ArticleLiterature Review

Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection

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Abstract

Osteoporosis is a disease of bone characterized by loss of bone matrix and deterioration of bone microstructure that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between higher fruit intake and higher bone mineral density. In this review, we evaluated animal and cellular studies of dried plum and citrus and berry fruits and bioactive compounds including lycopene, phenolics, favonoids, resveratrol, phloridzin, and pectin derived from tomato, grapes, apples, and citrus fruits. In addition, human studies of dried plum and lycopene were reviewed. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. Such osteoprotective effects seem to be mediated via antioxidant or anti-inflammatory pathways and their downstream signaling mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. In future studies, randomized controlled trials are warranted to extend the bone-protective activity of fruits and their bioactive compounds. Mechanistic studies are needed to differentiate the roles of phytochemicals and other constitutes in bone protection offered by the fruits. Advanced imaging technology will determine the effective doses of phytochemicals and their metabolites in improving bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which is a critical step in translating the benefits of fruit consumption on osteoporosis into clinical data.

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... The preventive effect of vitamin E on bone erosion observed in animal models prompted a number of large epidemiological surveys on the possible effect of its intake from diet and/or supplements 46,69 . In a study on 951 current-smoking post-menopausal women, high intake of vitamin E was associated with a significantly lower risk of hip fracture 70 . ...
... In particular, two studies indicated that daily consumption of this phytochemical may suppress bone resorption as suggested by the apparent inverse relation between lycopene intake and serum levels of resorption markers 74,75 . Unfortunately, the encouraging pre-clinical findings obtained with other bioactive compounds, especially present in fruits, such as flavonoids, resveratrol and pectin, have not been adequately replicated in humans yet 69 . On the contrary, robust epidemiological evidence gathered in the last two decades yields a wide consensus around the positive impact of dietary intake of vegetables and, in particular, fruits on bone health 69,76 . ...
... Unfortunately, the encouraging pre-clinical findings obtained with other bioactive compounds, especially present in fruits, such as flavonoids, resveratrol and pectin, have not been adequately replicated in humans yet 69 . On the contrary, robust epidemiological evidence gathered in the last two decades yields a wide consensus around the positive impact of dietary intake of vegetables and, in particular, fruits on bone health 69,76 . ...
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Post-menopausal osteoporosis (PO) is one of the major health issues associated with menopause-related oestrogen withdrawal. Despite the intense research and the relevant progress achieved in the last two decades, the pathogenic mechanism underlying PO is still poorly understood. As a consequence of this gap in the knowledge, such disorder and the related complications are still difficult to be effectively prevented. A wealth of experimental and epidemiological/clinical evidence suggests that the endocrine change associated to menopausal transition might lead to a derangement of redox homeostasis, that is, the prelude to the health-threaten condition of oxidative stress (OxS). In turn, this (bio)chemical stress has been widely hypothesized to contribute, most likely in synergy with inflammation, to the development of menopause-related diseases, including PO. The main aim of this review is to discuss the current literature evidence on the association between post-menopausal oestrogen withdrawal, OxS and PO. It is also aimed to provide a critical overview of the most significant epidemiological studies on the effects of dietary antioxidants on bone health and to devise a strategy to overcome the limitations emerged and controversial results.
... In this regard, Holman and Weaver (2014) showed that feeding rats on dried grapes increased bone calcium content as well as bone structure and strength. As noted by Shen et al (2012), dried fruits and bioactive compounds, including phenolics, flavonoids and resveratrol extracted from fruits and grapes are important in maintaining the health and durability of bones and thus increasing their strength. These effects are attributed to the role of antioxidants in fruits in reducing the effects of oxidative stress. ...
... Also, rats fed on dried grapes increased bone calcium content, bone structure, and strength (Holman and Weaver, (2014). In this context , Shen et al., (2012) indicated the effect of dried fruits and bioactive compounds, including phenolic, flavonoids and resveratrol extracted from fruits, and grapes, indicating their importance in maintaining the health and durability of the bones and thus increasing their strength, attributing these effects to the role of antioxidants in fruits in reducing the effects of oxidative stress in the bones and that resveratrol possesses important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which benefit bone health. Additionally, a recent study, suggests that orally administered proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract improved implant osseointegration by alleviating the impaired bone health induced by ovariectomy as a model of estrogen hormone deficiency in mice (Tenkumo et al., 2020). ...
... The improvement in calcium percent of the grape leaf extract treatments may be due to the presence of resveratrol compound in grape leaves, which has many properties in preserving bone health (Shen et al., 2012). According to Holman and W eaver (2014), rats fed a diet enriched in grapes retained 44% more net calcium in the bones than rats fed a control diet. ...
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Background: Some natural sources of polyphenols like grape seed, leaf or extracts, have many benefits in maintaining bone health in animals. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of grape seeds, grape leaves powder, or their extracts on some bone characteristics and total ash content in broiler chickens. Methods: Three hundred and twenty four one-day-old broilers were allocated to nine treatments with three replicates containing 12 chicks each. Chicks were fed nine experimental diets for 35 days; as a control diet without supplementation (T1), control diets supplemented with 15 and 30 g/kg grape seeds powder (GSP) (T2, T3), 15 and 30 g/kg grape leaf powder (GLP) (T4, T5), grape seed extract (GSE) at levels 2 and 4 ml/l added in drinking water (T6, T7) and with grape leaf extract (GLE ) at levels 2 and 4 ml/l (T8 and T9), respectively. Result: Significant increase (p≤0.05) in the bone length was recorded with GSP (30 g/kg), GLP (15 g/kg), GSE or GLE and calcium percent with GLE as compared with control. Furthermore, significant improvement was recorded in predictive skeletal weight of broilers fed GSE (T6 α T7) as compared to the other treatments. The study concluded that the best results were achieved at the 2 or 4 ml/l of grape seed extract in improving femur length, predicted skeletal weight and from grape leaf extract in improving calcium percentage in broiler bone ash.
... Fruits and vegetables are rich in a variety of bioactive compounds, with antioxidant properties, that may effectively improve bone health [18]. Citrus fruits are important due to their high polyphenol content. ...
... It is known that a high fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis [18,[22][23][24]. However, to date, the effects of citrus fruit polyphenols on bone cell metabolism have scarcely been studied. ...
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Epidemiological studies show that fruit consumption may modulate bone mineral density. However, data regarding the effect of the Citrus bergamia Risso (Bergamot orange), a citrus fruit containing a high concentration of flavonoids, on bone health are still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bergamot polyphenols on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in two distinct bone cell types (Saos-2 and MG63). Findings showed that exposure to 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL doses upregulate β-catenin expression (p = 0.001), osteoblast differentiation markers (e.g., RUNX2 and COL1A), and downregulate RANKL (p = 0.028), as compared to the control. Our results highlight, for the first time, that Bergamot polyphenols act on bone cells through the β-catenin pathway. In vivo studies are necessary to fully understand Bergamot’s role against bone resorption.
... Similar to the study of Li et al. (2013), these authors did not find a significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass. Shen et al. (2012) proposed a potential osteoprotective mechanism of most commonly consumed fruits and their phytochemicals, such as tomato (lycopene), grape (resveratrol), citrus fruits, berry fruits, dried plum, and apple (polyphenols, flavonoids, phloridzin, and pectin), via antiinflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, leading to osteoblast mineralization and osteoclast inactivation. They proposed that fruit intake promotes osteoblastogenesis by upregulating RunX2 and osteocalcin, specific genes for osteoblast formation. ...
... In addition, the inhibition of RANKL will reduce the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity that degrades bone collagen. Finally, downregulation of RANKL can inactivate NFATc1, a calcineurin-and calcium-regulated transcriptional factor that promotes osteoclastogenesis (Shen et al., 2012). ...
... Lycopene, a dietary carotenoid, mainly found in tomatoes and other red colored fruits [19], is well known for its high antioxidant potential [22]. There are accumulating evidences suggesting that lycopene consumption helps to improve bone metabolism [23][24][25][26]. We and others have demonstrated that lycopene could improve blood glucose and lipid metabolism in preclinical studies and clinical trials [27,28]. ...
... Indeed, we found that obese mice exhibit a decreased bone biomechanical strength and a disorganized bone microstructure. Interestingly, lycopene was reported to exert bone protective effect through its antioxidant properties [24,48]. In addition, as shown in the present study, lycopene treatment alleviates oxidative stress by increasing serum levels of T-AOC and SOD and decreasing serum levels of MDA in obese mice. ...
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Objective: This study was aimed at examining the effects of lycopene on bone metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)- induced obese mice and to identify the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: Mice were fed a HFD for 12 weeks and then continue with or without lycopene intervention (15 mg/kg) for additional 10 weeks. The effects of lycopene on blood glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by biochemical assays. Bone histomorphological features and osteoclast activity were assessed by hematoxylin/eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Bone microstructure at the proximal tibial metaphysis and diaphysis was determined by microcomputed tomography. Tibial biomechanical strength and material profiles were measured by a three-point bending assay and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Protein expressions involved in the AGE/RAGE/NF-кB signaling pathway were determined by western blot and/or immunohistochemical staining. Results: Lycopene consumption reduced body weight gain and improved blood glucose and lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, lycopene treatment preserved bone biomechanical strength, material profiles, and microarchitecture in obese mice. Moreover, these alterations were associated with an increase in serum levels of T-AOC and SOD, and a decline in serum levels of MDA, as well as a reduction of AGEs, RAGE, cathepsin K, and p-NF-кBp65 and NF-кBp65 expressions in the femurs and tibias of obese mice. Conclusion: Lycopene may improve bone quality through its antioxidant properties, which may be linked with the regulation of the AGE/RAGE/NF-кB signaling pathway in obese mice. These results suggest that lycopene consumption may be beneficial for the management of obesity-induced osteoporosis.
... Nutrition intervention offers an inexpensive, readily accessible, preventive strategy against osteoporosis that is most effective when adopted early in life [7]. Observational population studies showing bone-protective effects of fruit consumption [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] have been supported by mechanistic animal and cellular investigations demonstrating an inhibitory effect of fruit polyphenols on osteoclast formation and activity [19][20][21][22][23][24]. For example, in a cross-sectional study of 3089 Chinese men and women of age 40-75 years old, Qui et al. [8] found significantly higher total and site-specific bone mass density (BMD) in participants consuming the highest vs. lowest tertile of fruit. ...
... This mechanism is consistent with the concept of age-related bone loss being largely due to chronic low-grade inflammation [29][30][31]. Grape polyphenol isolates, such as resveratrol, have been widely used to investigate their effect on bone [18]. Resveratrol dietary supplementation demonstrates bone-protective effects in multiple experimental models including obese men at high risk of bone loss [32], mice exposed to oxidative stress [33], ovariectomized rats (a model of post-menopausal osteoporosis) [34], rats with periodontal bone disease [35], and tail-suspended rats [36]. ...
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Nutrition is a primary modifiable determinant of chronic noncommunicable disease, including osteoporosis. An etiology of osteoporosis is the stimulation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary polyphenols and probiotics demonstrate protective effects on bone that are associated with reduced ROS formation and suppressed osteoclast activity. This study tested the effect of dietary enrichment with powdered whole grape and probiotics (composed of equal parts Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. bulgaricus) on bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of age-related osteoporosis. Groups (n = 7 each) of 10-month-old male mice were fed one of six diets for 6 months: 10% grape powder with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder; 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 10% grape powder + 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder + 1% probiotic; 20% sugar control. Femur, tibia and 4th lumbar vertebrae from 10-month-old mice served as comparator baseline samples. Bone microarchitecture was measured by micro-computed tomography and compared across diet groups using analysis of variance. Aging exerted a significant effect on tibia metaphysis trabecular bone, with baseline 10-month-old mice having significantly higher bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number measurements and lower trabecular spacing measurements than all 16-month-old groups (p < 0.001). Neither grape nor probiotic enrichment significantly improved bone microarchitecture during aging compared to control diet. The combination of 20% grape + 1% probiotic exerted detrimental effects on tibia metaphysis BV/TV compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, and trabecular number and trabecular spacing compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, 1% probiotic and control groups (p < 0.05). Femur metaphysis trabecular bone displayed less pronounced aging effects than tibia bone, but also showed detrimental effects of the 20% grape + 1% probiotic vs. most other diets for BV/TV, trabecular number, trabecular spacing and trabecular pattern factor (p < 0.05). Tibia and femur diaphysis cortical bone (cortical wall thickness and medullary area) displayed neither aging nor diet effects (p > 0.05). Vertebrae bone showed age-related deterioration in trabecular thickness and trabecular spacing and a trend toward preservation of trabecular thickness by grape and/or probiotic enrichment (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate no benefit to bone of combined compared to independent supplementation with probiotics or whole grape powder and even suggest an interference of co-ingestion.
... Jams appear in many forms: jellies, marmalades, chutneys, fruit butters and fruit spreads (Shen et al., 2012). They are also useful accompaniments to peanut butter, blended with milk, fresh fruit, and yoghurt, spread between cake layers, filled into doughnuts (Shen et al., 2012;Babajide et al., 2013). ...
... Jams appear in many forms: jellies, marmalades, chutneys, fruit butters and fruit spreads (Shen et al., 2012). They are also useful accompaniments to peanut butter, blended with milk, fresh fruit, and yoghurt, spread between cake layers, filled into doughnuts (Shen et al., 2012;Babajide et al., 2013). The carrot-cucumber juice produced and evaluated by Aderinola & Abaire (2019) had high moisture content which definitely cannot function as bread spread like jam. ...
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This study evaluate the physicochemical properties, rheological characteristics, and consumer acceptability of Jam produced from blend of carrot (CT) and cucumber (CB),sweetened with honey at varying proportions : C10 (100% CT), C91 (90% CT, 10% CB) , C82 ( 80%CT, 20% CB), C73(70% CT, 30%CB), C64 (60%CT, 40%CB), C55 (50%CT, 50%CB, C46 (40% CT, 60% CB), C37: 30%CT, 70% CB, C28 (20%CT, 80% CB) C19 (10%CT, 90%CB) and ,C01 (100 CB), respectively. The proximate composition, physicochemical properties and rheological characteristics were evaluated using standards methods and sensory evaluation as well conducted. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the values obtained for moisture, protein, ash, fiber, fat and carbohydrate contents. These ranged from 52.67-72%, 1.32-1.94%, 0.28-2.32%, 0.14-1.05%, 0.11-0.93%, 24.89-44.41%, respectively. Also, significant differences (p<0.05) existed between values obtained for vitamin C, total sugar, Total titrable acidity, Brix° and pH, respectively. Application of power law model revealed a pseudo-plastic behavior for all the Jams samples with flow index of n<1. Inference drawn from the panelist scores revealed that scores for sensory parameters were not significantly different (p>0.05). There was higher average scored values for all the parameters rated by panelist for jams produced from 100% carrot. The study showed that jams (Carrot-cucumber jam sweetened with honey) is a good source of energy. The level of fat and total sugar content of these fruit jams indicated the suitability for children, elderly, diabetic patient and obese.
... Indeed in vitro studies reported that Res directly acts on bone-forming osteoblast cells (9)(10)(11)(12) and their precursors (13)(14)(15)(16) stimulating their differentiation. Accordingly, evidences from in vivo studies conducted on different animal models, encourage human trials to test the therapeutic efficacy of Res supplementation on bone turnover (17,18). Actually, low bioavailability and clearance of Res could limit the translation of concentrations, experimentally established, to clinical doses efficacious to achieve beneficial health effects (19,20). ...
... Indeed DBSCs treated with Res and Pol showed increased expression of ALP, the enzyme promoting bone matrix mineralization (65) and consistent with this, the treated cells showed higher amount of mineral matrix deposition. It is known that Res stimulates in vivo bone formation (17,18) promoting in vitro the differentiation of osteoblasts and precursors (9,(13)(14)(15)(16). To establish efficacious dosage ranges of administration for human trials has been difficult (19,20) because some studies have demonstrated that intestinal absorption of Res is high, but its bioavailability is low due to its rapid metabolism (66,67).Whereas the presence of a glycosilic group in the Pol molecule allows to resist oxidation, prolongs its half-life and increases its solubility (68), furthermore Pol amount results to be more abundant then Res in the same plants (22)(23)(24). ...
Article
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Bone loss and fractures are consequences of aging, diseases or traumas. Furthermore the increased number of aged people, due to the rise of life expectancy, needs more strategies to limit the bone loss and regenerate the lost tissue, ameliorating the life quality of patients. A great interest for non-pharmacological therapies based on natural compounds is emerging and focusing on the oligostilbene Polydatin, present in many kinds of fruits and vegetables, when resveratrol particularly in red wines. These molecules have been extensively studied due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, showing more recently Resveratrol the ability to enhance osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. However, the clinical applications of Resveratrol are limited due to its low bioavailability and rapid metabolism, while its natural glycosilated precursor Polydatin shows better metabolic stability and major abundance in fresh fruits and vegetables. Nevertheless the role of Polydatin on osteogenic differentiation is still unexplored. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from dental tissues, such as dental bud stem cells (DBSCs), are able to differentiate toward osteogenic lineage: thus we investigated how Resveratrol and Polydatin influence the differentiation of DBSCs, eventually affecting bone formation. Our results showed that Polydatin increases MSCs osteogenic differentiation sharing similar properties with Resveratrol. These results encourage to deepen the effects of this molecule on bone health and its associated mechanisms of action, wishing for the future a successful use in bone loss prevention and therapy.
... This review is a comprehensive summary of literature describing the effects of polyphenols on bone in human, animal, and cell studies, in particular, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that can modulate skeletal homeostasis and influence bone modeling and remodeling processes. Several studies have associated higher fruit intake with decreased fracture risk, greater formation markers, and bone mineral density (Shen et al., 2012). Many of the health-enhancing effects of fruit and vegetables have been attributed to flavonoids (polyphenols), i.e. a major class of phytochemicals found ubiquitously in fruit and vegetables (Hardcastle et al., 2011). ...
... Cranberry juice significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity, red blood cell oxidative resistance, and superoxide dismutase in ovariectomized rats, however, without an effect on bone health. Shen et al. (2012) reported that commonly consumed polyphenol-rich fruit have a pronounced effect on bone health. This effect is manifested by higher bone mass and trabecular bone volume (number and thickness) as well as lower trabecular separation through enhancement of bone formation and suppression of bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. ...
Article
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Polyphenols are a group of compounds arousing enormous interest due to their multiple effects on both human and animal health and omnipresence in plants. A number of in vitro and animal model studies have shown that all polyphenols exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and play a significant role against oxidative stress-related pathologies. They also exert gut promotory effects and prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, less attention has been paid to the potential influence of polyphenols on bone properties and metabolism. It is well known that proper growth and functioning of the organism depend largely on bone growth and health. Therefore, understanding the action of substances (including polyphenols) that may improve the health and functioning of the skeletal system and bone metabolism is extremely important for the health of the present and future generations of both humans and farm animals. This review provides a comprehensive summary of literature related to causes of bone loss during ageing of the organism (in both humans and animals) and possible effects of dietary polyphenols preventing bone loss and diseases. In particular, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that can modulate skeletal homeostasis and influence the bone modeling and remodeling processes are presented.
... This is highly correlated with polyphenol content (Prior et al., 1998). Blueberries are a good resource of anthocyanins, which can protect cells from oxidative deterioration and use blueberry as a potential functional food to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress (Srivastava, 2006;Shen et al., 2012)Blueberries have been reported to have a pharmacological impact against ophthalmologic disorders.They improve blood and oxygen delivery to the eye and scavenge free radicals, which contribute tocataract and macular degeneration (Calò et al., 2014).Short shelf life of berries is a common problem, which limits availability and consumption.Blueberries have quite a quick harvest season (Skrovankova et al., 2015). Therefore, there is a high demand on novel technologies capable to imrove biochemical and nutritional characteristics of blueberry during storage period. ...
... Though many of these compounds have bone-protective effects, little is known regarding their influence on bone healing. 102 Curcumin and formononetin are both bioactive compounds that have received much attention in regard to bone health, and more recently bone healing. Oral supplementation with curcumin increased the number of osteoblasts within the fracture callus through induction of autophagy 103 ; whereas, formononetin increased callus vascularity and expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors within the femoral fracture callus, likely through estrogen receptor signaling. ...
Article
Impaired fracture healing continues to be a significant public health issue. This is more frequently observed in aging populations and patients with comorbidities that can directly influence bone repair. Tremendous progress has been made in the development of biologics to enhance and accelerate the healing process; however, side effects persist that can cause significant discomfort and tissue damage. This has been the impetus for the development of safe and natural strategies to hasten natural bone healing. Of the many possible approaches, nutrition represents a safe, affordable, and non‐invasive strategy to positively influence each phase of fracture repair. However, our understanding of how healing can be hindered by malnutrition or enhanced with nutritional supplementation has lagged behind the advancements in both surgical management and the knowledge of molecular and cellular drivers of skeletal fracture repair. This review serves to bridge this knowledge gap, as well as define the importance of nutrition during fracture healing. The extant literature clearly indicate that pre‐existing nutritional deficiencies should be corrected, and nutritional status should be carefully monitored to prevent the development of malnutrition for the best possible healing outcome. It remains unclear, however, whether the provision of nutrients beyond sufficiency has any benefit on fracture repair and patient outcomes. The combined body of preclinical studies using a variety of animal models suggest a promising role of nutrition as an adjuvant therapy to facilitate fracture repair, but extensive research is needed, specifically at the clinical level, to clarify the utility of nutritional interventions in orthopaedics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... So, bone-building agents stimulating new bone formation as well as rectifying the imbalance caused by trabecular micro-architecture could be beneficial [6]. Currently, an increasing demand for treatment of osteoporosis with plant bioactive compounds is gaining more relevance [7][8][9]. mild phototoxic, and photomutagenic properties [16]. ...
Article
Osteoporosis is a major health concern occurring to the aging adult population across the globe. Currently, there is an increasing demand for treatment of osteoporosis with plant-based medicines. In the present study, we report that heraclenin was extracted and purified from unripe fruit portion of Bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) using silica gel column chromatography. The identification and characterization of heraclenin were carried out by UV–Vis, HPLC, LC-MS, NMR, FT-IR, and XRD analyses. The standardized purification method recorded a yield efficiency of 42% heraclenin microcrystals with 99% purity from bael fruit. SEM image revealed the shape of the purified compound to be an orthorhombic-sphenoid prism. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that heraclenin- treatment did not alter cell viability in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs, C3H10T1/2). The mRNA ex- pression of Runx2, a bone transcription factor was found to be stimulated by heraclenin in these cells. At the cellular level, heraclenin-treatment enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in mMSCs. Thus, these results suggested that heraclenin purified from bael fruit has an osteogenic effect, indicating its potential towards bone regeneration.
... Of potential candidates, resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol, commonly found in grape skin, red wine, and blueberries and used as a dietary supplement, has been widely investigated (Tran et al., 2017;Yonamine et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2017Zhang et al., , 2018Zhu et al., 2017;Franck et al., 2018), and declared safe for animals and humans (Williams et al., 2009). RSV has already been studied for its osteoprotective effects (Shen et al., 2012;Durbin et al., 2014;Ornstrup et al., 2014), and described as a physical exercise mimetic to prevent wasting disorders during hindlimb unloading (Momken et al., 2011). However, its mitigating effect has never been studied in a partial weightbearing (PWB) model. ...
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While there is a relatively good understanding of the effects of microgravity on human physiology based on 5 decades of experience, the physiological consequences of partial gravity remain far less well understood. Until recently, no model had been able to replicate partial gravity such as that experienced on Mars (0.38g), which would be critical to help sustain long-term missions and ensure a safe return to Earth. Recent development of two partial weight bearing (PWB) models, one in mice and one in rats, now allows for quadrupedal partial unloading that mimics Martian gravity. Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol most commonly found in grapes and blueberries, has been extensively investigated for its health benefits, including its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-diabetic effects. In the context of mechanical unloading, RSV has also been shown to preserve bone and muscle mass. However, there is a lack of research regarding its effect on the musculoskeletal system in partial gravity. We hypothesized that a moderate daily dose of RSV (150 mg/kg/day) would help mitigate muscle deconditioning in a Mars gravity analogue. Indeed, our results demonstrate that RSV treatment during partial unloading significantly preserves muscle function (e.g., the average change in grip force after 14 days of PWB40 was of -6.18%, and +10.92% when RSV was administered) and mitigates muscle atrophy (e.g., RSV supplementation led to an increase of 21.6% in soleus weight for the unloaded animals). This work suggests the potential of a nutraceutical approach to reduce musculoskeletal deconditioning on a long-term mission to Mars.
... These results could also explain the argument mentioned above that even when many of the participants under study do not follow a strict diet, they probably limit the intake of bread, potatoes and carbohydrates. Due to this idea of being fit, they replace them with less caloric foods such as vegetables, fruits and fish (29)(30)(31)(32) that means, the Mediterranean diet (33,34). ...
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Introduction: this study presents the results regarding diet and an analysis of natural estrogens (phytoestrogens) intake and how they affect other important aspects, which can modulate biological health functions among university students. Objectives: assessing nutritional habits and estimating the intake of phytoestrogens in the population under study. Materials and methods: Costa Rican female (n: 211, 18.83 ± 2.06 years) and male (n: 199, 19.64 ± 3.05 years) university population of the University of Costa Rica applied anthropometric tests using DEXA, the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour Reminder (R-24). Results: the most serious nutritional bad habits were high ingestion of sodium, lipids and animal origin proteins in men and women and a deficit of fiber and folic acid in women. The total intake of phytoestrogens referred to: daidzein 0.23 ± 0.40 mg/day and 7.01 ± 11.94 mg/month in women and 0.17 ± 0.13 mg/day and 5.14 ± 3.96 mg/month in men; mainly consumed in the form of lignans 0.24 ± 0.12 mg/day (women) and 0.23 ± 0.14 mg/day (men). The intake of isoflavones was 0.09 ± 0.38 mg/day (women) and 0.04 ± 0.08 mg/day (men). Conclusions: the study population presented high fat percentage although the consumption of vegetables, cereals, whole grains and fruits tends slightly to be a Mediterranean diet; their food pattern was much closer to the Western diet.
... An increased consumption of carotenoid-rich fruits maintains the cholesterol level in blood since they reduce oxidative damage and cause an increase in LDL oxidation resistance, [3]. Fruits have also been suggested to prevent osteoporosis in adults mainly for their rich sources of calcium and other vitamins which are vital in bone health, [4].The high fiber content of fruits may play a role in calcium absorption and reduce the 'acid load' of the diet, [5] enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption which consequently result in greater bone strength, [6]. Moreover, phyto ingredients in fruits such as isoflavones have shown to be protective against lens damage which occurs due to hyperglycemia and certain flavonoids such as quercetin can prevent oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, [7]. ...
... Furthermore, the high fiber content of fruit may play a role in calcium absorption, which reduces the 'acid load' of the diet, enhancing bone formation resulting in greater bone strength (87). Fruit consumption, especially plums which have high levels of antioxidants and polyphenols, have positive influences on multiple chronic diseases. ...
Article
Prunus salicina, Japanese plums, and Prunus domestica, European plums, are naturally rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins and phytonutrients. Consuming plums can increase overall fruit intake and can be incorporated into part of a healthy diet. Through local plum production, harvesting can be completed without the need for cross-country shipping, which can increase overall acceptability and nutritional quality of the fruit. Furthermore, the increase in local production can help to boost Maine’s economy and creates a market for new plum product production. The first objective of this study was to determine consumer acceptance of locally grown plum cultivars at a tree-ripened stage. Sensory testing was conducted in the Sensory Evaluation Center at the University of Maine on plum cultivars harvested at Highmoor Farm in Monmouth, ME. The highest rated cultivar for ‘overall’ acceptability was the Japanese plum, Oblinya, with an average rating of 7.27±1.42. Toka, Kahinta and Superior also had high ‘overall’ acceptability scores with average ratings of, 6.98±1.4, 6.97±1.55 and 6.9±1.37, respectively. European varieties Early Italian and Caselton also had high ‘overall’ acceptability ratings at 6.98±1.46 and 6.76±1.35, respectively. In a similar consumer study, fruit was believed to be accepted among consumers with likeness ratings of >5.0. All cultivars tested in this study outperformed this value. The second objective of this study was to evaluate phytonutrient content of the plum cultivars. Phytochemical constituents were extracted using 80% acidified methanol for twelve locally grown plum cultivars at a tree-ripened stage. Total monomeric anthocyanin, total phenolics, and free radical scavenging ability was measured on the cultivars. The European plum Caselton had the highest anthocyanin content (1242.83±14.05mg /100 g.) Toka had the greatest antioxidant capacity, demonstrating 50% inhibition of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (1.28±0.14 mg/mL.) Toka also had the highest total phenolic content (1006.04±21.88 mg/ 100g.) Statistically significant differences were found between Japanese and European varieties for total phenolic content and free radical scavenging ability, with Japanese cultivars having higher values in both categories. Cold-hardy plum cultivars that can be produced in Maine were successfully cultivated and were widely accepted among consumers. Producing plums that are well liked by consumers provides a new agricultural sector for Maine’s farmers, in turn boosting local economies and creating a new market for processed plum products. The evaluation of consumer acceptance and bioanalysis of plum cultivars establishes a deeper understanding of novel, tasty, and healthy plums for producers to incorporate into their production programs. This study fills the gap in knowledge of cold-hardy cultivars, and demonstrates that tree-ripened cultivars Oblinya, Toka, Kahinta, Superior and Early Italian all have favorable marketing potential for tree-fruit farmers in Maine.
... Fruit-derived diet has a great influence on the regulation of mammalian cell homeostasis, including the homeostasis of the skeleton [28]. Along with their phytochemicals, fruits are beneficial to skeletal health through their ability to directly or indirectly interact with bone cells and reduce bone matrix loss [29]. In particular, the impact that citrus fruits have on bone tissue has been investigated since the 18th century. ...
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Background: Exosome-like nanovesicles are biological nanostructures mediating cell-to-cell communication and capable to load selected cargos also in the interaction among different species. Objective: We aimed to explore the content of exosome-like nanovesicles derived from Citrus limon L. and to analyze the effects of their uptake on human cells. Method: We isolated exosome-like nanovesicles from Citrus limon L. juice (EXO-CL) by differential centrifugation. EXOCL were analyzed for short RNA content by advanced sequencing technologies, and for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and citrate content by enzymatic assays. EXO-CL anti-oxidant and pro-differentiative potential was evaluated in vitro on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), a common tool for regenerative strategies for several human tissues. Results: We showed that EXO-CL carry detectable amounts of citrate and vitamin C and, although it was not possible to identify specific miRNAs, we detected short RNA sequences (20-30 bp) with unknown functions and with different distribution size in respect to whole Citrus limon L. juice. In vitro, EXO-CL were uptaken by MSC and had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress. Furthermore, regarding the potential benefit for human bone health, we found that EXO-CL modulate MSC differentiation versus the osteogenic lineage. Conclusion: We demonstrated that incubation with EXO-CL exerts antioxidant activity in human cells. This is most likely due to the direct delivery and uptake of micronutrients by human cells that are well preserved inside the nanovesicle membrane, including the unstable vitamin C. Based on our results, we speculate that fruit-derived nanovesicles have the potential to mediate interspecies influence after food intake.
... Furthermore, both medium and high doses of EBN could significantly increase the thymus and spleen indices of mice. T cells, which are key to the immune F I G U R E 7 Volcano plots of differentially expressed genes between (a) NC group and LIM group, (b) NC group and PC group, (c) NC group and MEBN group, (d) Venn plot of differentially expressed genes response, can be divided into three different subtypes, namely Th0, Th1 and Th2, according to the secreted cytokines(Shen et al., 2012). ...
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The purpose was to investigate effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) on the immunological properties of mice with lung injury induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2). In mice, SO2 exposure caused symptoms that included a cough, tiredness, and weight loss. Administering EBN improved the immunological function of mice with lung injury in a dose‐dependent manner, leading to recovery of the lung tissue and increasing thymus and spleen indices. IL‐2 and IFN‐γ in the serum by Th1 cells in response to EBN played a leading role in cellular immune regulation. Moreover, a medium dose of EBN regulated the immune stress response, inhibited apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes, and promoted cellular immunity. EBN inhibited production of IL‐8 and MDA and upregulated mRNA expression of atrophin‐1 and cyclooxygenase‐2 in lung tissue. EBN attenuates the lung injury induced by SO2 in mice through a mechanism that involves the inhibition of inflammation and regulation of immunological balance. EBN attenuates the lung injury induced by SO2 in mice through a mechanism that involves the inhibition of inflammation and regulation of immunological balance.
... Other components present in olive oil, such as the flavonoid luteolin, also caused a significant increase in the bone mineral density and bone mineral content of trabecular and cortical bones in the femur compared to those of ovariectomized controls and prevented decreases of bone strength indexes induced by ovariectomy surgery [11,28]. Phytochemicals, antioxidants, and other bioactive compounds have been proposed to have an effect on trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation by enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption [29]. ...
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Olive oil has been demonstrated to enhance various cardiometabolic risk factors. However, to our knowledge, the association between olive oil intake and cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture has never been evaluated in Spanish women. We aimed to examine the association between olive oil intake and cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture. We analyzed 523 women aged 50 (9) year, range (23–81) year. Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, energy and olive oil (g/day) were assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). After adjustment for potential confounding factors (calcium (mg/day), vitamin D (μg/day) energy (Kcal/day), age, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), menopausal status, and osteoporotic diagnosis (normal, osteopenia, or osteoporosis)), there were significant increases in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (mg/cm3) (p < 0.01) in the group with a higher intake of olive oil. Total, trabecular and cortical bone density were positively correlated with olive oil intake. The dietary intake of olive oil was significantly associated with vBMD in multiple regression analysis; total density: olive oil intake (g/day) standardized β = 0.185 (p < 0.001), trabecular density: olive oil intake (g/day) standardized β = 0.186 (p < 0.001) and cortical density olive oil intake (g/day) standardized β = 0.114 (p = 0.008). We conclude that the dietary intake of olive oil is positively associated with a better vBMD in Spanish women.
... [16][17][18] It has been shown that fruit intake reduced the rate of bone fracture and increased bone mineral density. [19,20] In a previous study, we evaluated the polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant activities of the seven commercially available fruits: blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Ericaceae); jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae); blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae); black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis, Rosaceae); red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Rosaceae); strawberry (Fragaria ananassa, Rosaceae); and California grape (Vitis californica, Vitaceae). [21] In the current study, the estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and drug synergistic activities of the seven fruit extracts were assessed. ...
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Background: Fruits are known to possess antiosteoporotic and anticancer properties in part due to their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. Objective: In this study, estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and drug synergistic activities of seven commercially available fruits were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A steroid-regulated transcription system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing a human estrogen receptor alpha expression plasmid, and a β-galactosidase gene reporter plasmid was employed for the estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and drug agonistic studies. Results: California table grape extract showed the highest estrogenic activity. The estrogenic activities of other extracts ranked as follows: blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry > blueberry > jackfruit, black raspberry. The transcriptional activities of the combination estradiol-fruit extracts (FEs) (400E equivalents) ranked as follows: blueberry (95.9%), blackberry (86.2%), black raspberry (88.9%), and California table grape (81.5%) > jackfruit (72.2%), and red raspberry (73.2%) > strawberry (60.7%). Black and red raspberry extracts showed the highest synergistic activities with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Black and red raspberry extracts in combination with 4-OHT lowered the estradiol activity by 74.9% and 73.9%, respectively. The highest synergistic activity with nafoxidine (NAF) was displayed by red raspberry extract. Together, NAF and red raspberry extract lowered estradiol activity by 77.9%. Fold changes were calculated for drug synergistic activities of FEs, and they ranged from 1.3 to 15.3 for 4-OHT and 1.5-17.4 for NAF, respectively. Conclusions: The active compounds in the FEs studied may be useful in enhancing the antiestrogen activities of chemotherapy drugs and be used as chemopreventive agents for patients at high risk of estrogen-induced cancers. Abbreviations Used: 4 OHT: 4 hydroxytamoxifen, Abs: Absorbance, CAA-glucose medium: Casamino acid glucose medium, E: Estrogen/Estradiol, ER: Estrogen receptor, ERα: Estrogen receptor alpha, FE: Fruit extract, LBD: Ligand binding domain, MU: Miller Unit, NAF: Nafoxidine, RQC: Resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin. © 2018 Pharmacognosy Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.
... These foods are rich and exclusive sources of natural antioxidant compounds which could be responsible for their ability to attenuate age-related bone loss. Experimental studies have shown skeletal benefits of isolated nutrients such as flavonoids, lycopene, resveratrol [8,9] and anthocyanins [10]. Furthermore, dietary antioxidant intake seems to exert a beneficial effect on bone metabolism and mineral density in postmenopausal women [11,12]. ...
Article
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PurposeIncreasing evidence suggests the potential use of natural antioxidant compounds in the prevention/treatment of osteoporosis. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of purified delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R), isolated from Solanum melongena L., on osteoblast viability and differentiation in basal conditions and its ability to protect MC3T3-E1 cells against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). MethodsMC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were treated with D3R (10−11–10−5 M for 24 h), followed by treatment with t-BHP (250 µM for 3 h). To test cell viability, MTT test was performed. Apoptotic cells were stained with Hoechst-33258 dye. Cytoskeleton rearrangement was stained with FICT-labelled phalloidin. Intracellular ROS production was measured using dichlorofluorescein CM-DCFA. The reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) contents was measured according to the OPT fluorimetric assay. ResultsD3R (10−9 M) significantly increases viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and promotes osteoblast differentiation by increasing the expression of type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Pre-treatment with D3R (10−9 M) significantly prevented t-BHP-induced osteoblastic dysfunction and changes in the cytoskeleton organization by decreasing intracellular ROS and preventing the reduction in GSH/GSSG. D3R did not significantly modify the expression of Osteoprotegerin/RANKL system activated by t-BHP suggesting a lack of effect of D3R on osteoblast/osteoclast crosstalk. D3R protective effects against t-BHP-induced osteoblastic dysfunction were mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway since they were completely prevented by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt specific inhibitor. Conclusions These findings indicate that D3R protects MC3T3-E1 cells from oxidative damage and suggest the potential utility of dietary D3R supplement to prevent osteoblast dysfunction in age-related osteoporosis.
... Bone health maintenance is the consequence of a dynamic equilibrium between bone formation and degradation. Regarding this, polyphenols have been documented to show positive effects on the interaction between osteoblast and osteoclast activities, as reviewed (Horcajada and Offord 2012;Shen et al. 2012). In a collagen-induced arthritis model, the flavonoid fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) was found to decrease the incidence and severity of arthritis (Lee et al. 2009). ...
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Osteosarcoma chemotherapy is often limited by chemoresistance, resulting in poor prognosis. Combined chemotherapy could, therefore, be used to prevent resistance to chemotherapeutics. Here, the effects of fisetin on osteosarcoma cells were investigated, as well as cytostatic potential in combination with the anti-cancer drug etoposide. For this, different osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with fisetin, with etoposide and with respective combinations. Fisetin was associated with decrease in colony formation in Saos-2 and in U2OS cells but not in MG-63 cells. Notwithstanding, upon evaluation of cellular growth by crystal violet assay, MG-63 and Saos-2 cells showed decreased cell proliferation at 40 and 20 µM fisetin, respectively. Depending on the relative concentrations, fisetin:etoposide combinations showed negative-to-positive interactions on the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, fisetin treatment up to 50 µM for 48 h resulted in G2-phase cell cycle arrest. Regardless of the combination, fisetin:etoposide increased % cells in G2-phase and decreased % cells in G1-phase. In addition, mixtures with more positive combined effects induced increased % cells in S-phase. Compared to etoposide treatment, these combinations resulted in decreased levels of cyclins B1 and E1, pointing to the role of these regulators in fisetin-induced cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, these results show that the combination of fisetin with etoposide has higher anti-proliferative effects in osteosarcoma associated with cell cycle arrest, allowing the use of lower doses of the chemotherapeutic agent, which has important implications for osteosarcoma treatment.
... Proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, and flavonols in blueberries are beneficial in bone protection [95]. Blueberry juice has positive effect to treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis [61]. ...
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The berry crops in genus Vacciniun L. are the richest sources of antioxidant metabolites which have high potential to reduce the incidence of several degenerative diseases. In vitro propagation or micropropagation has been attractive to researchers for its incredible potential for mass production of a selected genotype in a short time, all year round. Propagation techniques affect the antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves. Total antioxidant activity was higher in the fruit of in vitro propagated plants compare to the plants grown ex vivo. This review provides critical information for better understanding the micropropagation and conventional propagation methods, and their effects on antioxidant properties and morphological differentiation in Vaccinium species, and fills an existing gap in the literature.
... (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is widely studied because of its potent antioxidant effects [7]. Previous animal studies found that green tea polyphenol extracts improved several bone loss models related to aging, estrogendeficiency, and chronic inflammation [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Although numerous clinical and animal studies indicated that tea can increase bone volume and diminish osteoporotic fractures, the relationship between tea consumption and fracture healing remained unclear. ...
Article
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Green tea drinking can ameliorate postmenopausal osteoporosis by increasing the bone mineral density. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the abundant and active compound of tea catechin, was proven to be able to reduce bone loss and ameliorate microarchitecture in female ovariectomized rats. EGCG can also enhance the osteogenic differentiation of murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and inhibit the osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells by modulation of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegrin (OPG) (RANK/RANKL/OPG) pathway. Our previous study also found that EGCG can promote bone defect healing in the distal femur partially via bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Considering the osteoinduction property of BMP-2, we hypothesized that EGCG could accelerate the bone healing process with an increased expression of BMP-2. In this manuscript, we studied whether the local use of EGCG can facilitate tibial fracture healing. Fifty-six 4-month-old rats were randomly assigned to two groups after being weight-matched: a control group with vehicle treatment (Ctrl) and a study group with 10 µmol/L, 40 µL, EGCG treatment (EGCG). Two days after the operation, the rats were treated daily with EGCG or vehicle by percutaneous local injection for 2 weeks. The application of EGCG enhanced callus formation by increasing the bone volume and subsequently improved the mechanical properties of the tibial bone, including the maximal load, break load, stiffness, and Young’s modulus. The results of the histology and BMP-2 immunohistochemistry staining showed that EGCG treatment accelerated the bone matrix formation and produced a stronger expression of BMP-2. Taken together, this study for the first time demonstrated that local treatment of EGCG can accelerate the fracture healing process at least partly via BMP-2.
... Bones health -Blueberries contain anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonols, which are beneficial phytochemicals for bone protection (Shen et al.,2012). ...
Preprint
Blueberries are perennial fruits belong to Ericaceae (family), Vaccinium (genus), and Cyanococcus (section) prostrate shrubs. They are called superfoods according to various food scientists as well as industries due to its flavour, taste and potent antioxidant activities in the human body. Since two decades, there has been a consistent demand for blueberries because of its dietary values that offering multiple health benefits across the world. North America, Canada and other European countries are meeting the needs of the global markets where India has also started its cultivation in collaboration with the pioneer producers. Blueberries are classified into two major types such as high bush and low bush, in addition to rabbiteye and half high (crossbreed). As per consumers demand, blueberries are available as ripe fruit, dried, frozen, jam, jelly, juices, powder forms and other cooking purposes. Blueberries contain flavonoids under polyphenols group (anthocyanin, flavonols, flavanols), tannins as non-flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. Further, a good amount of ascorbic acid, vitamin-K, Vitamin B9, magnesium and dietary fibre are also present. Anthocyanin, along with other polyphenols in blueberries altogether perform antioxidant roles in diabetes, anti-ageing, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, bones, eye health and cancer.
... Jams exist in diverse forms, e.g. chutney, fruit butter, jelly, marmalade, fruit spread, etc. [5]. To make jams, fruits and vegetables have to be cut, crushed, and/or ground until they reach required consistency [6]. ...
Article
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Introduction. Fruits and vegetables are vital for healthy food consumption. Conservation is the only option to prolong their shelf life. Nigeria is currently experiencing an increase in production of fruit jams that incorporate vegetables. Cucumbers, Jatropha tanjorensis L. leaf, and pineapples have a lot of health benefits, which makes them very promising for jam making. The present research featured the effect of cucumber, pineapple, and Jatropha leaf in different proportions on the functional and sensory properties of composite jam. Study objects and methods. The technology of jam making followed standard procedures. Pineapple jam without cucumbers and Jatropha leaf served as control (pineapple:cucumber:Jatropha leaf = 100:0:0). The experimental jam samples had increasing amounts of Jatropha leaf (J), decreasing amounts of pineapple pulps (P), and a constant amount of cucumber (C), i.e. P:C:J = 85:10:5, 80:10:10, 75:10:15, and 70:10:20. The functional analysis involved chemical and proximate aspects, whereas the sensory evaluation involved appearance, aroma, taste, spreadability, and overall liking. Results and discussion. The experimental samples showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in vitamins, minerals, total titratable acidity, pH, Brix, and total soluble solids. The control sample (P:C:J = 100:0:0) had significantly lower (P < 0.05) contents of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and fiber than the experimental ones. However, the pH and total titratable acidity of the experimental samples 85:10:5 and 80:10:10 appeared to be quite similar (P > 0.05). Compared to the control sample, the sensory properties of the experimental samples differed significantly (P < 0.05) by appearance, aroma, and spreadability but were of similar (P > 0.05) taste and overall liking. Conclusion. The obtained functional and sensory data proved that the new pineapple jam with cucumber and Jatropha leaf is a promising functional product.
... It can be found in green tea, coffee, red wine, nuts, and most plants [26]. Various studies suggest that polyphenols can be used to treat osteoporosis by increasing the proliferation of osteoblasts due to their antioxidant properties [27]. In this study, it was shown that TA was a more effective treatment with an EC 50 of 0.56 µg/mL compared with PAM, which had an EC 50 of 15.27 µg/mL. ...
Article
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Background: This study investigates the effect of tannic acid (TA) combined with pamidronate (PAM) on a human osteoblast cell line. Methods: EC50 for TA, PAM, and different combination ratios of TA and PAM (25:75, 50:50, 75:25) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The combination index value was utilized to analyze the degree of drug interaction, while trypan blue assay was applied to analyze the cells proliferation effect. The mineralization and detection of bone BSP and Osx genes were determined via histochemical staining and PCR test, respectively. Results: The EC50 of osteoblasts treated with TA and a 75:25 ratio of TA and PAM were more potent with lower EC50 at 0.56 µg/mL and 0.48 µg/mL, respectively. The combination of TA and PAM (75:25) was shown to have synergistic interaction. On Day 7, both TA and PAM groups showed significantly increased proliferation compared with control and combination groups. On Day 7, both the TA and combination-treated groups demonstrated a higher production of calcium deposits than the control and PAM-treated groups. Moreover, on Day 7, the combination-treated group showed a significantly higher expression of BSP and Osx genes than both the TA and PAM groups. Conclusion: Combination treatment of TA and PAM at 75:25 ameliorated the highest enhancement of osteoblast proliferation and mineralization as well as caused a high expression of BSP and Osx genes.
... Bone remodeling involves continuous turnover of the protein matrix and dietary protein is another nutritional factor required for maintaining bone health (32,33). Fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acid, flavonoids, and carotenoids, have potential osteoprotective effects in both animal studies and clinical trials (34)(35)(36), and many postmenopausal women use botanical supplements for osteoporosis management (37). ...
Article
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The prevalence of osteoporosis among women aged 50 years and older is expected to reach 13.6 million by 2030. Alternative non-pharmaceutical agents for osteoporosis including nutritional interventions are becoming increasingly popular. Prunes (dried plums) (Prunus domestica L.) have been studied as a potential whole food dietary intervention to mitigate bone loss in preclinical models of osteoporosis and in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Sixteen preclinical studies using in vivo rodent models of osteopenia or osteoporosis have established that dietary supplementation with prunes confers osteoprotective effects both by preventing and reversing bone loss. Increasing evidence from ten studies suggests that in addition to anti-resorptive effects, prunes exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ten preclinical studies have found that prunes and/or their polyphenol extracts decrease malondialdehyde and nitric oxide secretion, increase antioxidant enzyme expression, or suppress NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Two clinical trials have investigated the impact of dried plum consumption (50–100g/day for 6–12 months) on bone health in postmenopausal women and demonstrate promising effects on bone mineral density and bone biomarkers. However, less is known about the impact of prune consumption on oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in humans and their possible role in modulating bone outcomes. In this review, the current state of knowledge on the relationship between inflammation and bone health is outlined. Findings from preclinical and clinical studies that have assessed the effect of prunes on oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, and bone outcomes are summarized, and evidence supporting a potential role of prunes in modulating inflammatory and immune pathways is highlighted. Key future directions to bridge the knowledge gap in the field are proposed.
... Berries are recognized to play an important role in human nutrition, providing health benefits against a wide range of diseases. For example, they reduce myocardium ischemia, thrombosis risk, and osteoporosis, exhibit genoprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties, and decrease blood pressure and blood cholesterol [22][23][24][25][26]. In addition, phenolics in berries possess antimicrobial, antiallergy, anti-hypertensive properties and the capacity to prevent oxidative stressrelated diseases [27]. ...
... Therefore, the availability of calcium and a high-protein diet is associated with a higher BMD and reduced susceptibility to fractures [300,301]. Moreover, regarding the previously mentioned role of ROS on bone homeostasis, dietary implementation of antioxidants such as fruits and phytochemicals, also helps to relieve cellular ROS stresses [302,303]. ...
... Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin family are well-known for increasing osteoclast activity by induction of RANKL expression [99]. Regarding the antiinflammatory [24,100] anti-osteoporotic [101], osteoinductive and regenerative properties of natural components [102], a huge amount of evidence can be found in medical literature. Numerous observations have revealed that natural dietary components can have effect on these procedures, via inhibition of bone resorption and improving bone formation and maturation and consequently, improvement of bone regeneration at presence of bone defects. ...
Article
Tissue regeneration is a vital phenomenon in the skeletal system of human beings during their life span. The structure of bony architecture and teeth are highly dependent to this ongoing procedure to maintain their functional form. Regarding the fundamental function of our skeletal system, all the involved components are at constant risk for injuries and deformations throughout the life. Therefore, in modern medicine, promotion of bone and tooth regeneration has become a critical counter measure to correct these acquired defects. There are numerous ways to address the bone and tooth related erosive pathologies but utilization of natural compounds has gained immense popularity in recent years. These materials provide a broad spectrum of therapeutic agents with a variety of biological characteristics. In this review, a comprehensive exploration has been implemented to extract and categorize the relevant scientific evidence on this issue, based on the source of natural candidates and the potential clinical indications. Database searching presented a considerable data pool with more than 300 references in this field. According to the results, all the proposed items can be categorized in two major groups including scaffolding and osteogenesis (or dentinogenesis) induction. The clinical applicability of a number of them is properly demonstrated in clinical trials but for the rest, more examinations are required to reach a conclusive decision.
... Similarly, several studies have observed an increase in substances related to increased bone formation (such as alkaline phosphatase) and a decrease in bone resorption-related substances (such as IL1, IL6, NF-κB and TNFα), demonstrating the effect of resveratrol on bone cells indirectly and, consequently, in bone remodeling as a whole [55,59,60]there is no direct evidence supporting its inhibitory effect towards bone loss. In the present study, effects of resveratrol on bone mineral density (BMD. ...
Article
Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone tissue that affects a large part of the population and is related to great morbidity and health spending due to osteoporotic fractures. Among its various types, postmenopausal osteoporosis, related to estrogen deficiency, does not have very satisfactory treatments, since Hormone Replacement Therapy can present harmful effects when used in the long term or in individual specific conditions. In the search for alternative treatments, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol found mainly in grape, emerges as a potential agent, because it's similarity to diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen. Among its many effects, it has the capacity to act as a cardioprotector and on the bone tissue. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that it can protect against the characteristic damages of osteoporosis, mainly in the decrease of the bone mineral density and deterioration of the trabecular microarchitecture of the bone, important factors for the resistance to fractures. Although the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on bone tissue have not yet been fully elucidated, the literature demonstrates that it can interfere with the responsible cells for bone remodeling directly or indirectly, stimulating formation and decreasing bone resorption. With this, we can consider resveratrol a substance capable of treating or preventing damage from postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, further studies involving its antioxidant function and bone tissue may support such a function, allowing the evolution of studies for clinical trials involving postmenopausal osteoporosis.
... The latest studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) is protective against osteoporosis [64]. Animal studies have suggested that antioxidant-rich fruits have a marked effect, increasing trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and decreasing trabecular separation through the stimulation of bone formation and suppression of bone resorption [65]. ...
Article
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Osteoporosis is a common chronic disease characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density, impaired bone strength, and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Fragility fractures are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and disability and are a major public health problem worldwide. The influence of nutritional factors on the development and progression of this disease can be significant and is not yet well established. Calcium intake and vitamin D status are considered to be essential for bone metabolism homeostasis. However, some recent studies have questioned the usefulness of calcium and vitamin D supplements in decreasing the risk of fractures. The adequate intake of protein, vegetables and other nutrients is also of interest, and recommendations have been established by expert consensus and clinical practice guidelines. It is important to understand the influence of nutrients not only in isolation but also in the context of a dietary pattern, which is a complex mixture of nutrients. In this review, we evaluate the available scientific evidence for the effects of the main dietary patterns on bone health. Although some dietary patterns seem to have beneficial effects, more studies are needed to fully elucidate the true influence of diet on bone fragility.
... Dietary intake of polyphenols in red wine extract resulted in a remarkable effect on bone strength improvement and prevention of osteopenia in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized rats [60]. Shen et al. [61] reviewed the effect of polyphenols-rich fruits (dried plum, citrus fruits, berries, and grapes) in bone protection. ...
Article
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The elderly population is increasing globally and is predicted to reach 1.5 billion in 2050. The quality of life of the elderly must be concerned, for example, with developing functional food for the elderly. In this article, the development of functional food to reduce the risk of osteoporosis in the elderly is reviewed. Oxidative stress is one of the factors which accelerates osteoporosis. Various antioxidants, including vitamin C, vitamin E, polyphenols, or lycopene, have been proven by former studies to have antioxidant activity, therefore, could reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Additionally, the application of eggshell powder in various food products has been reported to improve calcium intake, and its usage is environmentally sustainable as this could contribute to reducing food waste. The application of both antioxidants and calcium could be a good combination, but the amount of some antioxidants must be concerned so it would not interfere with the bioavailability of calcium. Therefore, this review aims to explore the functional food for the elderly to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, particularly with antioxidants and calcium from chicken eggshells. The eating preference and dietary pattern of the elderly are also considered to determine the suitable form of functional food for the elderly. The results presented in the study may be the basis for the development of new calcium-enriched food products for the elderly.
... There are also many vitamins and minerals in apples, and they are a good source of antioxidants, including vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that has numerous functions in the human body [3]. Apples are rich in secondary metabolites that are beneficial for our health, such as quercetin or phloridzin, which have anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer effects [4][5][6]. Compounds from the flavonol group show antidepressant effects [7]. Free radicals left over from cellular respiration or active oxygen species can damage DNA, thus increasing the risk of cancer and degenerative changes. ...
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... It was reported that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables was positively associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis and fracture in both sexes, after conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of dietary patterns on BMD value and fracture risk [36,37]. BCX, which is one of the major carotenoids present in various fruits such as citrus (e.g., 407 µ g of BCX/100 g of tangerines), persimmons (1447 µ g of BCX/100 g), and papaya (589 µ g of BCX/100 g), has been focused on its beneficial role for maintaining bone homeostasis [6,38,39]. For example, an oral 10 mg/L BCX supplementation in drinking water significantly prevented bone loss in an ovariectomized mice model after 28 consecutive days of treatment [40]. ...
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... Higher fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with increased BMD and reduced fracture risk [124,125]. This association could be mediated by the presence of vitamins and polyphenols in fruits and vegetables [126], as well as basic effects of the diet [127], which are beneficial to bone health. Vitamins and polyphenols act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, which promote osteoblasts survival and suppress osteoclast formation through mechanisms described in the earlier sections. ...
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... Most adult bone diseases are due to excess osteoclastic activity, which results in an imbalance in bone remodeling which favors resorption by osteoclasts over building by osteoblasts [9]. Animal and cellular studies on the role of fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection were reviewed by Shen et al. [10]. An in-vivo study showed that a supplement containing tomatoes improved bone health in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats [11]. ...
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The objective of this study was to determine and compare the sugar profile, distribution in fruits and leaves and sink-source relationship in three strawberry (‘Favette’, ‘Alba’ and ‘Clery’) and three blueberry cultivars (‘Bluecrop’, ‘Duke’ and ‘Nui’) grown in organic (OP) and integrated production systems (IP). Sugar analysis was done using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The results showed that monosaccharide glucose and fructose and disaccharide sucrose were the most important sugars in strawberry, while monosaccharide glucose, fructose, and galactose were the most important in blueberry. Source-sink relationship was different in strawberry compared to blueberry, having a much higher quantity of sugars in its fruits in relation to leaves. According to principal component analysis (PCA), galactose, arabinose, and melibiose were the most important sugars in separating the fruits of strawberries from blueberries, while panose, ribose, stachyose, galactose, maltose, rhamnose, and raffinose were the most important sugar component in leaves recognition. Galactitol, melibiose, and gentiobiose were the key sugars that split out strawberry fruits and leaves, while galactose, maltotriose, raffinose, fructose, and glucose divided blueberry fruits and leaves in two groups. PCA was difficult to distinguish between OP and IP, because the stress-specific responses of the studied plants were highly variable due to the different sensitivity levels and defense strategies of each cultivar, which directly affected the sugar distribution. Due to its high content of sugars, especially fructose, the strawberry cultivar ‘Clery’ and the blueberry cultivars ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Nui’ could be singled out in this study as being the most suitable cultivars for OP.
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Many of the functional foods are designed to decrease the risk of chronic diseases like osteoporosis (OP) which is the most common bone disorder affecting millions of people. For the first time, the present study evaluated the effect of the combination between the Greek Thymus vulgaris water extract (TVE) and bee's honey (BH) against hydrocortisone (HC)-induced OP in vitro. The characterization of TVE, BH, and their combined extract (TV-BH) was examined. In addition, the current work assessed the bone turnover, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers in bone cells. The results revealed the presence of considerable amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and flavonols in TVE and BH as well as important minerals and vitamins for the bone health. The TV-BH showed a synergistic (combination index <1) attenuation effect for the HC-induced bone cell damage through significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of the hydroxyapatite, osteocalcin, phosphorous, and collagen contents. In addition, it significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and hydroxyproline level as well as the oxidative and inflammatory stress. Data also observed the more potent anti-osteoporotic effect of the combined extract than the commonly used bisphosphonate drug (alendronate). In conclusion, the administration of TV-BH improved the glucocorticoid-induced bone damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress and as a result, it might be a promising therapeutic option for the OP disorder.
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Chapter
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In recent years, global epidemiological studies have been targeted at uncovering the causes associated with the etiology of several important diseases affecting human health. Much attention has therefore been paid to the development of products with physiological functions that promote human health. Enrichment of foods with bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), or antioxidant agents (vitamins, polyphenols, flavonoids, etc.) appear to improve quality characteristics and protect consumer health against oxidation effects.Animal products are in the forefront of the consumer and food industry interest and provide human organisms with high-quality proteins, vitamins, and minerals. However, autoxidation of lipids and the production of free radicals are natural processes occurring in biological systems leading to oxidative deterioration and off-flavors development. Several by-products of the agroindustry (grape pomace, citrus pulp, etc.) possess significant antioxidant properties, due to their components (polyphenols, flavonoids, etc.). Their use in the diets of farm animals could combine the positive effects of improving animal products' quality characteristics and human health with preventing problems related with their disposal into the environment. However, further study is warranted to elucidate their exact action and establish the regular use of these by-products in animal production.
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Blueberries are perennial fruits belong to Ericaceae (family), Vaccinium (genus), and Cyanococcus (section) prostrate shrubs. They are called superfoods according to various food scientists as well as industries due to its flavor, taste, and potent antioxidant activities in the human body. In the last two decades, there has been a consistent demand for blueberries because of its dietary values that offer multiple health benefits across the world. North America, Canada, and other European countries are meeting the needs of the global markets, whereas India has also started its cultivation in collaboration with the pioneer producers. Blueberries are classified into two major types, high bush and low bush, in addition to rabbiteye and half high (crossbreed). As per consumers demand, blueberries are available as ripe fruit, dried, frozen, jam, jelly, juices, powder forms, and other cooking purposes. Blueberries contain flavonoids under polyphenols group (anthocyanin, flavonols, flavanols), tannins as nonflavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. Further, good amounts of ascorbic acid, vitamin K, vitamin B9, magnesium, and dietary fiber are also present. Anthocyanin along with other polyphenols in blueberries altogether perform antioxidant roles in diabetes, antiaging, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, bones, eye health, and cancer.
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Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, develop from hematopoietic cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) are formed by coculturing spleen cells with osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of bone-resorbing factors. The cell-to-cell interaction between osteoblasts/stromal cells and osteoclast progenitors is essential for OCL formation. Recently, we purified and molecularly cloned osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor (OCIF), which was identical to osteoprotegerin (OPG). OPG/OCIF is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and inhibits osteoclastogenesis by interrupting the cell-to-cell interaction. Here we report the expression cloning of a ligand for OPG/OCIF from a complementary DNA library of mouse stromal cells. The protein was found to be a member of the membrane-associated tumor necrosis factor ligand family and induced OCL formation from osteoclast progenitors. A genetically engineered soluble form containing the extracellular domain of the protein induced OCL formation from spleen cells in the absence of osteoblasts/stromal cells. OPG/OCIF abolished the OCL formation induced by the protein. Expression of its gene in osteoblasts/stromal cells was up-regulated by bone-resorbing factors. We conclude that the membrane-bound protein is osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a long-sought ligand mediating an essential signal to osteoclast progenitors for their differentiation into osteoclasts. ODF was found to be identical to TRANCE/RANKL, which enhances T-cell growth and dendritic-cell function. ODF seems to be an important regulator in not only osteoclastogenesis but also immune system.
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OBJECTIVE: Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010. SETTING: Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11-14 years), 371 young women (20-34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50-70 years). RESULTS: After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0·001 to 0·002). BMD Z-score increased by 0·25 (or 2·1 % of the mean), 0·22 (3·5 %), 0·23 (3·0 %) and 0·25 (3·5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0·33 (5·7 %), 0·25 (5·8 %), 0·34 (5·9 %) and 0·29 (4·7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0·05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0·030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.Conclusion Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.
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Dietary composition has been shown to affect acid-base homeostasis and bone health in humans. We investigated the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the estimated diet-dependent net acid load (net endogenous acid production, NEAP) in adult vegans and evaluated the relationships between NEAP, food groups and intake of bone health-related nutrients. The German Vegan Study (GVS) is a cross-sectional study. Data from healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), aged 21-75 years, who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for ≥1 year prior to study start; age ≥18 years, and no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) were included in the analysis. NEAP values were calculated from diet composition using two models: one based on the protein/potassium quotient and another taking into account an anthropometry-based loss of urinary organic anions. Mean daily intakes of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and vitamin C were above, and vitamin D and calcium below Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Regardless of the model used, the diet in the GVS was characterized by a nearly neutral NEAP. A strong correlation was observed between the NEAP values of the two models (r(s) = 0.873, p < 0.001). Only the consumption of fruits decreased constantly across the increasing quartiles of NEAP. It can be hypothesized that vegan diets do not affect acid-base homeostasis. With respect to bone health, the significance of this finding needs further investigation.
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This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold) and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.
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Bone is progressively lost with advancing age. Therapies are limited and the only effective proanabolic regimen presently available to restore bone is intermittent treatment with teriparatide (parathyroid hormone 1-34). Recent evidence suggests that dietary supplementation with dried plum (DP) can prevent bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. To determine whether dietary DP supplementation can prevent the loss of bone with aging and whether bone that has already been lost can be restored, adult (6 mo) and old (18 mo) male mice were fed a normal diet or isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets supplemented with DP (0, 15, and 25% DP by weight) for 6 mo. MicroCT analysis and bone histomorphometry were used to assess bone volume, structure, and metabolic activity before, during, and after dietary supplementation. Mice fed the 0% DP diet (control diet) lost bone, whereas both adult and old mice fed the 25% DP-supplemented diet gained bone. Adult but not old mice fed the 15% diet also gained bone. Cancellous bone volume in mice receiving 25% DP exceeded baseline levels by 40-50%. Trabecular structure varied with diet and age and responses in old mice were generally blunted. Trabecular, but not cortical, mineral density varied with age and measures of bone anabolic activity were lower in aged mice. Our findings suggest that DP contains proanabolic factors that can dramatically increase bone volume and restore bone that has already been lost due to aging. In turn, DP may provide effective prophylactic and therapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis.
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Physical inactivity during space flight or prolonged bed rest causes rapid and marked loss of bone mass in humans. Resveratrol, a red wine polyphenol that is currently under study for its therapeutic antioxidant properties, has been shown to significantly modulate biomarkers of bone metabolism, i.e., to promote osteoblast differentiation and to prevent bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. However, there is no direct evidence supporting its inhibitory effect toward bone loss during physical inactivity. In the present study, effects of resveratrol on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, and bone structure were examined in the femora and tibiae of tail-suspended and unsuspended rats using X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Rats were treated with 400 mg/kg/day of resveratrol for 45 days and half of them were suspended during the last 2 weeks of treatment. Suspension caused a decrease in tibial and femoral BMD and deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone. Bone deterioration during suspension was paralleled by increased bone marrow area, which could be caused by an increase in stromal cells with osteoclastogenic potential or in adipocytes. Resveratrol had a preventive effect against bone loss induced by hindlimb immobilization. In particular, trabecular bone in the proximal tibial metaphysis was totally preserved in rats treated with resveratrol before tail-suspension.
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Oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to bone loss. We evaluated the effects of feeding orange pulp (OP), a source of vitamin C and flavonoids, on bone quality in a rat model of male osteoporosis. One-year-old retired breeder rats (n = 43) were orchidectomized (ORX) or sham-operated (SHAM). Three days postsurgery, ORX rats were randomly assigned to treatments: ORX or ORX with 2.5% OP, 5% OP, or 10% OP. Diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric, modified AIN-93M diets with equal fiber content. All ORX rats were fed for 4 months to the mean food intake of the SHAM group. At the end of the study blood, urine and bone samples were collected. Plasma antioxidant capacity and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined. Bone density, structure, and strength were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, microcomputed tomography, and finite element analyses. ORX decreased (P < .05) antioxidant status, while OP as low as 2.5% maintained the antioxidant capacity of ORX rats comparable to that of the SHAM group. Cortical thickness at the tibial midshaft was significantly decreased by ORX and increased by OP, and urinary DPD was significantly increased by ORX and decreased by OP. In fourth lumbar trabecular cores, ORX rats had significantly reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, and trabecular number and increased trabecular separation. OP significantly increased bone volume fraction and trabecular number and decreased trabecular separation in ORX rats. Improvements due to OP in microarchitectural properties of vertebral bones and in cortical thickness of long bones were subtle but significant. The consistently negative impacts of ORX on bone density, structure, and strength parameters confirm the previously reported importance of testosterone for bone.
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding orange pulp on plasma antioxidant status and bone quality in orchidectomized rats. Forty-five one-year-old male rats were randomly placed in a sham-control group and four orchidectomized groups. Orchidectomized rats were assigned to one of the following treatments: orchidectomy (ORX), ORX+2.5% orange pulp (OP); ORX+5.0% OP; ORX+10.0% OP. Four months after the study began, all rats were killed, blood was collected, and the plasma was harvested for antioxidant status and IGF-I. Orchidectomy did not (P>0.1) affect red blood cell hemolysis percentage, but decreased (P<0.05) the plasma IGF-I concentration, bone density, femoral strength, time induced femoral fracture, calcium and magnesium concentrations in the femur and the 5th lumbar, and increased (P<0.05) urinary deoxypyridinoline, calcium and magnesium excretions compared to the sham group. Feeding 2.5% OP tended to increase IGF-I and increased (P<0.05) bone density, femoral strength, and time induced femoral fracture. Feeding 10% OP profoundly (P<0.05) improved antioxidant status by protecting red blood cells against hemolysis, increased (P<0.05) the plasma IGF-I, bone density and bone mineral content, and decreased (P<0.05) urinary magnesium excretion and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentration. In conclusion, orange pulp significantly affects bone quality by enhancing calcium and magnesium deposition in bones and by slowing-down bone turnover rate.
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Background and purpose: Naringin, a flavanone glycoside in citrus fruits, has been recently reported to stimulate bone formation in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed to determine if naringin could exert oestrogen-like protective actions in bone. Experimental approach: Young C57/BL6J mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated orally with naringin (0.2 or 0.4 mg*g(-1)*day(-1)), 17beta-oestradiol (2 microg*g(-1)*day(-1)) or its vehicle for 6 weeks. Bone mineral densities (BMD) and polar stresss-train index (SSI) were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Rat osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were co-incubated with the oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780 to determine if the effects of naringin on osteoblastic functions were ER dependent. Functional transactivation of ERalpha and ERbeta as well as ERalpha phosphorylation by naringin were also studied. Key results: Naringin at 0.4 mg*g(-1)*day(-1) increased BMD at trabecular-rich bone in OVX mice. Naringin (at both doses) significantly increased SSI at distal femur and lumbar spine and increased biomechanical strength (ultimate load and energy for breaking) at tibia diaphysis in OVX mice. The stimulatory effects of naringin on osteoblastic functions could be abolished by co-incubation with ICI 182780 in UMR-106 cells. Naringin failed to stimulate ERalpha- or ERbeta-mediated oestrogen response element-dependent luciferase activity but could significantly induce ERalpha phosphorylation at serine 118, in UMR-106 cells. Conclusions and implications: Naringin was effective in protecting against OVX-induced bone loss in mice and its actions might be mediated through ligand-independent activation of ER in osteoblastic cells.
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Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods. Deficiency of K-base in the diet increases the net systemic acid load imposed by the diet. We know that clinically-recognized chronic metabolic acidosis has deleterious effects on the body, including growth retardation in children, decreased muscle and bone mass in adults, and kidney stone formation, and that correction of acidosis can ameliorate those conditions. Is it possible that a lifetime of eating diets that deliver evolutionarily superphysiologic loads of acid to the body contribute to the decrease in bone and muscle mass, and growth hormone secretion, which occur normally with age? That is, are contemporary humans suffering from the consequences of chronic, diet-induced low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis? Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity. We also found that neutralization of the diet net acid load with dietary supplements of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) improved calcium and phosphorus balances, reduced bone resorption rates, improved nitrogen balance, and mitigated the normally occurring age-related decline in growth hormone secretion – all without restricting dietary NaCl. Moreover, we found that co-administration of an alkalinizing salt of potassium (potassium citrate) with NaCl prevented NaCl from increasing urinary calcium excretion and bone resorption, as occurred with NaCl administration alone. Earlier studies estimated dietary acid load from the amount of animal protein in the diet, inasmuch as protein metabolism yields sulfuric acid as an end-product. In cross-cultural epidemiologic studies, Abelow [1] found that hip fracture incidence in older women correlated with animal protein intake, and they suggested a causal relation to the acid load from protein. Those studies did not consider the effect of potential sources of base in the diet. We considered that estimating the net acid load of the diet (i. e., acid minus base) would require considering also the intake of plant foods, many of which are rich sources of K-base, or more precisely base precursors, substances like organic anions that the body metabolizes to bicarbonate. In following up the findings of Abelow et al., we found that plant food intake tended to be protective against hip fracture, and that hip fracture incidence among countries correlated inversely with the ratio of plant-to-animal food intake. These findings were confirmed in a more homogeneous population of white elderly women residents of the U. S. These findings support affirmative answers to the questions we asked above. Can we provide dietary guidelines for controlling dietary net acid loads to minimize or eliminate diet-induced and age-amplified chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis and its pathophysiological sequelae. We discuss the use of algorithms to predict the diet net acid and provide nutritionists and clinicians with relatively simple and reliable methods for determining and controlling the net acid load of the diet. A more difficult question is what level of acidosis is acceptable. We argue that any level of acidosis may be unacceptable from an evolutionarily perspective, and indeed, that a low-grade metabolic alkalosis may be the optimal acid-base state for humans.
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Dried plums and their polyphenols have been shown to suppress bone resorption by downregulating receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of these compounds, this study was designed to investigate whether dried plum polyphenols exert additional, more direct effects on osteoclasts and their precursors. RAW 264.7 macrophages were used as a model to study osteoclast precursors and osteoclast differentiation and activity. Under inflammatory conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyphenols extracted from dried plum (10, 20, and 30μg/mL) downregulated osteoclast precursor cyclooxygenase expression and nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting inducible NO synthase. NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed in the presence of RANKL during osteoclastogenesis by the polyphenols. Increased TNF-α production in response to oxidative stress, but not LPS, was decreased over time. As expected, LPS and H2O2 significantly increased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells by 127% and 30%, respectively. Dried plum polyphenols decreased osteoclast differentiation under normal as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions, coincident with the suppression of the transcription factor, nuclear factor for activated T cells (NFATc1). These inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis were confirmed in primary bone marrow cultures. Resorption pit formation was decreased to a similar extent as osteoclast differentiation, suggesting that dried plum polyphenols primarily affect osteoclast differentiation as opposed to activity. Our data demonstrate that dried plum polyphenols directly inhibit osteoclastogenesis, leading to a decrease in osteoclast activity, by downregulating NFATc1 and inflammatory mediators.