Applying Social Marketing Principles to Understand the Effects of the Radio Diaries Program in Reducing HIV/AIDS Stigma in Malawi

Center for Communication Programs, Department of Health, Behavior & Society, Johns Hopkins University, 624N. Broadway, No. 739, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Health Marketing Quarterly 02/2008; 25(1-2):119-46. DOI: 10.1080/07359680802126186
Source: PubMed


Relatively little is known about the extent to which health campaigns can play a constructive role in reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. The Malawi Radio Diaries is a program in which HIV-positive men and women openly discuss day-to-day events in their lives with the goal of reducing stigma in the population. Adopting a social marketing perspective, we analyze the various components of the Radio Diaries program in terms of three of the "Four P's": product (stigma reduction), place (radio), and promotion (the program itself). We first investigated the important dimensions of stigma and then developed a model to test the demographic and psychosocial correlates of these dimensions. A midterm household survey was then used to determine the relationship between exposure to the Radio Diaries program and stigma. In multivariate analyses, lower education and knowledge were associated with stronger beliefs that persons living with HIV should be isolated from others. Exposure to the Radio Diaries program did not have a main-effect on stigma, but there was a significant interaction between exposure and efficacy to reduce number of partners such that there was little difference in stigma by exposure level for those with low efficacy, but a significant difference by exposure level for those with high efficacy. Findings are discussed in terms of social marketing principles.

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Available from: Rajiv N. Rimal, Sep 23, 2015
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    • "Change agent (CA) verbally delivers the message/ information to the target audience (TA) directly through face-to-face interaction or through a telephone call Communicated messages through lay health educator outreach, health care provider referrals, and word of mouth (Richert, Webb, Morse, O'Toole, & Brownson, 2007) Placing messages within a communication channel or information delivery (print) CA delivers the message/information through print material such as a brochure, poster, booklet, or billboard Placing promotional materials (i.e., posters and brochures) in health care providers' offices (Cates, Diehl, Crandell, & Coyne-Beasley, 2014) Placing messages within a communication channel or information delivery (traditional broadcast) CA delivers the message/information via broadcast such as TV, radio, or public address system ''Radio appeared to be the best 'place' to promote the 'product' of stigma reduction'' (Rimal & Creel, 2008, p. 126) Placing messages within a communication channel or information delivery (digital) CA delivers the message/information through a digital electronic medium such as the Internet, e-mail, text messaging, social media, or a DVD ''Reaching audience through the Internet, mobile devices, and marketing information provided through health care providers and college campuses'' (Antonishak, Kaye, & Swiader, 2015, p. 3) Placing messages within a communication channel or information delivery (other) CA delivers message/information through unspecified channels or through means not included in other categories Divided place into 2 categories of personal media and nonpersonal media (Black, Blue, Kosmoski, & Coster, 2000) Access to a tangible good Focuses on providing an opportunity for the primary TA to secure for free, through purchase, or try a tangible good at convenient locations. Tangible good must be some physical product the TA has to have in order to engage in the prescribed behavior. "
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    ABSTRACT: Critiques of the social marketing literature have suggested the place strategy is a key component within the 4 Ps of the marketing mix that simultaneously has been misunderstood and underutilized. This study sought to conduct a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to better understand how place has been conceptualized and operationalized over multiple decades. Application of inclusion criteria resulted in a sample of 84 articles published from 1988 to 2015 representing work in 20 different countries in North America, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania. Content analysis showed that almost half (46.4%) of the descriptions of place strategies operationalized the component by including at least one element of placing messages within communication channels or information delivery such as print, interpersonal, traditional broadcast, or digital. The heavy emphasis on communication channels and information delivery contrasts sharply with definitions of place that thought leaders have offered historically. Results revealed that authors from the United States especially have a tendency to operationalize place as message placement. Discussion speculates on why conceptualization and operationalization have diverged and considers the implications for clarity within the field of social marketing as a whole.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Social Marketing Quarterly
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    • "This so-called social marketing could be a useful method for alcohol education: in-depth insight into an audience and its values, and acting on this, might increase the possibility that the audience will change their attitudes and behaviour voluntarily, which might result in more (lasting) effect of alcohol education. Applying social marketing has shown effects for different themes, e.g. on the physical activity of children [17], cardiovascular disease risk [18], smoking [19], and HIV/AIDS prevention [20,21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More research, with a good quality methodology, like using a randomized control trial and measuring short, medium, and long-term effects, is required on this topic. Policy implications are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy
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    • "Public health is the area in which social marketing is most commonly discussed (Walsh et al., 1993). Its effectiveness is recognized in the literature (Hoek & Jones, 2011; Morris & Clarkson, 2009) as an important strategy to promote individual change, such as quitting smoking, managing transmission of infections by health workers (Maha, Deshpande & Rothschilds, 2006), prevention of drugs and alcohol consumption (Jones & Rossiter, 2002), healthy nutrition and sports practice advertising (Gordon, McDermmott, Stead & Angus, 2006), tuberculosis treatment adherence (Grier & Bryant, 2005), increasing blood and organ donation (Harrison, Morgan, & Chewning, 2008; Nonis, Ford, Logan & Hudson, 1996), leprosy control (Wong, 2002), AIDS control (Chance & Deshpandré, 2009; Rimal & Creel, 2008) and in the global social development (Duhaime, Mc Tavish & Ross, 1985). "

    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Health Marketing Quarterly
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