GBD 2010: Design, definitions, and metrics
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Electronic address: .The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 12/2013; 380(9859):2063-6. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61899-6
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- "Children and adolescents aged 5–17 years constitute almost a quarter of the global population (United Nations, 2011). Approximately 85% live in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) (United Nations, 2011Murray et al. 2012). As part of burden quantification for GBD 2010, systematic reviews of the epidemiological data were conducted for mental disorders across all ages and countries (Baxter et al. 2013bBaxter et al. , 2014Charlson et al. 2013;Erskine et al. 2013;Ferrari et al. 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Aims: Children and adolescents make up almost a quarter of the world's population with 85% living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, mental (and substance use) disorders are the leading cause of disability in young people; however, the representativeness or 'coverage' of the prevalence data is unknown. Coverage refers to the proportion of the target population (ages 5-17 years) represented by the available data. Methods: Prevalence data for conduct disorder (CD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), eating disorders (EDs), depression, and anxiety disorders were sourced from systematic reviews conducted for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) and 2013 (GBD 2013). For each study, the location proportion was multiplied by the age proportion to give study coverage. Location proportion was calculated by dividing the total study location population by the total study location population. Age proportion was calculated by dividing the population of the country aged within the age range of the study sample by the population of the country aged within the age range of the study sample. If a study only sampled one sex, study coverage was halved. Coverage across studies was then summed for each country to give coverage by country. This method was repeated at the region and global level, and separately for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Results: Mean global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in ages 5-17 years was 6.7% (CD: 5.0%, ADHD: 5.5%, ASDs: 16.1%, EDs: 4.4%, depression: 6.2%, anxiety: 3.2%). Of 187 countries, 124 had no data for any disorder. Many LMICs were poorly represented in the available prevalence data, for example, no region in sub-Saharan Africa had more than 2% coverage for any disorder. While coverage increased between GBD 2010 and GBD 2013, this differed greatly between disorders and few new countries provided data. Conclusions: The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and adolescents is limited. Practical methodology must be developed and epidemiological surveys funded to provide representative prevalence estimates so as to inform appropriate resource allocation and support policies that address mental health needs of children and adolescents.
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- "The YLD of lifelong injury were calculated by multiplying the number of patients (in an age/gender/injury group) with lifelong injury with the corresponding disability weight and duration. Age weights or discounting were not applied in the calculations, because this practice is controversial (Anand and Hanson 1997; Murray et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Background: The consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries (RTI) are increasingly adopted by policy makers as an indicator of traffic safety. However, it is not agreed upon which level of severity should be used as cut-off point for assessing road safety performance. Internationally, within road safety, injury severity is assessed by means of the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS). The choice for a severity cut-off point highly influences the measured disease burden of RTI. This paper assesses the burden of RTI in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) by hospitalization status and MAIS cut-off point in the Netherlands. Methods: Hospital discharge register (HDR) and emergency department (ED) data for RTI in the Netherlands were selected for the years 2007-2009, as well as mortality data. The incidence, years lived with disability (YLD), years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, and DALYs were calculated. YLD for admitted patients was subdivided by MAIS severity levels. Results: RTI resulted in 48,500 YLD and 27,900 YLL respectively, amounting to 76,400 DALYs per year in the Netherlands. The largest proportion of DALYs is related to fatalities (37%), followed by admitted MAIS 2 injuries (25%), ED treated injuries (16%) and admitted MAIS 3+ injuries (18%). Admitted MAIS 1 injuries only account for a small fraction of DALYs (4%). In the Netherlands, the diseases burden of RTI is highest among cyclists with 39% of total DALYs. One half of all bicycle related DALYs are attributable to admitted MAIS 2+ injuries, but ED treated injuries also account for a large proportion of DALYs in this group (28%). Car occupants are responsible for 26% of all DALYs, primarily caused by fatalities (66%), followed by admitted MAIS 2+ injuries (25%). ED treated injuries only account for 5% of DALYs in this group. Conclusions: When using admitted MAIS 3+ or admitted MAIS 2+ as severity cut-off point, 54% and 80% of all DALYs are captured respectively. Assessing the influence of different severity cut-off points by MAIS on the proportion and number of DALYs captured gives valuable information for guiding choices on the definition of serious RTI.
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- "Migraine is ranked the 19th among the causes of years lived with disability . According to the Global Burden of Disease report , migraine is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and can cause significant social, economic, and personal burdens . According to the WHO, disability is considered to be the impact of any disease or pathological condition on an individual's ability to work and function in various settings and roles   . "
ABSTRACT: Background: The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire. Methods: Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration). Results: A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87. Conclusion: The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings.
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