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Saffron petals Wool fibers Natural dyeing Mordant Fastness CIELab. owadays, natural dyes obtained from bioresources are significantly used in many applications such as textile and carpet industry. As a natural dye, saffron petals are used in this study for dyeing wool fibers. A series of dyeing formulations were prepared with saffron petals and different mordants. The mordant effect on hue, light and wash fastness of dyed fibers was investigated. The results showed that varied hues from light yellow to light brown were obtained. It was found that the best mordants in this study to improve wash and light fastness of dyed fibers were FeSO 4 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84. © Institute for Color Science and Technology.
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*Corresponding author: mortaza@cc.iut.ac.ir
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available online @ www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir
Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84
Saffron Petals, a By-Product for Dyeing of Wool Fibers
S. M. Mortazavi1*, M. Kamali Moghaddam2, S. Safi2 and R. Salehi3
1. Associate Professor, Textile Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box: 84156, Isfahan,
Iran.
2. Ph. D Student, Textile Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box: 84156, Isfahan, Iran.
3. M. Sc. Student, Textile Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box: 84156, Isfahan, Iran.
ARTICLE INFO
Article history:
Received: 01-01-2012
Final Revised: 21-05-2012
Accepted: 05-06-2012
Available online: 07-06-2012
Keywords:
Saffron petals
Wool fibers
Natural dyeing
Mordant
Fastness
CIELab.
owadays, natural dyes obtained from bioresources are significantly
used in many applications such as textile and carpet industry. As a
natural dye, saffron petals are used in this study for dyeing wool fibers.
A series of dyeing formulations were prepared with saffron petals and different
mordants. The mordant effect on hue, light and wash fastness of dyed fibers was
investigated. The results showed that varied hues from light yellow to light
brown were obtained. It was found that the best mordants in this study to
improve wash and light fastness of dyed fibers were FeSO4 and Na2Cr2O7. Prog.
Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84. © Institute for Color Science and
Technology.
1. Introduction
Recently, many articles on natural dyes in textile
coloration have been published. Natural dyes are
environmental friendly, biodegradable, and non-toxic.
Dyes and pigments derived from natural sources such
plants (leaves, stems, fruits, seeds, flower heads, bark,
root, etc) animal (Lac, Cochineal and kermes) and
mineral (prussion blue, red ochre and ultramarine blue)
for coloring materials have been used for centuries [1-7].
Dyes are substantive or adjective. Substantive dyes
are absorbed and fixed by chemical bonds within the
fibers without further chemical treatment. However, most
natural dyes are adjective dyes and need the use of
mordants to help their absorption and fixing on fibers.
Metal salts act as chemical bonds between the dye
molecules and the functional groups of the fibers, and
generally change the color produced by the dye. In wool
fibers, there are numerous ways in which a mordant can
bind to the fiber. It may make chemical links either to the
terminal -NH2 or -COOH groups of the polypeptide chain
or to the functional groups present in the side chains of
the component amino acids. Mordants are most
commonly used on the fiber before dyeing (pre-
mordanting) but they can also be used during
(simultaneous mordanting) and after dyeing (after-
mordanting). Assistant materials such as cream of tartar
(potassium hydrogen tartarate), oxalic acid, acetic acid,
N
Mortazavi, Kamali Moghaddam, Safi and Salehi
76 Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84
formic acid etc. may be used in addition to dyes and
mordants to change the pH in order to brighten colors,
and to help the absorption of the mordant metal [8-15].
Historically, saffron was particularly important as a
dye plant. Crocus sativus L., commonly known as
Saffron, is a perennial meadow grass belonging to
Iridaceae family. Saffron is considered to be the most
precious and expensive spice in the world. Today, the
greatest saffron producing countries are Iran, Greece,
Spain, Turkey, India, and Morocco. Iran has 50000
hectares area (90% of the total world harvest areas) of
saffron. Saffron flower is divided into three main parts;
namely, stigma, petal and anther. The flower has 3 petals
and 3 sepals as shown in Figure 1.
According to statistics, in each kg of harvested fresh
flower, there are 2,170 flowers, and therefore 13,020
petals and sepals. The processing of every 78 kg of fresh
flowers results in 1 kg of dried saffron (stigma). So,
considering the production of about 170 tones of dried
saffron in Iran, there are approximately 173 trillion petals
and sepals. Thus, Saffron petal is one of the by-products
of fields great amount of which is thrown away after
harvesting while they can possibly be used. As saffron
petal is cheaper than its stigma, there will be economical
interests for further studies by carpet industry. Saffron
petals contain Phenolic compounds, and flavonoides and
anthocyanins are among phenolic compounds. So,
saffron petals are a bioresource rich in flavonoids and
can be used as a potential source of dietary flavonoids.
Flavonoids are naturally occurring polyphenolic
compounds used as food supplements. Nowadays, most
usage of saffron petals is as a source of an organic matter
in soil. Hence, researchers use saffron petals for the
germination and growth of cotton and wheat. Folk and
traditional medicine also used saffron petals as
antispasmodic, stomachic, curative of anxiety, antitumor
and antidepressant. Hosseini et al had reported that
anthocyanidins of petals (e.g. pelargonidin) is
responsible for saffron purple color which is oxidized to
flavonol (yellow color) (see Figure 2) [16-22]. In fact,
flavanoids include flavonoe and flavol (Figure 3), which
are yellow and anthocyanines are may be red, blue, or
purple, depending on pH (Figure 4) [24]. The general
aim of this research was the optimum use of saffron
petals, which are repulsed as cultch today.
Figure 1: Saffron flower and its main parts.
.Figure 2: Main structure of petal: oxidizing of anthocyanidin to flavonol
Saffron Petals, a By-Product for Dyeing of ....
Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84 77
Therefore, in this study the possibility of dyeing
wool fibers using saffron petals as a natural dye was
investigated. Also, by using of some mordants, the
range of hue that wool fiber can get is studied. Color
depth and fastness properties (light and wash fastness)
as key properties for technical and commercial success
were measured.
2. Experimental
2. 1. Materials and Methods
Dyeing wool fibers with saffron petals (collected from
north Khorasan, Iran) and tin (IV) chloride, copper
sulfate, aluminum sulfate, iron (II) sulfate, iron (III)
sulfate and sodium dichromate as mordants has been
applied.
Figure 3: Two structure of flavanoids: flavone and flavol.
Figure 4: Color changes of anthocyanins with pH.
Mortazavi, Kamali Moghaddam, Safi and Salehi
78 Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84
Also, to regulate the pH, assistants such as oxalic acid
and cream of tartar were used (Merck, German). The non
ionic detergent (Nekanil LN-BASF) was used for
washing. There are a number of methods of dyeing
textiles. The simplest form of dyeing a textile material is
to immerse it in a dye and gradually boil it. In this
method, the fibers are allowed to soak for several hours
with agitation. Firstly, the raw wool should be scoured to
remove the oil from the fiber, thus, the samples (5 g) are
washed for 20 min in an aqueous solution containing 1
gL-1 of detergent with a liquor ratio of 40:1 at 45-50°C
and then the yarn rinsed in cold water.
2. 2. Pre-mordanting
The wool fibers were treated with mordant and then dyed
under different conditions using petals. The metal salts
and the assistants were dissolved in hot water and then
this solution was added to cool water in the mordant pan.
The fibers were treated with a mordant concentration of
1-20% on weight of fibers (owf) (see Table 1). The fiber
to liquid ratio (F:L) used for mordanting was 1:20. The
heat was increased slowly over thirty minutes to boil and
then was kept there for one hour. The mordanted fibers
were then cooled and rinsed well. Then the mordanted
wool fiber was dyed under optimized conditions.
Table 1: CIE Lab of mordanted wool fibers dyed with saffron petals.
Mordants
FeSO4
Fe2(SO4)3
SnCl4
CuSO4 Na2Cr2O7
Al2(SO4)3
Sam
p
le
Mordant
(
%
)
Oxalic acid
(
%
)
Cream of tartar
(
%
)
L*
a*
b*
C*
L*
a*
b*
C*
L*
a*
b*
C*
L*
a*
b*
C*
L*
a*
b*
C*
L*
a*
b*
C*
1
1
3
-
42.4
3.5
16.4
16.5
47.2
2.5
15.6
15.8
57.7
-5.6
17.2
18.1
59.1
-0.2
18.2
18.2
61.1
-0.83
22.1
22.1
70.1
-2.6
23.6
23.8
2
2
3
-
45.4
3.9
17.2
17.6
45.5
3.1
17.7
17.9
56.9
-9.9
13.7
16.9
65.8
-1.1
15.9
15.9
60.6
1.5
29.3
29.3
68.3
-0.67
22.5
22.5
3
3
3
-
43.9
4.1
16.7
17
46.8
3.1
16.1
16.4
58.3
-8.9
14.6
17.1
63.4
-1.7
17.5
17.6
60.8
2.4
26.5
26.6
69.6
-2.2
25.2
25.3
4
4
3
-
44.2
4.5
17.2
17.7
50.4
2.3
16.3
16.5
55.9
-8.3
11.6
14.3
62.6
-0.67
16.2
16.2
62.8
1.1
26.1
26.1
72.1
-0.6
20.5
20.5
5
5
3
-
39.8
5.1
18.2
18.9
45.2
3.9
17.1
17.5
51.6
-11.5
8.6
14.4
60.4
-1.9
20.1
20.1
59.1
1.5
29.5
29.6
66.7
-2.2
21.1
21.2
6
10
3
-
46.1
6.15
21.1
21.9
45.7
4.1
16.0
16.5
48.7
-12.2
13.7
18.4
60.5
-1.4
20.5
20.5
60.5
0.62
28.3
28.3
71.9
-2.68
21.99
22.15
7
15
3
-
42.6
6.6
20.3
21.3
46.2
3.3
16.9
17.2
46.6
-14.2
16.1
21.5
61.5
-0.88
21.8
21.9
52.5
3.1
21.1
21.2
65.2
-5.9
21.7
22.5
8
20
3
-
42.1
6.7
20.6
21.7
47.9
3.4
17.5
17.8
44.5
-9.2
19.8
21.9
57.8
-3.3
22.3
22.5
54.2
2.3
20.5
50.6
61.8
-1.9
29.61
29.7
9
5
-
3
61.8
3.2
18.2
18.5
42.9
4.9
20.2
20.7
59.4
-6.8
14.5
16.1
55
-5.2
21.2
21.8
61.2
0.07
25.1
25.1
67.3
-0.08
17.4
17.4
10
10
-
3
54.1
3.6
16.9
17.3
53.3
2.9
18.6
18.8
44.1
-9.5
10.3
14.1
60.7
-4.5
21.5
21.9
53.5
2.9
36.9
37.1
69.6
-3.7
22.7
23.1
Saffron Petals, a By-Product for Dyeing of ....
Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84 79
2.3. Dyeing process
Dyeing process was performed in a dye bath with an
L:R= 20:1 by exhaustion method. The saffron petals
were powdered with a mortar and 20 g of this powder
dipped in 400 ml distilled water for 30 min and allowed
to boil for 1 hour. The dye solution was cooled and
filtrated. For 5 g wool fibers, 30 ml of dye solution was
used (30 % owf). The bath temperature was increased
over 20 minutes to boiling point, and wool dyeing was
carried out for one hour. Then, the dyed wool was rinsed
in cold water and washed in a bath of liquor ratio 20:1
using 1 g/l of non-ionic detergent (Nekanil LN) at 60 °C
for 15 min, then rinsed and dried at ambient temperature.
The dyeing and fastness properties of the colorants
extracted from saffron petals on wool fibers were
investigated.
2.4. Effect of mordanting on properties
Effects of mordanting, evaluated in terms of dye uptake
(K/S value), were calculated from the reflectance data
(R) of dyed sample and CIELAB color (Spectra Flash 60,
Datacolor International, reflectance spectrophotometer).
The effect of mordanting on light fastness was assessed
according to ISO 105-B02. Also, ISO 105- C01 was used
to measure the wash fastness. The FTIR spectroscopy
(Bomem-MB 100 series, Canada) using KBr disc
technique was used to show the types of chemical
functionality and bonds present in the main color
components of saffron petals powder.
3. Result and discussion
3.1. Color strength
The effect of mordant concentration on the color strength
(K/S value) of wool fibers is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: K/S value versus (a) Tin (iv) chloride, (b) Copper sulfate, (c) Aluminium sulfate, (d) Iron (III) sulfate, (e) Iron (II)
sulfate and (f) Sodium Dichromate concentrations.
Mortazavi, Kamali Moghaddam, Safi and Salehi
80 Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84
Figure 5: Continued.
Saffron Petals, a By-Product for Dyeing of ....
Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84 81
The color strength (K/S value) was determined using
the Kubelka- Munk equation: K/S=(1-R)2/2R, where R is
the decimal fraction of the reflectance of dyed fiber. The
results showed that most of the metal salts have high
color strength, K/S, due to their ability to form
coordination complexes with the dye molecules. The
figure showed that Aluminum sulfate has a less K/S
value. It seems that Aluminum sulfate is one of the
metals forming a weak coordination complex with the
dye which has a tendency to form stronger bonds with
the dye than with the fiber. Thus, it blocks the dye and
reduces its interaction with the fiber. Bhattacharya et al
obtained the same results[10]. As evident, the higher K/S
value was obtained at 10% (owf) of Tin (IV), 20% (owf)
Copper sulfate, 2% (owf) Aluminum sulfate, 15% (owf)
Iron (III), 2% (owf) Iron (II) and 20% (owf) sodium
dichromate.
3.2. CIE LAB
To evaluate the color parameter, CIE L* a* b* system is
used, where L*refers to lightness-darkness values from
100 to 0 representing white to black, a* values run from
negative (green) to positive (red) and b* values run from
negative (blue) to positive (yellow).
Lower L* values indicate that the sample becomes
darker than that of control sample. The CIE lab of wool
fibers is represented in Table 2. As shown in the Table,
varied hues (ranges from light yellow-dark green to light
brown) were obtained from mordanted wool fiber with
metal salts when dyed by aqueous extract of saffron
petals. In spite of tin and aluminum salts are white, but
tin salt yielded yellowish green and aluminum salt
caused cream to light yellow color. The copper sulfate is
blue and provided dark cream to green color. Dyed wool
fibers with saffron petals possessed greenish yellow color
with Sodium dichromate. Moreover, ferrous sulfate
yielded brownish, whereas Fe (II) caused darker color
than Fe (III). So, a various color can be obtained by
changing the mordants.
The results show that mordant has the most influence on
L*. As evident from Table 2, the lightness value of fibers
is reduced in order of mordanting using Al> Cr> Cu>
Sn> Fe (III)> Fe (II). The Table shows that the chroma or
brilliance (C* values) of fiber increases with mordant
concentration. Also, the use of assistant materials such as
oxalic acid and cream of tartar caused varied hues of
color. The results also showed that the cream of tartar led
to little change in lightness, chroma and hue in fibers
mordanted with metal salts, especially with Copper and
Iron sulfate.
Table 2: Mordanting conditions of the wool fibers and the results of color fastness to washing and light.
Mordants
FeSO4
Fe2(SO4)3
SnCl4
CuSO4
Na2Cr2O7
Al2(SO4)3
Sample
Mordant (%)
Oxalic acid (%)
Cream of tartar (%)
L
W
L
W
L
W
L
W
L
W
L
W
1 1 3 - 7 3-4 6 2-3 2 3-4 6 2 5 4 5 3
2 2 3 - 7 4 7 3 3 2-3 4 2-3 5 4-5 3 2
3 3 3 - 7 4 6 2 2 3-4 3 3 6 4-5 4 2
4 4 3 - 7 4 7 2 2 3 6 2-3 7 4-5 4 2
5 5 3 - 5 4 7 2 3 2-3 4 3 7 4-5 4 2
6 10 3 - 7 4-5 7 2 6 3 6 3 7 4-5 4 2
7 15 3 - 5 4-5 7 4 4 2-3 6 2-3 6 4-5 6 2-3
8 20 3 - 6 4 7 3-4 4 2 7 3-4 6 4-5 6 3-4
9 5 - 3 7 4-5 7 3-4 2 3-4 6 3-4 6 4 6 2
10 10 - 3 7 4-5 7 2-3 4 2 7 3 6 4-5 4 2-3
Mortazavi, Kamali Moghaddam, Safi and Salehi
82 Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84
The effect of auxiliaries in dye bath may be related to
pH, hence to the correlation between dye structure and
wool fibers. For example, the wool fibers mordanted
with copper sulfate in presence of cream of tartar have
greener color than the same fibers dyed in oxalic acid
bath.
3.3 Fastness properties
Most natural dyes have poor to moderate light fastness.
Poor light fastness of some natural dyes is attributable to
photo oxidation of the chromosphere. Since the Mordants
have substantivity for both the fiber and the colorants,
they play an important role in natural dyeing and form
coordination bonds with fiber which lead to a change in
the light fastness and to improve the washing fastness.
The light fastness is influenced by many factors such as
the nature of the fibers, the mordant type, the dye
chemical and concentration and its physical state, and is
rated from 1 to 8, in which 1 is the worst and 8 is the
best. It is a general rule that dyes show a greater
resistance to fading when heavily applied to textile than
lightly applied to give pale tints. The wash fastness is the
ability to retain color after washing. The wash fastness is
rated from 1 (the worst) to 5 (the best). In some natural
dyes, washing the dyed sample with alkali causes a
complete change in the color of the sample instead of
fading. So, the wash fastness rating measurement using
grey scale was a little difficult as the sample look
completely different in color before and after washing.
The results of light and wash fastness are summerized in
Table 2. The results of fastness properties of the dyed
fibers were fair to good. From these results, it was
concluded that mordants Na2Cr2O7 and FeSO4 were the
best mordant to improve the wash fastness (4-5), while
the samples mordanted with Aluminum sulfate had poor
fastness to washing (2-3). The best mordants were found
to be Iron sulfate and sodium dichromate for improving
the light fastness of dyed wool fibers, whereas the
Aluminum sulfate and SnCl4 had poor fastness. The table
showed that (10%) FeSO4, (15%) Fe (SO4)2, (10%)
SnCl4, (20%) CuSO4, Na2Cr2O7 at (4%) and Aluminum
sulfate at 20% had better properties. These results are
compatible with the study of Cox-Crews on 18 yellow
natural dyes which concluded that the use of tin and
Aluminum sulfate mordant results in significantly more
fading than when chrome, iron or copper mordants were
used [23].
Comparing the role of oxalic acid and cream of tartar,
it was clear that the cream of tartar improves the fastness
(see sample 5 and 9). In fact, cream of tartar improved
dyeing fastness when Fe, Cu and Aluminum mordants
were used, whereas oxalic acid was better when SnCl4
and Na2Cr2O7 were applied.
3.4. FT-IR analysis of colorants
The functional groups of saffron petals powder were
studied by the FTIR spectroscopy. Figure 6 shows
distinct peaks at 3400, 2922, 1763, 1615, 1370, 1087 and
642 cm-1, respectively.
Figure 6: FT-IR spectra of saffron petals.
Saffron Petals, a By-Product for Dyeing of ....
Prog. Color Colorants Coat. 5(2012), 75-84 83
The peak at 642 is CH=CH stretching vibration. The
FTIR spectral analysis shows the absorption peak at 1087
cm-1 which refers to C-O stretching. The CH2 scissors
vibration at 1370 cm-1 and the C=C stretch at 1615 cm-1.
The absorption band at 1763 cm-1 is characteristic of
C=O stretching, CH asymmetric and symmetric stretch at
2922 and 2887 cm-1. It was seen that there were no C-H
stretching absorptions above 3000 cm-1 and the sharp
peak at 3406 cm-1 represented the stretching of –OH [22].
These results confirmed that saffron petals contain
phenolic and flavonoide components.
4. Conclusions
Dyeing wool fibers with saffron petals has been used.
Saffron petals were chosen as natural dyes because it is
one of the by-products of field where a great amount of
them was thrown away after harvesting, while they can
possibly be used for dyeing. The petal and sepals of
saffron are a light purple, but the wool dyed with saffron
petals and different mordants have a varied hue in a color
range from yellow to brown. The results showed that
Iron sulfate (FeSO4) and sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7)
were the best mordant to improve the wash and light
fastness. In this study, the amounts of 10% (owf) iron
and copper sulfate in the presence of cream tartar, 5-10%
(owf) sodium dichromate in the presence of oxalic acid,
15-20% (owf) Aluminum sulfate in the presence of
oxalic acid proved to have the best values of light-
fastness and washing-durability; moreover, the use of
these concentrations is cost-effective. In wool dyeing
with saffron petals, the Tin (IV) chloride as a mordant is
not recommended due to poor fastness properties. Cream
of tartar led to an increase in lightness and chroma
compared to oxalic acid. The results showed that saffron
petal can be a good natural dyestuff for wool dyeing, but
need more experiments and study.
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... Besides being used in culinary it is also known to possess medicinal potencies such as given to patients suffering from depression, alopecia, premenstrual syndromes, premature ejaculation, infertility and Alzheimer disease [4,5]. In addition, extracts of saffron are used in textile dying and manufacturing fragrances [6]. ...
Article
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Saffron is an expensive ancient culinary spice with a sturdy fragrance and yellow�ish golden color that is mostly used in cooking. It is also enriched source of vitamins, essential minerals, and many nonvolatile components as well that possess antioxidants properties. Additionally, it’s been used in the treatment of several chronic ailments such as infertility in males, depression, mental illness, oxidative stress and other gynecologi�cal problems in females., erectile dysfunction, and infections Saffron is an and expensive herb
... In another study, Mortazavi et al. (2012) investigated the use of saffron petals in coloring of wool fibers. They found that varied hues from light yellow to light brown were obtained from saffron petals based on the kind of mordants applied and suggested that saffron petal can be a good natural colorant for wool dyeing. ...
Conference Paper
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Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive plant species in the world. Iran has a main role in producing a significant amount of saffron in the world, which annually produces more than 400 tons. Most of saffron production in Iran is cultivating under traditional agricultural systems and forms an important part of the livelihood for family farms. Application of saffron in these systems has been limited to the food industry, textile and pharmacological purposes. The saffron flower after removing the stigmas is usually considered as waste, whereas variable components can be extracted from saffron wastes. In the present study, we focused on the potential of producing byproducts from saffron wastes. The results indicated that there is a high potential in using of saffron waste in cosmetic, fragrance and flavoring markets, food and feed additive and supplementary medicines. As saffron petals are cheaper and produce in large amounts compared to saffron stigma, they can be considered as an appropriate source for different purposes. Some part of the produced wastes is due to the lack of high technologies in traditional saffron production systems and the other part is based on the lack of knowledge and the related technologies in waste management which with introducing novel technologies, significant economic benefits can be expected.
... carbonyl (C = O), stretching of C = C, scissors of methylene (CH 2 ), stretching of C-O, and stretching of CH = CH [39], respectively. These results indicated that SPA possesses flavonoid and phenolic components. ...
Article
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In the present study, first, saffron petal anthocyanin (SPA) and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) were extracted and synthesized, respectively. Then, multifunctional bio-based films based on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), SPA, and CuO-NPs were fabricated using solvent casting method. The mechanical, thermal, physical, optical, antibacterial, toxicity, and pH sensitivity properties of the prepared films were evaluated. The obtained results demonstrated that simultaneous incorporation of CuO-NPs and SPA improved the mechanical, UV absorption, barrier properties as well as the thermal stability of the films. Moreover, the nanocomposite films exhibited a great antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Fabricated nanocomposite films obviously exhibited color change from pink to green in acidic and alkaline media, respectively. The multifunctional films could effectively sense the freshness of lamb meat during storage time, and thus they can be introduced as pH-indicators for monitoring the freshness/spoilage of meat in real-time. Graphical Abstract
... It is reported that, generally, 158,000-300,000 flowers are necessary to produce 1 kg of spice [5], with about 78 kg of petals discarded per 1 kg of stigmas [6,7]. Saffron petals are mainly used for animal feed or as natural dye for fibers [8,9]. However, it is noteworthy that saffron petals are rich in many antioxidant compounds [10], such as phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) are traditionally processed to produce saffron, a spice widely used as a food coloring and flavoring agent, which is important in the pharmaceutical and textile dye-producing industries. The labor-intensive by-hand harvesting and the use of only a small amount of each flower cause saffron to be the most expensive spice in the world. Crocus sp. petals are by-products of saffron production and represent an interesting raw material for the preparation of extracts intended for health protection in the perspective of a circular economy. In the present study, ethanolic extract from Crocus sativus L. petals (Crocus sativus L. petal extract, CsPE) was tested on macrophages by in vitro models of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. The extract was found to be endowed with anti-inflammatory activity, significantly reducing the nitric oxide production and IL-6 release by RAW 264.7 murine cells. Moreover, CsPE demonstrated an anti-osteoclastogenic effect, as revealed by a complete inhibition of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast formation and a decreased expression of key osteoclast-related genes. This study, which focuses on the macrophage as the target cell of the bioactive extract from Crocus sativus L. petals, suggests that the petal by-product of saffron processing can usefully be part of a circular economy network aimed at producing an extract that potentially prevents bone disruption.
... 12,13 Now, saffron tepals are mainly used to dye wool, in accordance with historical documentation of its use as a dye. 14 Saffron's stigma has the highest market value, while tepals are by-products and sometimes discarded after harvesting. ...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this bulletin is to provide timely information on issues of adulteration regarding saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) and its extracts to the international herbal industry and extended natural products community in general by presenting data on the occurrence of adulteration, the market situation, and potential consequences for the consumer and the industry.
... Due to affordability and probable therapeutic effects, attention to these parts of the saffron flower has been increased. 3 In terms of weight, the greatest amount of saffron is saffron petals. As a result, more attention has been paid to it. ...
Article
Full-text available
The saffron petals are a by-product part of the saffron flower with a cardiovascular effect. This study evaluated the effect of the saffron petal on hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AII) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor). Rats were divided into 11 groups: 1) Control, 2) AII (50.00 ng kg-1), 3) Losartan+ AII, 4) L-NAME (10.00 mg kg-1), 5) sodium nitroprusside (SNP) + L-NAME, 6, 7) Saffron petals extract; 8, 9) saffron petals (100 and 200 mg kg-1) + AII and 10,11) saffron petals (100 and 200 mg kg-1) + L-NAME. Hypertension induced by intravenous injection of AII and L-NAME in separate groups. In treated groups, 30 min before injection of AII or L-NAME rats received two doses of extract via intraperitoneal administration. The femoral artery was cannulated and cardiovascular parameters recorded by a transducer connected to power lab apparatus. Maximal changes (∆) of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) from baseline were calculated and compared to with those in hypertensive and control groups. Results showed that both AII and L-NAME significantly increased SBP and MAP than control, however, HR in AII was decreased and in the L-NAME group increased. Pre-treatment with saffron petals could significantly attenuate the cardiovascular responses induced by both AII and L-NAME. However, the effect of the extract in AII hypertensive rats was more effective than L-NAME groups. The findings showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the saffron petals had an antihypertensive effect that mainly was mediated by inhibition of AII activity.
... It also has been used for cooking and in medicine. Saffron is mostly used as a culinary adjunct or food additive in the food industry, applied as a natural dye in the textile industry, used as a food supplement as a source of natural polyphenol, incorporated in plant fertilizers from organic matter in the soil, and used for medicinal purposes (antispasmodic, stomachache relief, anxiety curative, and antitumor and antidepression treatment) (Hadizadeh, Mohajeri, & Seifi, 2010;Mortazavi, Moghaddam, Safi, & Salehi, 2012). Bioactive compounds in saffron are usually extracted from flower parts such as stigmas, petals, and sepals. ...
Chapter
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), which belongs to the family Iridaceae, contains approximately 150 volatile and nonvolatile compounds in the dry stigma; the derivative compounds help improve food aroma and quality. The dry stigmas of the flowers have three main active compounds, viz. picrocrocin, crocin, and safranal. It has fastness properties, as saffron dyes in wool and silk fibers exhibit excellent rubbing, washing, and perspiration qualities through microwave and ultrasonic methods. Saffron is appreciated for its color, taste, and aroma, and this natural food colorant is used to treat various diseases. As a colorant, it is used for various purposes including cooking food, first aid, and a natural dye without harmful effects. Conversely, nonsaffron plant material is sometimes colored with synthetic dyes to produce counterfeit saffron, and some of these dyes are not safe for human consumption. Bioactive components that could result in value-added products from so-called red gold (saffron) are used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic formulations. Saffron linked to modulating several neurological pathways, including enhancing immune response, decreased reactive oxygen species, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and regulation of nuclear factor kappa β activation. There is evidence that crocins might have antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant activities. This chapter explores the effects of different saffron-based food additives and their functional properties as food colorants. It summarizes current research findings, impacts, and customer feedback about saffron derivatives before focusing on the food colorant’s importance and social aspects in the future perspective.
Chapter
Sustainability is, nowadays, a full demand of global community due to the widespread information about hazardous effects of man‐made products, their effluents load eluted after their synthesis and application. Now, the people are looking everywhere to find the green products in all walks of life, such as pharmaceuticals, textiles, flavors, fashions, electronics, etc., due to their excellent ayurvedic and biological nature. Among these products, antiviral, antioxidant and antifungal‐based plant‐derived biocolorants are gaining their revival in such applied fields, particularly in textiles and pharmaceuticals. Of these natural colors, flavonoid‐based natural colorants cover the full spectrum of colors with their beautiful look. In this chapter, various types of flavonoids have been discussed, where their sources have been narrated from isolation to applications. This chapter will provide a brief overview for those who want to use flavonoid‐based colorants in all walks of life.
Chapter
Growing awareness about the environmental issues caused by synthetic colorants in all applied fields has affected the global mental approach about charming colors. Now, people are shifting toward eco‐safe, greener, sustainable labeled products, which have not only excellent antiviral, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal but also have wonderful medicinal characteristics with soothing colors. The textile sector, on account of these characteristics, is moving toward such green products, particularly natural dyes. Their isolation methods, mode of application have some difficulties, which the researchers are improving day by day with conventional methods. Still, these methods need a lot of chemicals, labour, power, and economy. Now there is a ray of using modern tools, such as radiation methods, like ultraviolet, ultrasonic, microwave, gamma, and plasma radiation. This chapter will contain information about the exploration of new dye‐yielding plants by employing these cost, time, energy effective isolation tools, and will give a short view on the introduction of plant‐based anchors (bio‐mordants) in comparison with chemical anchors (chemical mordants) for improving fastness ratings with new shades. Hopefully, the natural dye artisans, traders, industrialists, and academician will get new ways to explore new dye yielding plants for coloration of natural fabrics.
Chapter
The global community has given a great tendency not only to rewire the art of cultural heritage but also to introduce ayurvedic and therapeutic‐based sustainable products in every walk of life. Herbal‐based natural colorants are gaining much more popularity in different fields of life like food, feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles regarding their health and environment concerning properties. These products particularly bio‐dyes isolated from plants have excellent antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory activities, etc., due to which these are gaining a great interest to be used around the globe. The current chapter will give a brief review of such plant‐derived natural products which have excellent color characteristics. The utilization cost‐effective isolation tools such as microwave radiations, ultrasonic radiations, and gamma radiations for isolation of functional component, their medicinal properties as well as the addition of bio‐anchors to make the process more sustainable with new shades will also be discussed. Hopefully, this chapter will add a knowledge hub for art revivers, folk lovers, painters, consumers, and traders, who are in search of such valuable products.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, adsorption isotherms were obtained by processing wool with dyestuff solutions of different concentrations extracted from cehri fruit with water. These isotherms follow the Nernst equation; the Nernst constant was determined and interpreted. In addition, wool and silk fibres were dyed with the same dyestuff solution and various mordants. Colours having a high fastness which could be used on an industrial scale were produced.
Article
Full-text available
The dyeing of wool fabrics using lac as a natural dye has been studied in both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The extractability of lac dye from natural origin using power ultrasonic was also evaluated in comparison with conventional heating. The results of dye extraction indicate that power ultrasonic is rather effective than conventional heating at low temperature and short time. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic than with conventional heating. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Dyeing kinetics of wool fibre with lac dye using conventional and ultrasonic conditions was compared. The time/dye-uptake isotherms are revealing the enhanced dye-uptake in the second phase of dyeing (diffusion phase). The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time of dyeing and standard affinity and ultrasonic efficiency have been calculated and discussed.
Article
A natural dye is extracted from turmeric and used to dye cotton at different dyeing conditions. Then the fastness properties of the dyeings with different dyeing techniques are compared. The dye is found to have good saturation and rubbing fastness, but poor washing and light fastness properties on cotton, when applied without any mordant. When dyeing is implemented with mordants, washing and light fastness properties show improvement while rubbing fastness exhibits deterioration. Finally, comparative studies between natural and synthetic reactive dyes reveal that the natural dye has the potential to act as a co-partner with reactive dyes with a few compromises.
Article
Wool specimens were premordanted with alum, chrome, copper, iron, or tin mordants and dyed with 18 yellow natural dyes. The dyed specimens were then exposed to a xenon-arc lamp for 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 AATCC Fading Units. The color changes were evaluated instrumentally with a color difference meter and visually by trained observers. Color differences in CIE L*a*b* units, gray scale classifications, and lightfastness ratings were reported. Turmeric, fustic, and marigold dyes faded significantly more than any of the other yellow dyes. However, dyes applied with tin and alum mordants faded significantly more than dyes mordanted with chrome, copper, or iron. In fact, mordant affected lightfastness more than dye or length of exposure. This showed that mordant was more important than dye in predicting lightfastness of colored textiles. Consequently, to make the best decisions regarding display of a textile, museum personnel should have both mordant and dye identified.
Article
In Khorasan province, cotton is a subsequent crop in saffron fields .A large amount of saffron petals yearly being dispose off instead of using them as a source of organic matter in soil .Two experiments was performed to investigate the effect of saffron petals water extracts on germination and primary growth of cotton under laboratory conditions. In first experiment the effect of different concentrations 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % made from 1 % water extract, was studied on cotton (Var. Varamin) germination percentage, in completely randomized design with 4 replications. In the second experiment the effect of same concentrations on coleoptiles and radicle lengths (measured every 12 hours) and their dry weight (at the end of experiment) was studied in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. Results of first experiment showed that different concentrations had no significant effects on germination percentage and radicle dry weight but had significant effects on coleoptiles dry weight. The highest coleoptiles and radicle lengths observed in 50 % concentration. In rainfed agriculture, long coleoptiles and radicles are usually very suitable. It was therefore concluded that 25 % concentrations of 1 % water extract of saffron petals promot coleoptiles and radicles in both experiments and is recommended.
Article
Wool fabric was dyed with catechu by two different process sequences using various metal sulphates as mordant. The dyeing behaviour has been assessed by measuring K/S values and different fastness properties. The effect of different metal ions have been studied with respect to their influence on colour and fastness properties. The mechanism of mordant interaction with the fibre has been briefly considered.
Article
A natural colorant was extracted from Coffea arabica L., using water as extractant at 90°C for 90 min. Studies have been made on the dyeing, color fastness, and deodorization properties of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with Coffea arabica L. extract solutions. The best mordants were found to be FeSO4, CuSO4, and SnSO4 for improving the color strength (K/S) of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics. Mordants MnSO4, ZnSO4, and NiSO4 for cotton (Rating 3), and all mordants except MnSO4 for silk (Rating 3), mordants CuSO4, FeSO4, CoSO4, Al2(SO4)3, and MnSO4 for wool (Rating 4) were the best mordants to improve the light fastness. It was found that FeSO4 and CuSO4 were the best mordants for the improvements of color strength (K/S) and light fastness for silk and wool fabrics. In addition, it was found that cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with the Coffea arabica L. extract showed good deodorization performance. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 251–257, 2007