"Testing-Only" Visits: An Assessment of Missed Diagnoses in Clients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics
‡Section of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA Sexually transmitted diseases
(Impact Factor: 2.84).
01/2013; 40(1):64-9. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31826f32f3
At sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, advances in testing technology coupled with increasing demands and diminishing resources have promoted the use of testing-only visits (clinic visits with testing for STDs but no full examination) to meet increasing demands for STD services.
The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of STD diagnoses that could become "missed diagnoses" if patients would use testing-only visits and to examine patient characteristics associated with these potential missed diagnoses.
We conducted a self-administered survey of STD-related symptoms and sexual risk behaviors in patients seeking routine clinical care at 3 STD clinics. Medical charts were abstracted to estimate the prevalence of viral STDs, trichomoniasis, and other diagnoses from standard clinical services that could become missed diagnoses.
Of 2582 patients included, the median age was 24 years and 50% were women. In women, overall, 3.2% were diagnosed as having a viral STD; 9.6%, trichomoniasis; and 41.0%, vulvovaginal candidiasis or symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of these potential missed diagnoses varied by patient characteristics, but in women who reported no symptoms, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was still 6.3%. In men, 19.3% received a diagnosis of urethritis but tested negative for both gonorrhea and chlamydia; this prevalence varied from 15.7% in those who reported no symptoms to 32.6% in those who reported malodor.
A high proportion of STD clients received diagnoses from standard care visits that would be missed by testing-only visits. When patients, even those asymptomatic, use testing-only visits, missed diagnoses of STDs or related genital tract conditions can be substantial. The potential disadvantages of testing-only visits should be weighed against the advantages of such visits.
Available from: Weiming Tang
- "The observed prevalence of HIV among the participating MSCs was 0.49%, lower than the prior findings among male clients of female sex workers in the border area of the Yunnan province of southern China , in Sichuan province  and in Tijuana, Mexico . However, this prevalence was higher than the findings among male STI-clinic clients in USA . Meanwhile, the overall syphilis prevalence for the participants who attended the baseline survey was 17.29% (18.06% for Yangzhou and 16.53% for Changzhou). "
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of HIV and syphilis, incidence of syphilis and to identify the correlates of syphilis infection among heterosexual male attendees of sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics (MSC).
A cohort study of one-year duration was conducted in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities in Jiangsu province of China. The baseline survey commenced in June 2009, recruited 1225 consenting adult MSCs (609 in Yangzhou and 617 in Changzhou) through STI-clinic based convenience sampling.
Baseline HIV and syphilis prevalence were 0.49% and 17.29% respectively. Syphilis incidence rate was 7.22 per 100 person-years (6.53 in Yangzhou and 7.76 in Changzhou) during the 6-month follow-up with retention fractions of 27.38% and 35.15% for Yangzhou and Changzhou respectively. Majority of the participants were middle-aged, high school educated, married, living with partners and non-migrants. Very few subjects reported recent and consistent condom-use with regular partners. Although considerable number of MSCs reported recent sexual exposure with female sex workers (FSW) and non-FSW casual partners, the proportion of reported condom use was very low during those exposures. In multivariate analyses higher age, having recent sex with FSWs and being HIV-positive were associated with higher syphilis sero-positivity while higher education was protective. In bivariate analyses, being married, divorced/widowed, official residency of the study cities and non-use of condom with regular partners predicted higher risk.
Considering the potential bridging role of MSCs between high and low-risk populations, effective intervention strategies among them targeting the correlates of syphilis infection are urgently called for in Jiangsu province of China.
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Canada, and extragenital sites are believed to serve as hidden reservoirs for ongoing transmission of infection. There are no specific Canadian screening guidelines for asymptomatic individuals from extragenital sites. We sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rectal C. trachomatis among female sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees in Alberta, Canada.
Between 20 July and 31 December 2012, all female attendees at 2 Provincial STI clinics receiving a pelvic examination, regardless of a history of anal intercourse, were screened for rectal C. trachomatis using the Gen-Probe Aptima COMBO 2 Assay. Demographic and behavior variables were compared between rectal-only chlamydia cases and genitourinary cases using χ(2) or Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression.
A total of 3055 women were screened for rectal chlamydia. The prevalence of rectal chlamydia ranged from 11.7% to 13.5%. There were 133 rectal-only cases, increasing case detection by 44.3% from 300 genitourinary cases to 433 total cases, ranging from 21.7% to 88.2% by clinic. Women who were a contact to an STI were less likely to have rectal-only chlamydia for both clinics (P ≤ .001).
Our findings add to the growing body of evidence supporting universal rectal screening in high-risk women such as those undergoing pelvic exams at STI clinics.
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