizable to other games or instructional programs. (3) No evidence indicates that games are the preferred instructional method in all situations. (4) Instructional games are more effective if they are embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. (5) Instructional support during play increases the effectiveness of instructional games. Recommendations: (1) The decision to use a game for instruction should be based on a detailed analysis of learning requirements and tradeoffs among alternate instructional approaches. (2) Program managers and procurement officials should insist that instructional game developers demonstrate how their game will support instructional objectives. (3) Games should be used as adjuncts and aids, not as stand-alone instruction. (4) Instructor-less a roaches (e.g., web-based instruction) must include all "instructor functions."
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The following paper presents two stages of an action research project involving two oral proficiency courses held in the virtual world Second Life. Course 1 was conducted during the Autumn of 2007. Based on the experiences of this course, we redesigned many aspects of it in order to improve student activity in terms of oral participation and gave the course again in Spring 2008. By analysing the recordings of four 90-minute sessions, two from each course, we were able to measure student participation based on floor space, turn lengths and turn-taking patterns, and in the study we discuss how different changes in design may have contributed to more favourable outcomes. Results seem to indicate that meaning focussed task design, which involves authenticity and collaborative elements, has a direct impact on learner participation and engagement. Furthermore, our results seem to suggest that technical and social initiations into a complex environment such as SL are important factors that have to be worked into the course design.
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A study was conducted during a 12-week undergraduate course entitled 'Distance Education' in 2009 by creating a group of 32 students on Facebook to find out what they thought about the incorporation of Facebook in their coursework. The group made the students responsible for building and discussing a library that included videos, links, and pictures, advising them that they would be graded on their Facebook-based activities. The data were collected using a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The results show that the student-student dimension may be more important than the student-content and student-teacher dimensions. The students tend to use this tool very informally and so not all of the messages, videos, pictures, and links will be picked up by all of the students. If the aim of using tools such as Facebook was to contribute to altering the patterns of teaching and learning, time and attention need to be given to defining and encouraging the new, different roles of the learners and teachers.
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Little attention has been given to the psychological and sociological value of play despite its many advantages to guiding the design of interactive multimedia learning environments for children and adults. This paper provides a brief overview of the history, research, and theory related to play. Research from education, psychology, and anthropology suggests that play is a powerful mediator for learning throughout a person's life. The time has come to couple the ever increasing processing capabilities of computers with the advantages of play. The design of hybrid interactive learning environments is suggested based on the constructivist concept of a microworld and supported with elements of both games and simulations.
Conference Paper
Educational game, motivates learners, is full of entertaining. Learners can practice and challenge themselves in an interactive game. In order to become formal tools in everyday teaching/learning process, we create Bomberman game which is included most concepts in introductory C programming language. It brings modern education concept in concert with the classical teaching and laboratory work. Learners can view the learning materials, reading/writing C codes, solving problems with C codes to control the movement of the Bomberman accompany with game music. Bomberman game combines continuous challenge, interesting storyline, fun and realism. This vivid learning environment can engage students spending their precious time for extensive practice since students have highly motivation to win the game. We hope that we have shown a new method for educational practice with game-based digital learning for teaching C programming course.
Conference Paper
We examine learning culture in a popular online game, world of warcraft. We analyze the way players learn this complex game through chat conversation with peers. We describe three kinds of learning: fact finding, devising tactics/strategy, and acquiring game ethos. We investigate learning in the zone of proximal development as specified in cultural-historical activity theory. We examine the emotional tenor of learning conversations, noting their drama, humor, and intimacy
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E-learning is emerging as the new paradigm of modern education. Worldwide, the e-learning market has a growth rate of 35.6%, but failures exist. Little is known about why many users stop their online learning after their initial experience. Previous research done under different task environments has suggested a variety of factors affecting user satisfaction with e-Learning. This study developed an integrated model with six dimensions: learners, instructors, courses, technology, design, and environment. A survey was conducted to investigate the critical factors affecting learners’ satisfaction in e-Learning. The results revealed that learner computer anxiety, instructor attitude toward e-Learning, e-Learning course flexibility, e-Learning course quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and diversity in assessments are the critical factors affecting learners’ perceived satisfaction. The results show institutions how to improve learner satisfaction and further strengthen their e-Learning implementation.
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First, a number of previous theories of intrinsic motivation are reviewed. Then, several studies of highly motivating computer games are described. These studies focus on what makes the games fun, not on what makes them educational. Finally, with this background, a rudimentary theory of intrinsically motivating instruction is developed, based on three categories: challenge, fantasy, and curiosity.Challenge is hypothesized to depend on goals with uncertain outcomes. Several ways of making outcomes uncertain are discussed, including variable difficulty level, multiple level goals, hidden information, and randomness. Fantasy is claimed to have both cognitive and emotional advantages in designing instructional environments. A distinction is made between extrinsic fantasies that depend only weakly on the skill used in a game, and intrinsic fantasies that are intimately related to the use of the skill. Curiosity is separated into sensory and cognitive components, and it is suggested that cognitive curiosity can be aroused by making learners believe their knowledge structures are incomplete, inconsistent, or unparsimonious.
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Digital Game-Based Learning, by Marc Prensky, is a strategic and tactical guide to the newest trend in e-learning - combining content with video games and computer games to more successfully engage the under-40 "Games Generations," which now make up half of America's work force and all of its students. The book fully explores the concept of Digital Game-Based Learning, including such topics as How Learners Have Changed, Why Digital Game-Based Learning Is Effective, Simulations and Games, How Much It Costs, and How To Convince Management. With over 50 case studies and examples, it graphically illustrates how and why Digital Game-Based Learning is working for learners of all ages in all industries, functions and subjects.
The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Molka-Danielsen
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Mitchell, A., & Savill-Smith, C. (2004). The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Molka-Danielsen, J. (2009). Learning and teaching in the virtual world of second life. Tapir Academic Press.
Good video games and good learning: Collected essays on video games, learning and literacy
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Gee, J. P. (2007). Good video games and good learning: Collected essays on video games, learning and literacy. Peter Lang Pub Inc.
For professors, 'friending' can be fraught. (cover story). Chronicle of Higher Education
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Lipka, S. (2007). For professors, 'friending' can be fraught. (cover story). Chronicle of Higher Education, 54.
Backup education? Too many teachers see education as preparing kids for the past, not the future Digital game-based learning
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Prensky, M. (2008). Backup education? Too many teachers see education as preparing kids for the past, not the future. Educational Technology, 48. Prensky, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning. McGraw-Hill.