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Abstract

Without Abstract
Educational
Psychology
Review,
Vol.
10, No. 4,
1998
Reflections
on the
Field
An
Interview
with
E.
Paul Torrance: About
Creativity
1,2
Michael
F.
Shaughnessy
E.
Paul Tbrrance
is
distinguished professor emeritus
of the
University
of
Georgia.
He has
also held positions
at
Kansas State University
and the
University
of
Minnesota. Over
the
years
he has
worked
with
gifted
students
at all
levels—from kindergarten through graduate school.
Dr.
Torrance
is the
author
of
over
40
books, over 1500 journal articles,
and is
probably most well known
for his
Torrance Tests
of
Creative Think-
ing,
Thinking Creatively
in
Action
and
Movement, Sounds
and
Images,
Styles
of
Learning
and
Thinking,
and the
Creative Motivation Scale.
He
has
also authored
or
co-authored other instruments
for
identifying
gifted,
talented
and
creative students.
He is the
founder
of the
Future Problem
Solving
Program
and has
received many awards
for his
seminal work
in
creativity.
His
most recent book (co-authored with Dorothy Sisk)
is
Gifted
and
Talented
Children
in the
Regular
Classroom,
published
by the
Creative
Education Foundation Press
in
1997.
What
are
your most recent books
and
what
do you
have
in
process?
My
most recent books are:
Mentor
Relationships:
How
They
Aid
Crea-
tive
Achievement, Endure,
Change,
and Die
(1995a);
Why
Fly?
A
Philosophy
of
Creativity
(1995b);
Creativity:
Just
Wanting
to
Know
(1994);
Creative
Prob-
lem
Solving
Through
Role
Playing;
Creative
Mentoring
in the
Culture
of
Pov-
erty
(with Kathy
Goff
and
Neil Satterfield,
to be
published
by
Prufrock
Press);
and On the
Edgeand
Keeping
on the
Edge
(probably
to be
pub-
lished
by
Hampton Press).
What
is
your
definition
of
creativity?
I
have struggled
with
this question
for
about
40
years.
There
are
many
definitions
of
creativity
and
each
of
them adds
an
insight about
the
concept.
1
Eastern
New
Mexico University, Portales,
New
Mexico.
2
Correspondence should
be
directed
to
Michael
F.
Shaughnessy,
Eastern
New
Mexico
University,
Portales,
New
Mexico
88130.
441
1040-726X/98/1200-0441$15.00/0 C 1998 Plenum Publishing Corporation
However,
I
have found three that
I
have found especially helpful:
a re-
search definition,
an
artistic definition,
and a
survival definition.
I
chose
a
definition
process
of
creativity
of
research purposes.
I
thought that
if I
chose process
as a
focus,
I
could then
ask
what kind
of
person
one
must
be to
engage
in the
process successfully, what kinds
of
environments will facilitate
it, and
what kinds
of
products will result from
successful
operation
of the
process.
I
tried
to
describe
creative thinking
as the
process
of
sensing
difficul-
ties, problems, gaps
in
information, missing elements, something askew;
making guesses
and
formulating hypotheses about
these
deficiencies, evalu-
ating
and
testing
these
guesses
and
hypotheses;
possibly revising
and re-
testing them;
and
finally
communicating
the
results.
I
like this definition because
it
describes such
a
natural
process.
Strong
human
needs
appear
to be at the
basis
of
each
of its
stages.
If we
sense
an
incompleteness, something missing
or out of
place, tension
is
aroused.
We
are
uncomfortable
and
want
to do
something
to
relieve
the
tension.
As a
result,
we
begin investigating, asking questions, manipulating things,
making
guesses
or
hypotheses,
and the
like. Until these hypotheses have
been tested, modified,
and
retested
we are
still uncomfortable.
Then
even
when this
is
done,
the
tension
is
unrelieved until
we
tell someone what
we
have discovered
or
produced. Throughout
the
process there
is an
element
of
responding constructively
to
existing
or new
situations, rather than
merely
adapting
to
them. Such
a
definition places creativity
in the
realm
of
everyday living
and
does
not
reserve
it for the
ethereal
and
rarely
achieved heights
of
creativity.
Perhaps even more
useful
than
my
research definition
has
been
my
"artistic"
definition.
It has
been especially
useful
in
generating hypotheses,
suggesting
ideas,
theorizing, organizing
my
thinking,
and
communicating
the
nature
of
creativity.
It was
given
to me in
1964
by
Karl Anderson,
a
student
of
mine
at the
University
of
California
at
Berkeley.
It
consisted
of
simple line drawings
and
simple
sentences.
To
make definitions really meaningful,
one has to
look
on
them
as
analogies.
Creativity
is
like wanting
to
know.
Creativity
is
like digging
deeper.
Creativity
is
like looking twice.
Creativity
is
like listening
to
smells.
Creativity
is
like listening
to a
cat.
Creativity
is
like crossing
out
mistakes.
Creativity
is
like getting
in
deep water.
Creativity
is
like having
a
ball.
442
Shaughntssy
Creativity
is
like cutting holes
to see
through.
Creativity
is
like cutting
corners.
Creativity
is
like plugging
in the
sun.
Creativity
is
like building sand
castles.
Creativity
is
like singing
in
your
own
key.
Creativity
is
like shaking hands with tomorrow.
My
briefest
and in
some
ways
most satisfactory definition
of
creativity
is
what
I
refer
to as my
survival
definition: When
a
person
has no
learned
or
practiced solution
to a
problem, some degree
of
creativity
is
required.
I
spent
7
years directing
a
program
of
research
in
support
of
U.S.
Air
Force
survival
training.
The Air
Force
was
training
its
air-crewmen
to
survive
emergencies
and
extreme conditions
(cold,
heat, lack
of
food and/or water,
lack
of
shelter, lost
at sea or in the
jungles, down
in
enemy territory,
etc.).
They were given information about
how
they might deal
with
all
these
en-
vironmental
conditions. They were given information about
how
others
had
escaped
from
POW
camps
and
successfully evaded
the
enemy.
In
survival
training, crews were also practiced
in
simulated situations. However,
in the
actual emergency
and
extreme conditions,
the
air-crewman
was
facing
a
new
situation
for
which
he had no
learned
and
practiced solution.
The
truly creative
is
always
that which cannot
be
taught.
Yet
creativity
cannot come
from
the
untaught. Creative solutions
to
air-crew survival situ-
ations required imaginatively
gifted
recombination
of old
elements (infor-
mation about
how the
American Indians
had
lived
off the
land,
how the
early explorers survived
in the
Arctic,
how men had
survived shipwreck,
how
airmen
in
World Wars
I and II had
escaped
and
evaded, etc.) into
a
new
configuration—what
is
required now.
The
elements
of a
creative
so-
lution
can be
taught,
but the
creativity itself must
be
self-discovered
and
self-disciplined.
In
general,
how can we
help people
to be
more creative?
There
are
countless
ways
we can
help
people
to be
more creative. Per-
haps
the
most important
are to
motivate
and
encourage them,
to
encourage
them
to
fall
in
love with something,
and to
recognize their talents
and re-
ward
them.
These
three factors are,
of
course, interrelated.
These
three factors
are
fundamental,
and a
variety
of
things
can be
done
to
accomplish them. Being
in an
environment favorable
to
creativity
interacts with anything else that
can be
done. Hundreds
of
experiments
have
indicated that training
in
creative problem solving, experiences
in any
of
the
visual arts, creative dramatics, media
and
reading programs,
and
cer-
tain teaching methods
or
procedures help
people
to be
more creative.
Among
those
that
I
have used with success
are the
Incubation Model
of
Teaching,
sociodrama
or
role
playing,
and
self-directed learning.
Interview
with
E.
Paul Torrance
443
Admittedly,
much depends upon
the
expertise
with
which
the
training
is
conducted.
All of the
above methods
are
successful,
if
done competently.
More depends upon
the
competence
of the
teacher
or
trainer than upon
the
methods used.
What
role does personality
play
in
creativity?
Personality facilitates
or
impedes creativity. According
to a
panel
of
judges, such characteristics
as
willingness
to
take risks, curiosity
and
search-
ing,
independence
in
thinking, persistence
and
perseverance, courage,
in-
dependence
in
judgment, self-starting
and
initiative,
a
sense
of
humor,
asking
questions about puzzling things,
and
attempting
difficult
things
are
among
the
most facilitative
characteristics.
Anything that
we do to
encour-
age
these kinds
of
behaviors should help
a
person
be
more creative.
The
most impeding characteristics
as
seen
by
this panel were: haugh-
tiness
and
self-satisfaction, domineering
and
controlling, negativism
and re-
sistance,
fearful
and
apprehensiveness,
fault-finding
and
objecting, criticism
of
others, conformance, submissiveness
to
authority,
and
timidity.
In our
30-year longitudinal study
of
predicting creative behavior,
we
identified
two
special groups
of
subjects.
I
called
the
first
group "beyon-
ders."
The
number
and
quality
of
their publicly acknowledged creative
achievements
was
extremely high.
The
other group
was
called
the
"great
expectations" group. They were sociometric stars when they were
in
high
school
and
when
the
predictor data were
collected.
We had
used
five
crea-
tively
oriented questions,
and the
index
was
determined
by
adding
the
total
number
of
choices.
There
was
only
one
person
who
fell
in
both groups,
and
each group consisted
of 10
members, including this person.
In the
first
follow-up,
12
years later,
the
predictability
of
intelligence,
academic achievement,
and
sociometric choice were
not
significant,
but the
measures
of
creative ability were
significant,
but
only moderately.
In the
20-year
follow-up,
all of the
measures
had
increased
in
predictability.
After
30
years,
the
predictability
of
these measures
had
almost faded out. None
of
the
correlations were significant except
the
measure
of
creative ability,
and
this
was
barely significant. There
are
several explanations,
but I
think
the
most important
is
that
as
time went
on
such characteristics
as
perse-
verance, love
of
one's
work, enjoyment
of
one's
work, courage, willingness
to
take risks, tolerance
of
mistakes, ability
to be
comfortable
as a
minority,
being
different,
and not
being well rounded became more important than
intelligence, creative ability, expectations,
and
scholastic achievement.
The
great expectations group
had
been high achievers,
but
they
had not
perse-
vered
the way
that
the
"beyonders"
had.
What
role
do
interpersonal skills
play
in
creativity?
The
role
of
interpersonal skills
in
creativity
is
infinitely
complex. Crea-
tivity
in
group problem solving requires
the
skill
of
tolerating
and
consid-
444
Shaughnessy
ering diverse
and
divergent ideas.
It
requires
the
highest level
of
interper-
sonal skills
to
bring this about.
I
have long been aware that when
one ex-
presses
a new
idea, he/she
is a
minority
of
one. This makes
the
originator
very
uncomfortable.
To be
truly
creative,
one
must develop
the
skills
to
endure this
and to
remain honest. This takes more courage than most peo-
ple can
summon.
The
most creative groups have
a
willingness
and
tolerance
to
disagree.
Such groups make better decisions
and are
better
at
imple-
menting them.
What
role
does
motivation
play
in
creativity
and
creative
work?
As I
stated
at the
beginning
of
this interview, motivation
is
basic
to
any
creativity.
If you
don't have motivation,
you
don't
have
any
creativity.
We
have
developed
some
helpful
insights regarding motivation
in
measuring creative ability.
Two of the
tasks
in the
Torrance Tests
of
Creative
Thinking
(TTCT)
were along
the
lines
of
Guilford's divergent thinking
abilities (Product Improvement
and
Possible Uses). However,
the
instruc-
tions
for the
TTCT
tell subjects that their creative abilities
are
being
tested
and
are
motivated
for
fluency,
flexibility,
originality,
and
elaboration. This
is
not
done
in
administering Guilford's
tests.
I
have used
the
analogy
of
measuring jumping ability.
We
would
not
think
of
measuring jumping ability
by
just
how
high
or far
students
are
jumping.
We
would
try to
motivate
them
to
jump,
and we
would tell them
to see how
high
or how far
they
could jump.
The
TTCT
consistently
predicts
creative achievement while
the
Guilford
measures
do
not.
Some people
see
dangers
in too
strong motivation.
There
is a
curvi-
linear relationship between degree
of
motivation
and
creativity,
but it is
difficult
to
determine when there
is too
much motivation.
What
do you
consider
to be the
main
abilities
of
creativity?
The
main abilities
of
creativity have been conceptualized
in a
variety
of
ways,
I
have
conceptualized
them
as
follows
and
have
designed
the
scor-
ing
of the
Torrance Tests
of
Creative Thinking
and my
teaching methods
(The Incubation Model
of
Teaching)
in
accordance with this conceptuali-
zation:
1.
Finding problems
2.
Producing
many
alternatives
3.
Being
flexible
4.
Producing
original
ideas
5.
Elaborating
6.
Highlighting
the
essence
7.
Keeping open
8.
Being aware
of
emotions
and
using them
9.
Putting ideas into context
Interview
with
E.
Paul
Torrance
445
446
Shaughnessy
10.
Combining
and
synthesizing
11.
Visualizing richly
and
colorfully
12.
Enjoying
and
using fantasy
13.
Giving ideas movement
and
sound
14.
Looking
at
problems
and
solutions
in
many ways
15.
Visualizing things internally, below
the
surface
16.
Extending boundaries
by
cutting through them
or
going beyond
them
17.
Letting humor
flow
18.
Glimpsing
infinity
What
are
some obstacles
to
creativity
and how can
they
be
overcome?
In
my
opinion,
the
greatest
obstacles
to
creativity are:
Lack
of
opportunity
to use
ideas
or
what
has
been learned
Lack
of
interest
in the
problem
or the
importance
of the
problem
The
problem
is
impossible
or too
difficult
to
solve
or too
easy
Lack
of
challenge
to
one's
best abilities
Lack
of
change
to do
things
in
one's
own way
Lack
of
purposefulness
From
this
we may
deduce that these obstacles
may be
overcome
by:
...
giving opportunities
to use
what they learn
as
tools
in
their think-
ing
and
problem solving;
...
giving
a
change
to
communicate what they learn;
...
showing
an
interest
in
what they have learned rather than
in
their
grades;
...
providing learning tasks
of
appropriate
difficulty;
...
giving
a
chance
to use
their best abilities;
...
permitting them
to
learn
in
their preferred ways;
...
recognizing
and
acknowledging many
different
kinds
of
excel-
lence;
... and
giving genuine purpose
and
meaning
to
learning experiences.
What
would happen
if we
really tried
to
encourage creativity training
in
the
schools,
business,
and
industry?
It is
almost impossible
to
imagine what would happen
if we
really tried
to
encourage creativity training
in
schools, business,
and
industry.
There
would
be
great enthusiasm
if
people
were given
a
chance
to use
their train-
ing. Otherwise,
there
would
be a
great deal
of
frustration
and
disappoint-
ment.
I am
optimistic, however,
and
think that
the
human spirit would
be
strong enough
to
change society
and
produce many breakthroughs. Above
all,
I
think that mankind would become less brutish
and
less
naive.
Who
do YOU
consider
to be the
leading
figures in
creativity
and
why?
Among
the
living
figures
important
in
creativity
I
would list: Teresa
Amabile, Frank Barron, Calvin
Taylor,
Robert Steinberg, Howard Gruber,
David
Feldman, Howard Gardner, Mihaly Csikszentmihaly, David Perkins,
Sidney
J.
Parnes,
Morris Stein,
and
Dean Keith Simonton.
In my
opinion,
the
four
most important
living
figures
in
creativity are:
Sidney
J.
Fames,
Frank Barron, Teresa Amabile,
and
Calvin
W.
Taylor.
I
think
Parnes is
important because
he has
extended Osborn's Creative
Problem Solving methods, kept
the
Creative Education Foundation
and
CPSI alive
and
well, completed knowledge
in the
field,
and
continues
to
pioneer
new
ideas such
as
visionizing, imaging,
and the
like.
As Parnes is
important because
of
advances
to
understanding
of the
creative process, Barron
is
important
in our
understanding
of the
creative
person
and for his
creative teaching. Morris Stein
has
played
a
similar
role
but
he is
also important
for his
compilation
of
knowledge similarly
as
Par-
nes.
Teresa
Amabile
is
important because
of her
contributions
to the
social
psychology
of
creativity
and for
reaching
a
different
audience than Parnes
and
Barron.
Calvin
Taylor
is
important primarily
as a
statement
and
promoter
of
interest
and
knowledge about creativity.
He
held several early conferences
which
brought together
the
primary researchers
and
thinkers
in the
field.
He
also brought recognition
of the
contribution
of
multiple talents
as ex-
emplified
by his
Talent Totem Poles,
a
forerunner
of the
work
of
Howard
Gardner.
Could
you
discuss
the
role
of
cognition
in
creativity?
By
cognition,
I
presume that
you
mean
knowing
information.
In
gen-
eral,
I
believe that
the
more
one
knows,
the
better
the
chances
of
producing
something
creative.
I
think
it is a
good thing
for one to
have
a
broad base
of
knowledge.
New
ideas
in a
particular discipline
or
field
may be
inspired
by
knowledge
from
a
different
discipline
or
field.
I
also think that
it is
tremendously important that
one
knows
the
history
of
efforts
to
solve
a
particular problem.
The
idea
or
solution
may
have been rejected
at the
time
it was
first
conceived
and
communicated because
the
"time
was not
right."
Some professors tell students
not to
review
the
literature beyond
5
years. This
is bad
advice
but
continues
to be
given.
There
has
actually been relatively little research about this problem.
At
least
one
study
in the
field
of
physics
found
that those
who
make
the
most
important breakthroughs
and are the
most productive
of new
ideas
read more
of the old
literature than their less creative colleagues.
How
can
creativity contribute
to
high
ability?
Or do you
think
a
per-
son
with high ability
is
automatically creative?
Interview with
E.
Paul
Torrance
447
I
cannot think about
ability
in the
singular
and
especially
in
relation
to
creativity. Creativity always enhances
any
ability.
No
matter what ability
you
are
thinking
of, a
person
with
high ability
is not
automatically creative.
Howard Gardner's theory
of
multiple intelligences
has
attracted wide-
spread attention. Gardner
has
resisted accepting creativity
as a
separate
ability
or
abilities.
It has
made
us
more
aware
of the
importance
of
different
modalities
in
expressing creativity,
as
well
as in
learning. This
is a new
frontier.
I had
become aware
of
this phenomenon through
my
work with
preschool children.
I had had
some frustrating experiences
in
trying
to de-
velop creativity tests
for use
with
4 and 5
year olds.
I
began
to
realize that
at
this
age
children
had
been speaking
and
drawing
for
only
a
short time,
whereas they
had
been moving
all
their lives.
Out of
this insight came
Thinking
Creatively
in
Action
and
Movement
and it has
proved
much
more
satisfactory
than previous measures.
The
Zephyr Press especially active
in
publishing
material
on
Gardner's seven
ways
of
learning—learning through
moving,
music
and
rhythm, visual-spatial intelligence, logical-mathematical
intelligence, interpersonal
and
intrapersonal intelligence.
What
are you
currently
working
on?
What
are
your long-range plans?
I
have recently produced book manuscripts
on
"Mentoring
in the
Cul-
ture
of
Poverty"
and
"Making
the
Creative Leap Beyond." Interest
in
men-
toring
poor
children
is
increasing
and has
been
for
some time.
As I
listen
to the
Republican Presidential Convention
as I am
writing,
frequent men-
tion
is
made
to
this
as a way of
increasing achievement, preventing violence
and
crime,
and
reducing
social
welfare
and
negation.
There
is no
book
that
comes
to
grips
with
the
real problems
of
mentoring children
who
live
in
poverty.
I do not
know
how
many years
we
shall have
to
wait.
It
will
prob-
ably
not be in my
lifetime though
I
shall continue
to do
what
I can to
help
bring this about.
I
believe that there
is a
readiness
for
"Gifted
and
Talented Children
in
the
Regular
Classroom,"
but it may be
some time.
For a
long time,
I
have been wanting
to
write books
on the
following
problems:
Learning disabilities other than academic learning disabilities
and
how
to
deal
with
them creatively.
Teaching children negotiation skills
at the
"grass
roots"
level.
Reporting
and
interpreting
the
results
of my
longitudinal studies
of
creative achievement.
What
are the
best climate conditions
for
enhancing creativity?
This
too is a
complex problem,
but I
would like
to go
back
to
Plato's
declaration that "What
is
honored
in a
culture
will
be
cultivated
there."
There
must
be
freedom
to
pursue what
one is in
love with,
to
play
one's
448
Shaughnessy
own
game,
to use
one's
greatest strengths,
not to
feel that he/she
has to
be
well rounded,
and a
chance
to
learn
the
skills
of
independence.
Creating conditions that
will
make this possible presents
one of the
greatest challenges
of the
day.
What
role
do you
feel
mentoring plays
in
creativity
and
creative
achievements?
I
know that mentoring makes
a
difference
in
creative achievement.
In
my
longitudinal study
of
creative achievement
from
1958
to
1980,
I
showed
that having
a
mentor made
a
statistically
significant
difference
in the
crea-
tive
achievement
of the
participants.
In
Guiding
Creative
Talent
(1962),
I
called attention
to the
importance
of
mentors
in
creative achievement.
I
pointed
out
that
it had
been observed that almost
always
wherever inde-
pendence
and
creativity
had
occurred, there
had
been some other individ-
ual who
plays
the
role
of
mentor, guru,
or
sponsor. This role
is
played
by
someone
who
possesses prestige
and
power
in the
same social system.
I
explained that this person does several things. Regardless
of
their
own
views,
mentors encourage
and
support
the
mentee
in
expressing
and
testing
his/her
ideas
and in
thinking through things.
The
mentor protects
to the
extent possible
the
mentee
from
his
peers
long enough
for
him/her
to try
out and
modify
his
ideas.
The
mentor
can
keep
the
situation open long
enough
for
originality
and
discovery
to
occur.
As
we
approach
the
year 2000,
can you
take
a
look back
and a
look
forward
and
comment
on
each perspective?
This question
is
overwhelming!
Looking back,
I am
amazed
at the
progress that
has
been made during
my
life
in
understanding creativity
and the
retooling that
has
been accom-
plished.
In
education
a
quiet
but
powerful revolution
has
taken place.
There
are
tools
of
measurement, textbooks, organizations,
and
teaching
procedures.
There
are
indications that
our
culture
has
changed
in a
more
favorable
direction.
The
struggle continues, however,
and the
fight
must
continue.
As for the
look
forward,
although
the
forces
for a
more creative
so-
ciety,
innovation,
and
invention
are
strong
and
have
an
advantage, there
are
many dangers. Violence, crime,
new
controls, immorality,
and the
like
are
lurking
out
there.
These
forces
too are
strong
and
vigorous
and
con-
stitute
a
threat
to
this
desire
for a
more
creative
society.
Have
you had
mentors?
And if so, how
have
they
influenced
you?
In
the
strictest sense,
I
have never
had a
mentor. However, many
men
and
women have taken
an
interest
in me
from
time
to
time
and
influenced
me.
They have given
me
opportunities
and
protected
me
from
my
peers.
In
elementary school,
I
think this role
was
played best
my
teacher
in
the
third through
the
fifth
grades
and my
teacher
in the
seventh grade.
Interview
with
E.
Paul Torrance
449
In
junior high school,
it was my
eighth
and
ninth grade teacher,
who
was
also
the
principal,
who
performed some
of the
mentor functions.
He
coached
me for
oratory competition.
On the day of the
competition, when
I
appeared
at
school
as
usual
in
overalls,
he
took
me
home
at
recess
to
get
dressed
in
proper clothes. After
I had
completed junior college
and
could
not go
further
in
college,
he was ill
when
his
school began
in the
fall,
he had me to
pinch
hit for him
until
he was
able
to
come back.
The
school
was
expanding
and
badly needed another teacher,
I was
given
the
job.
I
could
not
have survived this
if he had not
protected
and
advised
me.
In
high school
and
junior college, several
of my
teachers
and the
school
librarian performed some
of the
mentor roles.
The
librarian took
an
inter-
est in me and
gave
me the
opportunity
to be her
assistant.
My
English
teacher took
a
special interest
in me and
almost
got me a
summer
job as
editor
of the
local newspaper. Knowing
of my
poverty
in an
economic
de-
pression culture,
he
thought
I
should take some civil service examinations
and
qualify
for a
civil service position.
My
history
and
political science
teacher took
me to
Macon
for an
interview with
the
editor
of the
Macon
Telegraph
to try to get me a
part-time
job so I
could
go to
Mercer Univer-
sity.
I
already
had a
small scholarship.
The
attempt
was
very unsuccessful.
My
French teacher,
the
dean
of the
junior college, tool
a
special interest
in
me,
insisting that
I
take
my
fourth
year
of
French although
I was the
only
student
in the
course
and
this stood
me in
good stead
in
passing
the
French exam
for my
doctorate
and in
translating
survival
research reports
and
French literature
on
creativity.
He
also took
an
interest
in me as a
teacher
and
gave
me
many
opportunities
and
protected
me
from
my
peers.
The
high school principal
who was
also
the
president
of the
junior college
was
also
a
great friend, booster,
and
protected
and
gave
me as
many won-
derful
opportunities.
The
rest
of my
undergraduate college work
was
done during summers
at
Mercer University.
No one
performed these functions. Although
I had
very
cordial
relations
with
all of my
teachers
and was
graduate
summa
cum
laude,
no one
performed mentor
functions
or
took
a
special interest
in me.
My
master's degree work
was
also done
in
summers
but a
number
of
people
there
performed some mentor functions.
My
official advisor
came
nearest
to
being
a
true mentor.
At the end of my
master's work,
he
offered
me a job as his
part-time assistant. However, this
was
insufficient
for me
to
survive
so I
returned
to my job at
Georgia
Military
College.
Near
the
end of the
fall
quarter,
a
position opened
up in the
Counseling bureau
counseling disabled veterans
and he and the
director
of the
Counseling
Bureau
championed
me and I was
offered
and
accepted
the
job.
Later,
when
the
survival research
was
being phase
out he
offered
me the job as
director
of the
Bureau
of
Education
and
Research.
He
told
me he
would
450
Shaughnessy
like
for me to
teach
any
course that
I
wanted
to but he
wanted
me to
make
it
famous. Throughout
the
rest
of his
life
he
took
a
special interest
in
me,
protecting
me, and
giving
me
many opportunities.
His
associate dean
also performed many
of the
mentor functions.
At
Kansas State University,
the
Director
of the
Counseling Bureau
and
later Dean
of
Students,
had
been
a
colleague
in the
Counseling Bureau
at
the
University
of
Minnesota.
He
contacted
me
while
I was in the
Army
and
invited
me to
come
to
Kansas State
to
head
the
program
for
counseling
veterans.
He too
performed most
of the
mentor
functions
for me and
gave
me
many opportunities.
I
later became Dean
of Men and
finally
Director
of
the
Counseling Bureau.
When
I
accepted
the job as
Director
of the
Field Unit doing research
in
support
of the
USAF Advanced
Survival
School,
my
first
mentor
was a
Catholic Priest
and
USAF Colonel.
He
guided
and
protected
me
during
the
establishment
of the
Field Unit. Without
him I
doubt that
I
could have
survived.
Instead,
I was
given many unbelievable research opportunities
and
laid
a
good foundation
for
survival
psychology.
The
directors
of the
Human
Factors Research
Lab and the
Crew Research
Lab
were also
my
mentors
and saw me
through rough waters.
At the
University
of
Georgia,
the
Dean
of the
College
of
Education
was
a
very
gook
mentor
until
his
retirement.
He
gave
me
many
opportu-
nities
and
always listened
and
encouraged.
Thus,
after
thinking this through,
I
recognize that
I
have been blessed
with
many
mentors
who
have made
my
career.
What
would
you do
differently
if you had to
relive your career?
I do not
know what
I
would
do
differently
if I had to
relive
my
career.
I
started developing creativity tests
in
1943
and the
problem kept popping
up. As
Director
of
Survival
Research,
we
were really
trying
to
teaching
the
men to
think creatively about
surviving
in
emergency
and
extreme condi-
tions.
I
have long
felt
that extreme conditions
for
which they have
no
learned
solutions require creative behavior.
It was not
until
I
went
to the
University
of
Minnesota
that
I was
able
to
begin
a
real program
of
research
on
crea-
tivity.
I
suppose
I
could say,
if I had a
change
to
relive
my
career,
I
would
have
pursued
it in my
work with disabled veterans
and
veterans
who had
to be
dishonorably discharged. However,
I was not in a
position
to do the
research
and did not
have
the
concepts
and
tools
to do so at
that time.
REFERENCES
Torrance,
E. P.
(1995a).
Mentor
relationships:
How
they
aid
creative
achievement,
endure,
change
and
die,
Bearly
Limited,
Buffalo
NY.
Interview
with
E.
Paul Torrance
451
Torrance,
E. P.
(1995b).
Why fly? A
philosophy
of
creativity,
Ablex Pub. Co., Norwood,
NJ.
Torrance,
E. P.
(1994).
Creativity:
Just
wanting
to
know, Benedic Books, Pretoria, Republic
of
South Africa.
Torrance,
E. P.
(1962).
Guiding
creative
talent,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs,
NJ.
Torrance,
E. P.
(1996).
Creative
problem
solving
through
role
playing,
Benedic Books, Pretoria.
Torrance,
E. P.
(1996).
Mentoring
in the
culture
of
poverty,
Georgia Studies
of
Creative
Behavior,
Athens,
GA.
452
Shaughnessy
COPYRIGHT INFORMATION
TITLE: An interview with E. Paul Torrance: about creativity
SOURCE: Educ Psychol Rev Devrk Jon 10 no4/312/12 D
199886062004
The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it
is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in
violation of the copyright is prohibited. To contact the publisher:
http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-336X/
... Today's education requires thinking men and women who can contribute to science and know-how to adapt to change (Shaughnessy, 1998). According to Pacheco (2003) the need to resort to creative thinking to solve problems has become evident in recent years. ...
... Thus, its relevance in the development of creativity can be understood. Creative teachers must have essential characteristics that allow them to transform the educational environment through their attitudes, which are based on the needs of their students and the demands of the modern world (Shaughnessy, 1998). On the other hand Blanquiz and Villalobos (2018) show the importance of the directive role to seek the participation of teachers in diverse and innovative activities and projects, achieving a pleasant work environment and collaboration, which allow creative development. ...
Article
The objective was to systematize evidence of the development of creative thinking and its potentialities with a view from the educational field, highlighting the aspects of creativity in teachers. A systematic review of articles from the Proquest, Scopus, and Eric databases was carried out. Relevant information was selected. To obtain results, the information was systematized, considering the thematic axes as aspects of creativity, characteristics, and strategies for teaching creative thinking. It is concluded that creative teaching thinking is of great importance because it favors innovation. In addition, it is an essential aspect in today's world, so it must be permanently strengthened and thus contribute to its development.