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The Indian Veterinary Journal (February, 2013)
110
Indian Vet. J., February 2013, 90 (2) : 110 - 111
Therapeutic Management of Ascites in Dogs
M. Saravanan1, K. Sarma, M. Kumar, K. Mahendran and D.B. Mondal
Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, Bareilly, UP
(Received : 17-02-2012; Accepted : 30-04-2012)
Ascites is one of the most commonly found
clinical problems in dogs. It refers to the over
accumulation of tr a n s u d ate within th e
peritoneal cavity (Rudloff, 2005). This condition
may occur in portal hype r t e n s ion,
hypoalbuminemia and renal retention of sodium
and water (Chandler et al., 1995). Ascites has
also been attributed to conditions like chronic
hepatic fai lur e , congestive hea r t failure,
malnutrition and ancylostomiasis (Randhawa
et al ., 1988). The aim of this study was to
ascertain changes in haema to-biochemical
profile of dogs suffering from ascites and find
out suitable therapetic measures.
Materials and Methods
Present investigation was carried out on 15
dogs of different breeds and age which were
presented with the history of accumulation of
fluid in abdomen from August 2010 to Jan, 2011
in Re f e r r al Veterin ar y , Polycli n i c , I VR I ,
Izatnagar, Bareilly. History of each dog was
noted in relation to breed, age, sex, body weight
etc for epidemiological study. Blood samples
were collected on day 0, 10 and 20 of post-
treatment for haematobiochemical analysis and
evaluati on of therapeut ic respo nse. Blo od
smears were prepared from the ear margin
capillary bed for DLC. Abdominocentesis was
done with the help of sterile needle (5-7 cm, 22
gauges) to re l ive dyspnea . Abdo m i n a l
ultrasonography was performed (Nyland et al.
2002).
Treatment was instituted with dextrose
25%@ 100 ml i/v for five days followed by
furosemide (Lasix, M/s Aventis) @ 2mg/kg bid
p.o. daily for 10 days along with the supportive
treatment of B co m p l ex and vi t a m in C
(Eldervit, M/s Elder Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd)
@ 2ml i/m every alternate day for 12 days, inj.
Ceftriaxone sodium @ 25mg/kg bw and Astymin-
3 40ml i/v o.d. for 5 days. Criteria for evaluating
the efficacy of treatment were return to normal
appetite, clinical remission, and improvement
of haematobiochemical parameters on day 10
an d 20 of pos t - t r e a t m ent. The statistical
analysis was done as per the standard methods.
Results and Discussion
Dogs between the age groups 5 to 7 years were
mostly affected and the occurrence was higher
in males (60%) as compared to females (40%).
The higher occ u r r e n c e wa s observed in
Pomeranian (33.33%) followed by Lab Retriever
(20%), Boxer (16.66%), Doberman (13.33%),
Mongrels (10%) and Alsatian (6.66%), The
clinical signs revealed anorexia, lethargy and
accumulation of fluid in abdomen in all the dogs.
Adbominal palpation revealed fluid thrill while
body girth measurement revealed distended
abdomen. Abdominal Ultrasonography revealed
anechoic areas in all dogs whereas hyper-echoic
liver was noticed in five dogs.
Hae m a t o l ogy revealed signif i c a n t l y
lower (P<0.05) Hb (9.49±0.28 g/dl) and PCV
(34.39±1.36 %) whereas TLC and DLC showed
non-significant variation. Serum biochemical
analys is revealed low ser um tot al pro tein
1Corresponding author : Em ail : sara82vet@yahoo.com
The Indian Veterinary Journal (February, 2013)
111
(4.40±0. 20 g/dl) on day 0 indicatin g
hypoproteinem i a . Skardo v a ( 1 991) a l s o
observed decrease of total protein and albumin
in the blood serum of ascetic dog. Increased
level s of ALT (228.5 3 ±22. 17 IU/L) showe d
necrotic damage of liver resulting in leakage of
enzymes from hepat ic ce ll s i n t h e b l o o d
(Cornelius et al., 1975).
The dogs responded well to treatment
within 10 days. Improvement in attitude and
appetite was noted and reduction in abdominal
fluid accu m u l a t i o n co u l d be obse r ve d .
Ultrasonography on day 20 revealed improved
liver status.
Table. Haematobiochemical changes in ascetic dogs (before and after therapy)
Parameters Day 0 Day 10 Day 20
Haemoglobin (gm/dl) 9.49±0.28a10.48±0.39b11.21±0.25c
Packed cell volume (%) 34.39±1.36 a34.04±0.57ac 39.96±0.46b
Total Leukocyte count (x1000/µl) 9.49±0.30 10.48±0.15 11.21±0.17
Neutrophil (%) 82.93±0.96 81.27±1.11 81.07±1.08
Lymphocyte (%) 15.00±1.03 16.13±0.94 16.27±0.91
Monocyte (%) 2.07±0.27 2.60±0.32 2.67±0.32
BUN (mg/dl) 14.27±1.32 12.87±0.73 12.87±0.72
Serum Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.70±0.09 0.74±0.08 0.74±0.09
Alanine amino transferase (U/I) 228.53±22.17c165.87±10.57b142.12±6.09a
Total Protein (g/dl) 4.45±0.20a7.24±0.27b8.38±0.26c
Means under same superscript do not differ significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05)
References
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M. Saravanan et al.
... It further shows that ascites is not a treatable condition except the cause is properly diagnosed and treated accordingly. Ascites is often diagnosed in dogs between the ages of 5 and 7 years [49]. Cases between the ages of 1 and 4 years have also been recorded. ...
... The occurrence of ascites in dogs may be breed dependent with higher incidences in Pomeranian (33.35%) than in Labrador retriever (20%), Boxer (16.66%), Doberman pinscher (13.37%), mongrels (10%) and least in Alsatian (6.66%) [49]. Ascites manifests in several disease conditions such as hepatic disease, various types of neoplasm, portal hypertension, alteration in serum protein level (hypoproteinaemia), right-sided heart failure, decreased plasma oncotic pressure and increased permeability of capillary endothelium sequel to inflammatory conditions, bacterial infection (tuberculosis), kidney malfunction, pre-hepatic portal hypertension, post-hepatic portal hypertension, trauma (rupture of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, urinary bladder), ancylostomosis peritonitis, bleeding disorders and malnutrition [28,40]. ...
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Background: Ascites is one of the most important clinical syndromes, caused by multiple organ disorders, characterized by abdominal distension with accumulation of fluid of various colors and consistencies depending on the etiology that are encountered commonly in canine practice worldwide. Although it has been reported from different countries including India but it has not yet been documented from Bangladesh. Objectives: To evaluate the successful therapeutic management of a clinical case of ascites in dog supported with its brief review for its appropriate application Materials and Methods: A female Spitz dog two and half years old brought for treatment with the history of abdominal distension on 1st November 2009. Clinical examination, abdominocentesis and laboratory examination of ascitic fluid were used for the diagnosis of ascites in dog. Results: Clinical examination revealed dyspnea, discomfort, lethargy, weakness, pale mucous membrane, normal rectal temperature 103.2 0F and distended abdomen with fluid thrill on palpation. Examination of ascitic fluid revealed clear white fluid (pure transudate) which is mainly hepatic origin resulting portal hypertension and hypoproteinaemia. Treatment with restricted sodium diet, antibiotic (amoxicillin), diuretic (furosemide; Lasix, Sanofi Aventis) and vitamin B-complex and C- vitamin supplement with regular monitoring assisted in successful recovery. The recovered dog survived for next five years up to 2014 and then died due to other reasons. Conclusions: This clinical case record on canine ascites with successful treatment along with review especially on the methods of diagnosis and cause-wise treatment would certainly help the clinician for proper management of the clinical cases of canine ascites. Keywords: Ascites, Spitz dog, Diagnosis, SAAG, Therapeutic management, Brief review
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Cornelius, L.M., Thrall, D.E., Halliwell, W.H., Frank, G.M. Kern, A.J. and Woods, C.B. (1975) J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 167: 220
Text book of Veterinary Internal Medicine – disease of the dog and cat
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Rudloff, E. (2005) Text book of Veterinary Internal Medicine – disease of the dog and cat, 6 th edn. Elsevier Saunders publication.
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Skardova, I. (1991) J. Nutr., 121: 159.
Canine medicine and Therapeutics
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Chandler, E.A., Thompson, D.J., Sulton, J.B. and Price, C.J. (1995) Canine medicine and Therapeutics. 3 rd ed. Blackwell Science, London, pp. 584.
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Text book of Veterinary Internal Medicine -disease of the dog and cat, 6 th edn
  • E Rudloff
Rudloff, E. (2005) Text book of Veterinary Internal Medicine -disease of the dog and cat, 6 th edn. Elsevier Saunders publication.