Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of the Hot Pungent Chabbarin is Responsible for the Medicinal Properties of Piper chaba, Hunter.

Authors:
  • ICAR - Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute
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Abstract

There is great incentive to discover biologically active natural products from higher plants that are better than synthetic chemicals and are much safer, from a health and environmental point-of-view. Now a day, major research emphasis has been given to discover biologically active natural products from plants due to their potent medicinal effects, lower cost and fewer side-effects. Piper chaba, Hunter (Piperaceae) a less well-known spice, is very much effective against cold and cough. The aim of our study is to isolate and identify the bioactive compound which is responsible for its medicinal properties and also evaluate its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Molecular characterization was done by chromatographic and spectral analysis. Free radical scavenging potential was assessed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test and antimicrobial activity by inhibition zone test. A strong bioactive compound with hot pungent in nature have been isolated and purified from the acetone extract of Piper chaba stem (20-22% of the dry weight with 99.9% purity). Chromatographic and spectral analysis revealed the compound to be 5-Benzo [1,3] dioxol –5-y1-1-piperidin-1-yl-penta-2,4-dien-1-one or designated as chabbarin. This fraction showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 3.0µg/ml. It was highly effective on gram negative bacteria than gram positive. In case of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative), maximum inhibitory activity was noticed at 1500ppm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for Escherichia coli was found at 0.01562mg/ml whereas in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is at 0.00391mg/ml. In Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea (gram positive) MIC was detected at 0.00781mg/ml. Chabbarin also exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity. Aspergillius tamarii is very much sensitive to chabarin (MIC at 0.01562mg/ml) than Penicillum chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC at 0.03125mg/ml). So Chabbarin is responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant.

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... These can be ascribed to negligible contents of aromatic and alkenyl protons as well as ester and ketone moieties. The broad band at 1636 cm −1 corresponded to the stretching vibration of C=O in amides, which were found in Piper chaba [45][46][47]. The bands arising from C-O-H bending and C-O stretching were observed at 1397 cm −1 and 1064 cm −1 , respectively, which agree with polysaccharides commonly found in plants. ...
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... These can be ascribed to negligible contents of aromatic and alkenyl protons as well as ester and ketone moieties. The broad band at 1636 cm −1 corresponded to the stretching vibration of C=O in amides, which were found in Piper chaba [45][46][47]. The bands arising from C-O-H bending and C-O stretching were observed at 1397 cm −1 and 1064 cm −1 , respectively, which agree with polysaccharides commonly found in plants. ...
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... The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of P. betle against V. cholera ATCC 6395, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli O175: H7 12049, Shigella dysenteriae-1-MJ-84 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 was also recorded by Mahfuzul et al. [31] Meanwhile, the antibacterial effect of P. retrofractum against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli was similarly presented by Jamal et al. [32] and Salleh et al. [33] This activity was found to be associated with the essential oil component of its leaves. In addition, Biswas et al. [34] noted the role of chabbarin in the medicinal property of P. chaba (i.e., a synonym of P. retrofractum). It was found to be responsible for its activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. ...
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