Best Face Forward
New York, N.Y.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.99). 01/2013; 131(1):64-70. DOI: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182729ef0
Craniofacial vascularized composite allotransplantation is especially challenging when bony components are required. Matching the complex three-dimensional anatomy of the donor and recipient craniofacial skeletons to optimize bony contact and dental occlusion is a time-consuming step in the operating room. Currently, few tools exist to facilitate this process. The authors describe the development of a virtual planning protocol and patient-specific device design to efficiently match the donor and recipient skeletal elements in craniofacial vascularized composite allotransplantation. The protocol was validated in a cadaveric transplant. This innovative planning method allows a "snap-fit" reconstruction using custom surgical guides while maintaining facial height and width and functional occlusion. Postoperative overlay technology in the virtual environment provides an objective outcome analysis.
Article: Smartphones and the plastic surgeon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care.
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ABSTRACT: Full facial osteomyocutaneous transplantation requires correct 3-dimensional (3D) alignment of donor osseous structures to a new cranial base with minimal reference points and 6 degrees of potential movement. We investigated whether computer-assisted design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) could enable accurate placement of the facial skeleton. A prospective single-cohort study of Le Fort III-based maxillary-mandibular segment allotransplantation was performed in 5 cadaver pairs and 1 clinical pair. The osteotomies were modeled using computed tomography (CT) data and 3D modeling software and then translated to the donor-recipient pairs using surgical navigation and osteotomy cutting guides. The predicted values were calculated about all rotational axes (pitch, yaw, and roll) and along all translational axes (vertical, horizontal, and anteroposterior) and used as the independent variable. The primary outcome variable of the actual postoperative CT values was compared for fidelity to the prediction using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The similarity to the donor versus recipient values was calculated as a secondary independent variable, and both predicted and actual measurements were compared with it as a percentage. The postoperative fidelity to the plan was adequate to excellent (ICC 0.520 to 0.975) with the exception of lateral translation (2.94 ± 1.31 mm predicted left vs 3.92 ± 2.17 mm right actual displacement; ICC 0.243). The predicted and actual values were not consistently skewed toward the donor or recipient values. We have demonstrated a novel application of CAD/CAM that enables orthognathic alignment of a maxillary-mandibular segment to a new cranial base. Quantification of the alignment in all 6 degrees of freedom delivers precise control compared with the planned changes and allows postoperative quality control.
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ABSTRACT: Since the first facial transplantation in 2005, 28 have been done worldwide with encouraging immunological, functional, psychological, and aesthetic outcomes. Unlike solid organ transplantation, which is potentially life-saving, facial transplantation is life-changing. This difference has generated ethical concerns about the exposure of otherwise young and healthy individuals to the sequelae of lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppression. Nevertheless, advances in immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive protocols, microsurgical techniques, and computer-aided surgical planning have enabled broader clinical application of this procedure to patients. Although episodes of acute skin rejection continue to pose a serious threat to face transplant recipients, all cases have been controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimens, and no cases of chronic rejection have been reported.
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