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GBD 2010: A multi-investigator collaboration for global comparative descriptive epidemiology

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Electronic address: .
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 12/2013; 380(9859):2055-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62134-5
Source: PubMed
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    • "According to the Global Burden of Disease Study (Murray et al. 2012a), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third most frequent cause of deaths in the world and comes in the ninth position in the rank based on the disability adjusted life-years (DALY) index (Lozano et al. 2012; Murray et al. 2012b). COPD is characterized by reduced airway flow. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Polish Spirometry Day is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the causes, symptoms, course, and effects that accompany respiratory diseases, especially asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In 2013, the second edition of the Spirometry Day was held. It gathered 180 medical centers and other institution. The final analysis encompassed a total of 1187 persons from 26 different locations, including rural areas, and smaller and larger city agglomerations. Of this total, 755 persons (63.6 %) completed their spirometry tests for the first time in life. Each person fulfilled a questionnaire regarding the personal information, respiratory diseases, symptoms, lifestyle, and a place of residence. In the total group, 234 (19.7 %) cases of bronchial obstruction were diagnosed. A hundred and thirty four persons with obstruction, among those tested for the first time in life (17.8 %), were unaware of their disease. The lowest values of FEV1 and FEF1/FVC, corresponding to the highest percentage of persons with obstruction (27.9 %) were observed in small and medium cities (100,000-500,000 inhabitants). There were differences in the prevalence of obstruction depending on the distance of the place of residence from a busy traffic road. A significant decrease of both spirometric variables was observed among people living in cities above 100,000 inhabitants within a distance lower than 50 m from roads. In general, better spirometry results were observed among inhabitants living more than 150 m from main roads.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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    • "Dental caries continues to be a major public health problem and one of the conditions with the highest prevalence worldwide (Bagramian et al. 2009), affecting more than one-third of the population at all ages (Murray et al. 2012). Besides the obvious detriment to oral health, dental caries compromises quality of life (Scarpelli et al. 2013) and it is the main oral cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) (Murray et al. 2012). Given the high prevalence and its negative consequences for the population , new approaches to cope with the disease are required. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: An anti-caries effect of antioxidant polyphenols has been suggested, but evidence remains weak. The aim was, therefore, to assess the anti-caries activity of an antioxidant-rich apple concentrate (ARAC) in an experimental biofilm caries model on enamel. Method: A validated caries model with Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms was used. Biofilms were formed on enamel slabs during five days. To mimic cariogenic challenges, triplicate slabs were exposed three times per day for five minutes to 10% sucrose followed by five additional minutes of exposure to serial dilutions of ARAC of 1: 1, 1: 1,000 and 1: 100,000 (v/v). A triplicate slab exposed to 10% sucrose followed by 0.9% NaCl served as caries-positive control. Acidogenicity was estimated by medium pH twice per day. After the experimental phase, biofilms were recovered to determine biomass, viable bacteria and intra and extracellular polysaccharides. Slabs were used to estimate demineralization by the percentage of surface microhardness loss (%SHL). Differences among treatments were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p<0.05). Result: Streptococcus mutans biofilms exposed to ARAC after a cariogenic challenge with sucrose induced lower enamel demineralization than the positive control. The highest dilution of ARAC (1: 100,000) showed the most marked reduction in demineralization of about fifty seven percent. Although no differences were observed in the number of bacterial cells, the intracellular polysaccharides or in the biomass (p>0.05), the highest dilution of the apple concentrate induced significantly lower extracellular polysaccharide formation by the biofilm. Conclusion: An ARAC in low concentrations appears to have a potential anti-caries activity on enamel by reducing sucrose-induced demineralization and polysaccharide formation. The data suggest a metabolic rather than an antimicrobial mechanism on cariogenic bacteria, but further research is needed.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    • "Dental caries continues to be a major public health problem and one of the conditions with the highest prevalence worldwide (Bagramian et al. 2009), affecting more than one-third of the population at all ages (Murray et al. 2012). Besides the obvious detriment to oral health, dental caries compromises quality of life (Scarpelli et al. 2013) and it is the main oral cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) (Murray et al. 2012). Given the high prevalence and its negative consequences for the population , new approaches to cope with the disease are required. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To assess the anticaries activity of an antioxidant-rich apple concentrate (ARAC) in an experimental biofilm caries model on enamel. Methods and results: A validated caries model with Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms was used. Biofilms were formed on enamel slabs during 5 days. To mimic cariogenic challenges, triplicate slabs were exposed three times per day for 5 min to 10% sucrose followed by five additional minutes of exposure to serial dilutions of ARAC in 0·9% NaCl. A triplicate slab exposed to 10% sucrose followed by 0·9% NaCl served as caries-positive control. Acidogenicity was estimated by medium pH twice per day. After the experimental phase, biofilms were recovered to determine biomass, viable bacteria and intra- and extracellular polysaccharides. Slabs were used to estimate demineralization by the percentage of surface microhardness loss (%SHL). Differences among treatments were analysed by anova and Bonferroni test (P < 0·05). Streptococcus mutans biofilms were exposed to ARAC after a cariogenic challenge with sucrose-induced lower enamel demineralization than the positive control. The highest dilution of ARAC at 1 : 100 000 (v/v) showed the most marked reduction in demineralization of about 57%. Although no differences were observed in the number of bacterial cells, the intracellular polysaccharides or in the biomass (P > 0·05), the highest dilution of the apple concentrate induced significantly lower extracellular polysaccharide formation by the biofilm. Conclusions: An apple concentrate in low concentrations appears to have a potential anticaries activity on enamel. Data suggest a metabolic rather than an antimicrobial mechanism, but further research is needed. Significance and impact of the study: Phenolic compounds contained in apple concentrates seem to have anticaries properties that may be effective even in the presence of sucrose and in very low doses. Nutritional interventions that do not require rescinding from sucrose might be derived from these findings.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Applied Microbiology
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