Nrf2 as a Master Redox Switch in Turning on the Cellular Signaling Involved in the Induction of Cytoprotective Genes by Some Chemopreventive Phytochemicals

ArticleinPlanta Medica 74(13):1526-39 · November 2008with41 Reads
DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088302 · Source: PubMed
A wide array of dietary phytochemicals have been reported to induce the expression of enzymes involved in both cellular antioxidant defenses and elimination/inactivation of electrophilic carcinogens. Induction of such cytoprotective enzymes by edible phytochemicals largely accounts for their cancer chemopreventive and chemoprotective activities. Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in the coordinated induction of those genes encoding many stress-responsive and cytoptotective enzymes and related proteins. These include NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin, etc. In resting cells, Nrf2 is sequestered in the cytoplasm as an inactive complex with the repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). The release of Nrf2 from its repressor is most likely to be achieved by alterations in the structure of Keap1. Keap1 contains several reactive cysteine residues that function as sensors of cellular redox changes. Oxidation or covalent modification of some of these critical cysteine thiols would stabilize Nrf2, thereby facilitating nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. After translocation into nucleus, Nrf2 forms a heterodimer with other transcription factors, such as small Maf, which in turn binds to the 5'-upstream CIS-acting regulatory sequence, termed antioxidant response elements (ARE) or electrophile response elements (EpRE), located in the promoter region of genes encoding various antioxidant and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. Certain dietary chemopreventive agents target Keap1 by oxidizing or chemically modifying one or more of its specific cysteine thiols, thereby stabilizing Nrf2. In addition, phosphorylation of specific serine or threonine residues present in Nrf2 by upstream kinases may also facilitate the nuclear localization of Nrf2. Multiple mechanisms of Nrf2 activation by signals mediated by one or more of the upstream kinases, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphatidylionositol-3-kinase/Akt, protein kinase C, and casein kinase-2 have recently been proposed. This review highlights the cytoprotective gene expression induced by some representative dietary chemopreventive phytochemicals with the Nrf2-Keap1 system as a prime molecular target.
    • "Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidative defense responses, was investigated to further clarify the protective mechanism of ABC combination treatment. Nrf2 is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that stimulates the expression of numerous ROS detoxifying and antioxidant genes [41, 42]. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 localizes in the cytoplasm where it interacts with the actin binding protein, Keap1, and is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. "
    Article · Oct 2016
    • "Mild oxidative stress and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt caused by some electrophiles have been reported to induce nuclear localization of Nrf2 and subsequent induction of NQO-1 [17]. To explore the signaling events leading to NQO-1 expression in Chang liver cells treated with MSeA, we used several modulators of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibitors of PI3K/Akt activation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium has been reported to induce the expression of some cytoprotective enzymes, which may account for its chemoprotective and chemopreventive effects. However, it remains largely unresolved whether these effects are exerted by selenium itself or mediated by its metabolite(s). In the present study, methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a monomethylated selenium, induced the expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) in human Chang liver cells. Expression of NQO-1 and other antioxidant/stress response genes is primarily regulated by the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Exposure of human Chang liver cells to MSeA (3 μM) increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and binding to antioxidant response elements. Silencing Nrf2 markedly reduced the MSeA-induced NQO-1 expression. In comparison with embryonic fibroblasts from Nrf2 wild-type mice, those from Nrf2 knockout mice failed to induce NQO-1 expression when treated with MSeA. Moreover, MSeA treatment enhanced ubiquitination of Keap1, but repressed Nrf2 ubiquitination. Pretreatment of cells with dithiothreitol abrogated the MSeA-induced NQO-1 expression, suggesting that MSeA causes Keap1 thiol modification. MSeA-induced NQO-1 upregulation was attenuated in cells harbouring the mutant Keap1 in which the cysteine 151 residue was replaced by serine. Oral administration of MSeA (1 mg/kg) by gavage to mice induced hepatic NQO-1 expression. Similar to MSeA, methylselenol generated from selenomethionine by methioninase activity induced NQO-1 expression. In conclusion, MSeA, the immediate precursor of methylselenol, upregulates the expression of NQO-1 via the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling. The above findings suggest that biological activities of selenium are dependent on the nature of the metabolites as well as the type of ingested selenium formulations.
    Article · Jun 2016
    • "It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is a common mechanism in the development and progression of these pathologies, with an increased free radical production and reduced antioxidant capacity [4, 5]. The master antioxidant regulator, the nuclear factorerythroid 2-(NF-E2-) related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a member of the cap'n' collar family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulates the expression of many antioxidant genes including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) to avoid oxidative damage [6]. Also, it has been demonstrated that Nrf2 activity is abated in diabetes and factors like age, body weight, and blood glucose could modify its activity [7][8][9], but genetic factors have been poorly studied. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear factor-erythroid 2- (NF-E2-) related factor 2 (Nrf2) is abated and its ability to reduce oxidative stress is impaired in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore if polymorphisms in Nrf2 and target genes are associated with diabetes and obesity in Mexican mestizo subjects. The rs1800566 of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene, rs7211 of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) gene, rs2071749 of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene, and the rs6721961 and the rs2364723 from Nrf2 gene were genotyped in 627 diabetic subjects and 1020 controls. The results showed that the rs7211 polymorphism is a protective factor against obesity in nondiabetic subjects (CC + CT versus TT, OR = 0.40, P = 0.005 ) and in women (CC versus CT + TT, OR = 0.7, P = 0.016 ). TT carriers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower body mass index. The rs2071749 was positively associated with obesity (AA versus AG + GG, OR = 1.25, P = 0.026 ). Finally, the rs6721961 was negatively associated with diabetes in men (CC versus CA + AA, OR = 0.62, P = 0.003 ). AA carriers showed lower glucose concentrations. No association was found for rs1800566 and rs2364723 polymorphisms. In conclusion, the presence of Nrf2 and related genes polymorphisms are associated with diabetes and obesity in Mexican patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
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