Intakes of nutrients in Italian children with celiac disease and the role of commercially available gluten-free products
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic option; however, it may contribute to the consumption of an unbalanced diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the dietary intake of CD affected children on a GFD and compare it with non-celiac children and with Italian nutritional intakes recommendations, as well as evaluate the contribution of commercially available gluten-free products (GFPs).
Eighteen celiac children, median age 7.6 years, median GFD duration 4.2 years, and 18 non-celiac controls, were enrolled in a cross-sectional age-matched study. Dietary intakes of both groups were collected using a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour dietary recall. Nutritional intakes were compared between the group and controls and with Italian dietary reference values. The contribution of GFPs to energy and macronutrient intakes was evaluated.
Median energy intake was significantly higher in CD patients than in controls (8961.8 and 5761.0 kJ day−1; P < 0.001). CD subjects showed higher carbohydrate intakes and lower fat intakes compared to controls. Protein-derived energy did not differ. By contrast to control subjects, energy derived from carbohydrate intakes in CD children met the Italian recommendations. Both children groups showed higher protein and fat intakes than recommended in Italy. GFPs consumption accounted for 36.3% of daily total energy intake.
Intakes of simple sugars, fats and protein exceeded the National recommendations for health. Children with CD had significantly higher energy intakes than controls, although body mass index was comparable across the groups. Lack of nutritional information for GFPs prevented complete dietary analysis of subfractions of fat and micronutrient intakes. This aspect need to be addressed if studies in this field are to be meaningful in the future.
Figures in this publication
Available from: Iulia Lupan
dietary intake of CD children on a GFD and non-coeliac children were also evaluated. The observation was that CD children had higher energy intakes than controls,
although BMI was comparable to the groups (14). Children and
adolescents with CD are at risk for suboptimal bone health at time of diagnosis and
after 1 year on GFD. "
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ABSTRACT: Many recent studies overshadow the effects of gluten-free diet. Gluten-free diet positive effects were observed in celiac disease patients: increase in body mass index, higher energy intakes, reducing adiposity gain, moderates the risk of the associated complications. However, adhering to a gluten-free diet is difficult for many people. A new solution is needed for quality of life of celiac disease patients, not for celiac disease treatment. Health education on gluten-free diet at home and in society seems to be the solution. The aim of our study is to evaluate the recent research on gluten-free diet as a nutritional therapy for patients with celiac disease. To achieve this purpose we have analyzed the published studies from 2008 to the present on nutrition in celiac disease.
Available from: Ana Maria Calderon
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ABSTRACT: Gluten-free bakery foodstuffs are a challenge for technologists and nutritionists since alternative ingredients used in their formulations have poor functional and nutritional properties. Therefore, gluten-free bread and cookies using raw and popped amaranth, a grain with high quality nutrients and promising functional properties, were formulated looking for the best combinations. The best formulation for bread included 60-70% popped amaranth flour and 30-40% raw amaranth flour which produced loaves with homogeneous crumb and higher specific volume (3.5 ml/g) than with other gluten-free breads. The best cookies recipe had 20% of popped amaranth flour and 13% of whole-grain popped amaranth. The expansion factor was similar to starch-based controls and the hardness was similar (10.88 N) to other gluten-free cookies. Gluten content of the final products was around 12 ppm. The functionality of amaranth-based doughs was acceptable although hydrocolloids were not added and the final gluten-free products had a high nutritional value.
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ABSTRACT: To describe the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a population of children with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD).
This cross-sectional multicenter study was performed at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel (Petach Tiqva, Israel), and San Paolo Hospital (Milan, Italy). We enrolled 114 CD children in serologic remission, who were on a GFD for at least one year. At enrollment, anthropometric measurements, blood lipids and glucose were assessed, and compared to values at diagnosis. The homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance.
Three or more concomitant CVD risk factors [body mass index, waist circumference, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and insulin resistance] were identified in 14% of CD subjects on a GFD. The most common CVD risk factors were high fasting triglycerides (34.8%), elevated blood pressure (29.4%), and high concentrations of calculated LDL cholesterol (24.1%). On a GFD, four children (3.5%) had insulin resistance. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the Italian cohort compared to the Israeli cohort (P < 0.001). Children on a GFD had an increased prevalence of borderline LDL cholesterol (24%) when compared to values (10%) at diagnosis (P = 0.090). Trends towards increases in overweight (from 8.8% to 11.5%) and obesity (from 5.3% to 8.8%) were seen on a GFD.
This report of insulin resistance and CVD risk factors in celiac children highlights the importance of CVD screening, and the need for dietary counseling targeting CVD prevention.
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