Effect of cooking on the capsaicinoids and phenolics contents of Mexican peppers

ArticleinFood Chemistry 119(4):1619–1625 · April 2010with 740 Reads
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Abstract
Raw and cooked (boiled and grilled) Poblano, Bell, Chilaca, Caribe, Jalapeño, Serrano, Habanero, and Manzano peppers were evaluated for tristimulus colour, capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapscapsaicin), and total phenolic contents. Boiling (96 °C) and grilling (210 °C) was performed under household conditions according to typical procedures of the Mexican cuisine. Contents of capsaicin (0.6–913.8 μg/g), dihydrocapsaicin (0–756.9 μg/g), nordihydrocapsaicin (0–68.2 μg/g), and total phenolics (1150.5–2190.0 μg of gallic acid equivalents/g) in raw peppers varied widely between types of peppers. Moderate losses (1.1–28.1%) in capsaicinoids were induced by boiling while grilling caused a significant increase (2.6–924.9%) in the content of these compounds. Proportion of individual capsaicinoids was similar in raw and cooked peppers. Boiling and grilling sequentially increased (7.4–137.0%) the total phenolic content in pungent peppers. Total phenolic content in non-pungent Bell peppers was reduced by cooking (1.6–26.9%). Boiling induced smaller changes in colour values (L*, a*, and b*) compared to grilling. The results demonstrated that Mexican raw peppers are rich in capsaicinoids and phenolic compounds. Household cooking can cause either decreases or increases in the content of such compounds in peppers.

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    TÓM TẮT Hành tím (Allium ascolanicum L.) được sử dụng trong các chế phẩm ẩm thực khác nhau và chutney là loại sốt hỗ trợ trong các món ăn. Chutney được chế biến từ hành tím kết hợp với các loại gia vị khác. Nghiên cứu khảo sát ảnh hưởng của các thành phần bổ sung (giấm vang 10 - 20%, rượu vang 10 - 20% và đường 5 - 15%) và điều kiện nấu (áp suất khí quyển và nấu chân không) liên quan đến chất lượng của sản phẩm. Các hợp chất polyphenol tổng số, anthocyanin, quercetin và đặc tính cảm quan được phân tích. Kết quả tốt nhất thu nhận được với tỷ lệ giấm, rượu vang và đường tương ứng là 14,52; 11,47 và 5%. Bên cạnh đó, hàm lượng các hợp chất hoạt tính sinh học trong chutney chế biến trong điều kiện khí quyển đã bị giảm đáng kể, trong khi nấu chân không đã bảo quản được các hợp chất này. Tổn thất polyphenol, anthocyanin và quercetin trong sản phẩm nấu trong điều kiện chân không tương ứng là 2,60; 6,98 và 14,81%, tổn thất cao nhất được ghi nhận đối với chutney được nấu dưới áp suất khí quyển tương ứng là 6,61; 25,63 và 25%. Từ khóa: Chutney, đánh giá cảm quan, điều kiện nấu, hành tím, hợp chất có hoạt tính sinh học Effect of added ingredients and cooking conditions on shallot chutney quality Nguyen Minh Thuy, Nguyen Thị My Tuyen, Ngo Van Tai, Nguyen Thi Truc Ly, Dao Van Tu, Huynh Nguyen Hong An, Tran Linh Triep Abstract Shallot (Allium ascolanicum L.) is widely used in various culinary preparations and chutney is a sauce in the cuisines. Chutney is made from shallot in combination with other spices. This study aim to investigate the effect of added ingredients (vinegar 10 - 20%, wine 10 - 20% and sugar 5 - 15%) and cooking conditions (atmospheric pressure and vacuum cooking) on the product quality. The total phenolic, anthocyanin, quercetin contents and sensory characteristics were investigated. The optimum ratio among vinegar, wine and sugar concentrations was 14.52, 11.47 and 5% (percentage is calculated according to the weight of the shallot used), respectively. Besides, processing of shallot chutney under atmospheric condition caused a significant decrease in content of bioactive compounds whereas vacuum cooking preserved those compounds. The average losses of total phenolic, anthocyanin and quercetin contents of shallot chutney after vacuum heating were 2.60, 6.98 and 14.81% while the highest loss was observed for chutney cooked under atmospheric conditions (6.61, 25.63 and 25%, respectively). Keywords: Bioactive compounds, chutney, cooking conditions, sensory evaluation, shallot
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Проведени са експерименти за изследване влиянието на топлинната обработка и химичния състав на залив-ката върху текстурата на печена беле-на капия (стерилизирана). От проведе-ните опити се установи, че топлинната обработка на пипера влияе значително върху силата на разкъсване. При уве-личаване времето на стерилизация на пипера силата на разкъсване намаля-ва. Наличието на оцетна киселина в за-ливката влияе отрицателно на реоло-гичните характеристики на пипера. Ключови думи: текстурен анализ, технологична обработка, пипер, суров, печен, стерилизиран Experiments were carried out to study the influence of the heat treatment and the chemical composition of marinate on the texture of peeled roasted red pepper (sterilized). It was established that the heat treatment significantly affects the rupture force of the sterilized pepper. The rupture force of the pepper decreases as the sterilization time increases. It was found that the presence of acetic acid in marinate affects negatively the rheological characteristics of the sterilized pepper. Key words: texture analysis, technological processing, pepper, raw, roasted, sterilized
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Peru is considered a hotspot with maybe the highest diversity of domesticated chili peppers. Capsicum pubescens is the least explored domesticated chili pepper, especially with regard to its chemical composition. Thirty-two different C. pubescens (Rocoto) accessions, out of the national Peruvian Capsicum germplasm collection at the Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria, were selected for investigating the phytochemical content and its variability. After drying and milling, the fruits were analyzed for the three major capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin), flavonoid aglycons (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, tocopherol (α-, β- and γ-) content, fat content, ascorbic acid content, surface color and extractable color. The concentrations for selected traits ranged as follows: total capsaicinoids from 55 to 410 mg/100 g (corresponding to ca. 8400–60,000 SHU), total polyphenols from 1.8 to 2.5 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g, antioxidant capacity from 2.4 to 4.6 mmol Trolox/100 g and tocopherols from 6.8 to 18.4 mg/100 g. Only very few of the accessions contained detectable amounts of the major chili flavonoid quercetin. The results indicate that C. pubescens is generally less diverse and exhibits a lower content of almost all analyzed traits when compared to 147 Peruvian chili pepper accessions belonging to the other four domesticated species.
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    Hypoxis angustifolia Lam. bulbs, also called "matungulu ya zamba" in Lingala(DR Congo) that means wild onions because of their resemblance to onions are commonly used as hemorrohids and sickle cell disease in Congolese traditional medicine. Anthocyanins, found particularly aboundant in these bulbs, showed significant antisickling activity in vitro. The Emmel test, osmotic fragility and Fe(+3) profile were used to evaluate the influence of anthocyanin extracts on the red blood shape, the membrane stability and Fe(+3)/Fe(+2) ratio. The percentage of sickle shaped red cells that recovered the normal biconcave form of erythrocytes reached 79% in the presence of anthocyanins in hypoxic condition. In addition anthocyanin were found to stabilize the cell membrane and reduce the Fe(+3)/Fe(+2) ratio in sickle cells. These biologically extracts are instable toward physico-chemical parameters such as heat, light and pH. Indeed, the spectra of anthocyanin extracts are strongly modified by the above cited physico-chemical parameters. The thermodegradation kinetics of these extracts were studied and experimental value of kinetic constant obtained is 26.10(-3) s(-1) and 38.10(-3) s(-1) respectively at 100 and 120(o)C. So, this plant could serve as a nutraceutical source for sicklers, but it should be dried at room temperature in order to avoid solar lights and moderately heated during recipes preparation.
  • Article
    Capsicum genus (Solanaceae) is native to the Americas. Today, it is an important agricultural crop cultivated around the world, not only due to its economic importance, but also for the nutritional value of the fruits. Among their phytochemical constituents, capsaicinoids are characteristic and responsible of the pungency of sharp-tasting cultivars. Moreover, Capsicum and capsaicinoids (mainly, capsaicin) have been largely studied because of their health benefits. Thus, this study reviews the scientific knowledge about Capsicum spp. and their phytochemicals against cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, pain, and metabolic syndrome, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. These bioactivities can be the basis of the formulation of functional ingredients and natural preservatives containing Capsicum extracts or isolated compounds.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Capsicum genus (Solanaceae) is native to the Americas. Today, it is an important agricultural crop cultivated around the world, not only due to its economic importance, but also for the nutritional value of the fruits. Among their phytochemical constituents, capsaicinoids are characteristic and responsible of the pungency of sharp-tasting cultivars. Moreover, Capsicum and capsaicinoids (mainly, capsaicin) have been largely studied because of their health benefits. Thus, this study reviews the scientific knowledge about Capsicum spp. and their phytochemicals against cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, pain, and metabolic syndrome, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. These bioactivities can be the basis of the formulation of functional ingredients and natural preservatives containing Capsicum extracts or isolated compounds.
  • Article
    Chillies, the dried red fruit of genus capsicum represent the essential fraction of agricultural produce. Chilli, imparts colour and characteristic pungent flavour apart from being used as a seasoning factor. Analyzing the physicochemical characteristics of chilli is important to understand their quality. Considering this moisture, ash, water insoluble ash, acid insoluble ash, capsaicin content, colour value, total carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, total phenols were analyzed using the standard procedures for the chilli samples viz., Sattur S4, Sangli Sannam, Tomato Chilli and Byadagi. Colour value test (Hunter Lab Colour Meter) confirms that all the samples had bright red with relative yellow colour recommended by BIS (IS 2322:1998). Basic knowledge about existing varieties and its quality factor is ultimately necessary to exploit their hidden positive bioactive markers at appropriate places. Abstract Chillies, the dried red fruit of genus capsicum represent the essential fraction of agricultural produce. Chilli, imparts colour and characteristic pungent flavour apart from being used as a seasoning factor. Analyzing the physicochemical characteristics of chilli is important to understand their quality. Considering this moisture, ash, water insoluble ash, acid insoluble ash, capsaicin content, colour value, total carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, total phenols were analyzed using the standard procedures for the chilli samples viz., Sattur S4, Sangli Sannam, Tomato Chilli and Byadagi. Colour value test (Hunter Lab Colour Meter) confirms that all the samples had bright red with relative yellow colour recommended by BIS (IS 2322:1998). Basic knowledge about existing varieties and its quality factor is ultimately necessary to exploit their hidden positive bioactive markers at appropriate places.
  • Article
    Roasted dried chili, used to improve texture and taste, is important for various cuisines. The effect of roasting at 90 °C for 25 min on the chemical profile and bioactivities of dried chili extracted by petroleum ether was investigated. Based on GC–MS analysis, the crude extracts of roasted dried chili exhibited different chemical profile compared to the control. Roasting of dried chili significantly increased total phenolic compounds. Consequently, the antioxidant activity indicated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) significantly improved. Conversely, a reduction in the antibacterial agents, capsaicin (32.36%) and dihydrocapsaicin (9.11%), in the roasted sample resulted to a decline in antibacterial activity. The extracts showed a strong activity against Bacillus cereus followed by B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to Escherichia coli based on the results of agar disk diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and electron scanning microscopy observation.
  • Article
    Degradation kinetics of total phenolic compounds, capsaicinoids and antioxidant activity in red pepper during both hot air drying and infrared drying were investigated, as well as the correlation between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity was discussed in current study. The fractional conversion kinetic and first order kinetic models were proved to describe the changes of total phenolic compounds vs. drying time and moisture content, respectively. Degradation of capsaicinoids and antioxidant capacity vs. drying time and moisture content both followed fractional conversion kinetic model. Infrared drying accelerated the degradation rate of total phenolic compounds and capsaicinoids vs. drying time as compared with hot air drying at the same temperature; however, a contrary result was found that infrared drying decreased the degradation rate of both total phenolic compounds and capsaicinoids vs. moisture content. Total phenolic compounds exhibited a stronger relationship with antioxidant capacity of red pepper analysed by multiple linear regression analysis.
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    El chile habanero de la península de Yucatán es de los chiles más picantes sin embargo, este picor se ve afectado por el procesamiento industrial. El objetivo del trabajo fue comparar los métodos de extracción asistida por ultrasonidos y de maceración en la extracción de capsaicina en chile habanero fresco y evaluar el efecto de 2 concentraciones de etanol 50 y 80 % en la extracción. Se usó 10 g de chile habanero y se pusieron a extraer por 50 minutos utilizando los métodos antes descritos, con el método más efectivo se evaluó el efecto de usar etanol al 50 y 80 %. La extracción asistida por ultrasonidos fue el más efectivo con un contenido total de capsaicina de 26.74 mg g-1 base húmeda y un rendimiento de la extracción de 34.33 mg g-1 base húmeda. La variación en la concentración de etanol no mostró diferencias significativas en la extracción de capsaicina.
  • Chapter
    El chile habanero de la península de Yucatán es de los chiles más picantes sin embargo, este picor se ve afectado por el procesamiento industrial. El objetivo del trabajo fue comparar los métodos de extracción asistida por ultrasonidos y de maceración en la extracción de capsaicina en chile habanero fresco y evaluar el efecto de 2 concentraciones de etanol (50 y 80 %) en la extracción. Se usó 10 g de chile habanero y se pusieron a extraer por 50 minutos utilizando los métodos antes descritos, con el método más efectivo se evaluó el efecto de usar etanol al 50 y 80 %. La extracción asistida por ultrasonidos fue el más efectivo con un contenido total de capsaicina de 26.74 mg/g base húmeda y un rendimiento de la extracción de 34.33 mg/g base húmeda. La variación en la concentración de etanol no mostró diferencias significativas en la extracción de capsaicina.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The chili pepper (Capsicum pubescens) is a perishable fruit whereby it is necessary to explore agroindustrial alternatives, that preserves its functional properties; within the technological developments studied in food processing and preservation is freeze-drying. In this research, the rocoto chili pepper harvested in rural area of San Cristobal-Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia), was freeze-drying and it was evaluated the effect on the functional properties such as antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power method (FRAP), total phenols, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and capsaicin, both in the fresh product and in freeze- drying treatments. Was realized a fix split plots, with the factor of programming the heating rate, between 0.02 and 0.05°C/min during sublimation assigned to the principal plot and the categorical factor seeds in the subplot, was performed with a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. It was obtained in fresh chilli with seed including placenta values of 1.18mg of eq. ascorbic acid/g dried basis (d.b.) as antioxidant capacity by FRAP; 5.37mg of eq. gallic acid/g d.b. for total phenols content; 4.74mg/g d.b. of carotenoids; 1.88mg/g d.b. of ascorbic acid and 1.57mg/g d.b. of capsaicin. It was concluded that for the freeze-drying treatments, the antioxidant capacity and total phenols were increased, with respect to the fresh product. It evidenced a statistical difference in the heating schedules during sublimation affecting the capsaicin content in seed and seedless treatments.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The Capsicum genus is one of the most popular plants consumed and cultivated worldwide, containing approximately 50 000 varieties of pepper. Due to its wide biodiversity, the chemical composition within the genus also presents a great variability. Its major applications are in food and pharmacological industry, as pepper presents a chemical composition rich in capsaicinoids, carotenoids, flavonoids and volatile compounds which is attributed to the ability of the fruit to remove insipidity, produce aromas and act against oxidative diseases. Due the existence of several cultivars there is a huge intraspecific chemical variability within each species, which can be considered as an obstacle when selecting and cultivating a species to be applied as a natural product source for a specific objective. The usage of pepper-based products in different industrial areas requires pre-established ranges of chemical compounds, such as capsaicinoids, which in high concentration are toxic when consumed by humans. Applying a pepper with a chemical profile closely related to the concentration that is required after industrial processing can improve efficacy and effectiveness of the process. An insight into the chemical characteristics of major secondary bioactive compounds within Capsicum, the factors that affect their concentration and their chemosystematic implication are reported and discussed.
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    Natural products represent the major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity as well as new structures for designing more efficient antimicrobials. They are also the basis for the discovery of new mechanisms of antibacterial action. In this regard, a large number of substances, mainly extracts from natural sources, have been obtained in order to identify their anti-virulence activity. In recent years an increase in the study of anti-virulence natural product derivatives is occurring. Different targets have been proposed as a solution to the serious problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing systems has been one of the most studied, however, there are other mechanisms involved in virulence regulation, damage to the host and bacterial survival, which suggests that there is another good target such as bacterial secretion systems, biofilm formation, two-component systems, flagellum, fimbriae, toxins and key enzymes. Within the natural products, the main anti-virulence compounds are phenolic nature, so that the next chapter describes and analyzes the relationship between chemical structure and activity of the main phenolic compounds reported.
  • Article
    Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated from industrial Jalapeño pepper byproducts and simulated non processed byproducts from two Mexican states (Chihuahua and Sinaloa) to determine their value added potential as commercial food ingredients. Aqueous 80% ethanol produced about 13% of dry extract of polar compounds. Total phenolic content increased and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin decreased on scalding samples (80 °C, 2 min) without affecting ascorbic acid. The major phenolic compounds, rutin, epicatechin and catechin comprised 90% of the total compounds detected by HPLC of each Jalapeño pepper byproducts. ORAC analysis showed that the origin and scalding process affected the antioxidant activity which correlated strongly with capsaicin content. Although scalding decreased capsaicinoids (up to 42%), phenolic content by (up to 16%), and the antioxidant activity (variable). Jalapeño pepper byproduct is a good source of compounds with antioxidant activity, and still an attractive ingredient to develop useful innovative products with potential food/non-food applications simultaneously reducing food loss and waste.
  • Article
    The objective of this study was to cook a risotto using curcuma, black pepper, and hot paprika among the ingredients in order to evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on its bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity. Cooking processing and in vitro digestion did result in loss of bioactive compounds and reduction of antioxidant activity. Five minutes of cooking led to a decrease of 25% in the content of curcuminoids, 31% in piperines, and no decrease was noticed in the capsaicin content. The in vitro digestion resulted in a decrease of 95% in the content of curcuminoids, 31% in piperines, and 100% decrease in capsaicins. In conclusion, both cooking processing and in vitro digestion were determinant concerning the content of bioactive compounds.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    In this study, microwave heating was applied as an alternative method to conventional heating for comparing the effect on the yield and quality of red bell pepper puree. The microwave application was optimized concerning the yield and the outlet temperature by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditionswere found to be a power of 900 W and a flow rate of 6.52 rpm for the microwave oven with RSM. Production of red bell pepper puree was carried out using these optimum conditions. At this optimum point, yield and outlet temperature were found as 76.76% and95°C, respectively. Conventional heating (CH) was performed reaching the same temperature as with microwave heating (MWH) at 95°C and a process time of 9 min. As a result, the yield increased by 8.07% and also the pectin content (17.75%) and vitamin C (20.6%) were improved by the MWH.
  • Chapter
    This chapter provides an overview of production, varieties, postharvest handling and storage, utilization, quality characteristics, processing, and food safety issues of Capsicum peppers. Global production of Capsicum peppers mainly comprises: the mild to highly pungent chili peppers; bell and sweet peppers utilized as vegetables; and paprika, primarily traded as a spice. The world production of fresh and dry chilies and green bell peppers in 2014 was 32.32 and 3.82 million metric tons (MMT), respectively. China was the leading producer of green types with 16.12 MMT, followed by Mexico, Turkey, Indonesia, and Spain. Postharvest handling and storage practices have a major impact on the quality and shelf-life of peppers. The postharvest storage quality and shelf-life depends on the types of storage regime involved—for example, normal refrigerated and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and a variety of postharvest treatments.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The effects of sun-drying, air-drying and pickling processes on phenol and capsaicinoid contents, and free radical-scavenging activity [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS)] in Anaheim (red) and Jalapeño peppers were evaluated. Sun-drying process in Anaheim pepper caused the highest phenols retention (100%), and the free radical-scavenging activity (100%) when compared with air-drying (80%). Pickling process in Jalapeño pepper caused a moderate reduction on the phenol content (24%) and the radical-scavenging activity by DPPH (35%). Processes studied did not cause variations in the capsaicinoid fractions neither in its radical-scavenging activity. Results suggested that dried and pickled peppers are a good source of phenolics and capsaicinoids with antioxidant activity.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Uno de los principales atributos de la calidad en los frutos del genero Capsicum, además del color, el sabor y el aroma es el picor. El picante es debido a la presencia de unos compuestos denominados capsaicinoides que están presentes en su mayoría en la placenta del fruto (Suzuki et al., 1981). Estos compuestos contribuyen al picor tanto por el número y tipo de capsaicinoides presentes como por la cantidad de cada uno de ellos. El objetivo principal de esta investigación es estudiar el efecto de los distintos parámetros que influyen en la extracción de la capsaicina a partir de muestras de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense), utilizando disolventes orgánicos. Metodología. Inicialmente se realiza la preparación del fruto del chile mediante su molienda,con agua destilada, en una relación 1:10 (g/ml). La extracción a nivel laboratorio se llevo a cabo utilizando un MIXXOR y a nivel piloto en una columna de platos reciprocantes tipo karr, las extracciones se llevaron a cabo tomando algunos factores reportados como óptimos por Tapia et al., (1993) la cuantificación de capsaicina se llevo a cabo utilizando HPLC. Resultados. De los resultados obtenidos para el MIXXOR, utilizando éter de petróleo y de acuerdo al análisis estadístico se encontró que las condiciones óptimas son relación muestra disolvente (1:5), Temperatura (35 °C), pH (7.0), y un tiempo de 90 minutos. Para el cloroformo, relación muestra disolvente 1:10; Temperatura (35 °C), pH (9.0), y tiempo de extracción de 90 minutos, tomando como referencia el contenido de capsaicina. Para los resultados obtenidos en las muestras de la columna Karr (figura 1), las condiciones óptimas fueron relación muestra disolvente,1:15, pH (9.0), frecuencia de agitación (70 cpm), y un tiempo de 90 minutos, obteniendo 1.0074 mg de capsaicina por gramo de fruto fresco. Con base en la cantidad de capsaicina y de acuerdo al análisis de varianza la relación muestra disolvente es la que más impacto tiene, la frecuencia de agitación en un rango de 70 a 90 cpm y el pH de 5.0 a 9.0 presentan poco efecto.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The components responsible for chile hot flavor, capsaicinoids, are synthesized through the cinnamic acid pathway, and their degradation is thought to be aided by the action of peroxidases. This work describes the evolution of capsaicinoids during the development, maturation, and senescence of the fruit in three varieties of hot chile peppers widely used in Mexico [Habañ ero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), De á rbol (C. annuum var. Annuum), and Piquin (C. annuum var. Aviculare)] and its relation with the activity of peroxidases in these fruits. Capsaicinoids were more abundant in the fruit of Habañ ero, followed by De á rbol and then by Piquin. Capsaicin was higher than dihydrocapsaicin in the three varieties. Capsaicinoids, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin increased continuously and reached a peak after 45-50 days from fruit set (DFFS) in Habañ ero and De arobol and after 40 DFFS in Piquin and then declined. Peroxidase activity increased at the time when the concentration of capsaicinoids started to decrease. There was an inverse relationship between the evolution of capsaicinoids and peroxidase activity that might indicate that this enzyme is involved in capsaicinoid degradation.
  • Committee of experts on flavouring substances
    • Europe Council
    Council of Europe, (2001). Committee of experts on flavouring substances. Datasheet on capsaicin.
  • Article
    Physical characteristics [initial water content, surface area, surface area: volume (SA: V) ratio, cuticle weight, epicuticular wax content, and surface morphology] were examined to determine relationships between physical properties and water-loss `rate in pepper fruits. `Keystone', `NuMex R Naky', and `Santa Fe Grande' peppers, differing in physical characteristics, were stored at 8, 14, or 20C. Water-loss rate increased linearly with storage time at each temperature and was different for each cultivar. Water-loss rate was positively correlated with initial water content at 14 and 20C, SA: V ratio at all temperatures, and cuticle thickness at 14 and 20C. Water-loss rate was negatively correlated with surface area and epicuticular wax content at all temperatures. Stomata were absent on the fruit surface, and epicuticular wax was amorphous for each cultivar.
  • Article
    The safety of the consumption of spices – turmeric, red pepper and black pepper and their respective active principles was established in animal studies by observing the influence on growth, organ weights, nitrogen balance and blood constituents upon feeding at levels close to human intake as well as upto 100-times the normal human intake. Exhaustive animal studies documented the beneficial influence of turmeric/curcumin, red pepper/capsaicin, and garlic on lipid metabolism, especially anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of the three spices and anti-lithogenic effect of curcumin and capsaicin. The anti-diabetic effects of turmeric/curcumin, onion and cumin seeds were also evidenced with particular ameliorative influence of curcumin and onion on diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effects of curcumin (of turmeric), capsaicin (of red pepper) and eugenol (of clove) were evidenced both in in vitro and in vivo systems and the consequential health beneficial anti-inflammatory influence in experimentally induced arthritis was documented. The mechanism of digestive stimulant action of common spices examined in experimental animals revealed to be mediated through phenomenal stimulation of bile secretion with an enhanced bile acid concentration (ingredients essential for fat digestion and absorption) and an appropriate stimulation of the activities of digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine. The protective influence of hypolipidemic spices – curcumin, capsaicin and garlic on the altered fluidity of erythrocytes under hypercholesterolemic situation was evidenced in experimental animal models. Antioxidant spices were also shown to greatly reduce LDL-oxidation and also modulate the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Several spices or their extracts were also found to beneficially inhibit platelet aggregation. All these observations strongly indicate that many spices and their active principles are excellent nutraceuticals.
  • Article
    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for analysis of capsaicinoids in dried Capsicum fruit powder, involving changes in extraction, mobile phase, flow rate, and excitation and emission spectra and resulting in reduced analysis time, increased sensitivity, and safety, is reported. Extraction of Capsicum fruit powder using acetonitrile proved to be the best capsaicinoid extractor in the shortest time interval. Solvents used for HPLC separation and quantification of capsaicinoids include methanol and water at 1 ml·min –1 flow rate. Instrument sensitivity is enhanced by altering the fluorescence detector excitation and emission wavelengths. Two analytical methods have been developed. One method determines total amount of heat units in 7 minutes, while the other provides total amount of heat units as well as separation of all present major and minor capsaicinoids in 20 minutes. These improved techniques provide inexpensive and rapid methods for quantitative and qualitative analysis of capsaicinoids in Capsicum fruit samples along with good sensitivity and no interference or confounding peaks.
  • Article
    Capsaicinoids were extracted from fresh chili pods (Capsicum frutescens L.) and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 23 compounds detected, 3 major and 12 minor capsaicinoids belonging to the ‘capsaicin’, ‘dihydrocapsaicin’ and ‘N-vanillyl-n-acylamide group’, respectively, were characterized by their specific fragmentation pattern in collision-induced dissociation experiments. Additionally, with the exception of ω-hydroxycapsaicin, several closely related compounds were tentatively identified as alkyl dehydrogenated and -hydroxylated derivatives, respectively, for the first time in Capsicum fruits.
  • Article
    A gas chromatographic method for the determination of the major naturally occurring capsaicinoids as O-methyl derivatives by on column derivatization with trimethylanilinium hydroxide was developed. Pure standards for quantitative gas chromatography were obtained from natural capsaicin by a combination of low pressure and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Gas chromatographic on column methylation products were identified and conditions for maximum methylation were determined. The method was successfully applied to a wide variety of Capsicum products. Recoveries in the range of 99.1 to 102.4%, coefficients of variation in the range of 0.8 to 2.0% and ease of methylation make this method very suitable for capsaicinoid determination.
  • Article
    Thermal processing of chili (Capsicum annum var Kulai) and canning in the form of puree is an alternate process of producing a product with extended shelf-life while retaining its favorable qualities. Red chili was subjected to blanching treatment at different temperatures and times in a steam-jacketed kettle. Test samples were removed, cooled, drained and tested for enzyme activity (peroxidase and lipoxygenase). The model of response surface methodology was introduced to investigate the effects of time, temperature and amount of pectin on the physical properties of chili puree subjected to the evaporation process. Pectin was used as a thickening agent to enhance the viscosity of the puree. A complete inactivation of the enzymes was obtained with the blanching temperature of 100°C for 6min. First-order reaction kinetics fitted adequately to predict color loss and pectin was found to improve the viscosity and total soluble solids of the puree.
  • Article
    The effect of microwave cooking on the stability of chlorophylls and carotenoids in sweet potato leaves was studied. Each cooking treatment was conducted at 2450 MHz with an output power of 700 W for 0,2,4, or 8 min in duplicate. The various chlorophylls and carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Results implied that in most cases the content of each pigment decreased along with the increase of heating time. Chlorophylls and the epoxy-containing carotenoids were the most susceptible to heat loss. Pigments formed during microwave cooking included chl b isomer, chl a isomer I, chl a isomer II, pheophytin b, pheophytin a, pyropheophytin a, cis-neochrome, and two lutein dehydration products, 3,4-didehydro-beta,epsilon-caroten-3'-ol and 3',4'-didehydro-beta,beta-caroten-3-ol.
  • Article
    The major capsaicinoids responsible for pungency in capsicum oleoresins were separated and quantified in an oleoresin model system and in a pharmaceutical model system using HPLC. An analogue of capsaicin, dimethoxybenzylmethyloctamide (DMBMO), was synthesized for use as an internal standard and used for quantification of capsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin. This novel internal standard has a retention time between that of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and is nonpungent. A precollaborative test was used to check the robustness of the procedure for variations in instrumentation and sample preparation. Changes in sample media were not shown to affect the results.
  • Article
    Capsicum pubescens, commonly known as tree pepper with its distinctive thick-fleshed pungent fruit (ripe and unripe), is used as a vegetable condiment or made into a sauce. The present study sought to determine the distribution of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in its thick flesh and seeds. Free, bound and total phenol content of each extract was subsequently determined, while reducing power, Fe (II)-chelating ability, OH radical-scavenging ability and ability of the extracts to inhibit lipid peroxidation in basal and Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain was used for antioxidant capacity. Unripe pepper had higher total phenol content than ripe pepper; however, there was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) in the total phenol content of flesh for both peppers (unripe [110 mg/100g], ripe [95 mg/100 g]) and the seed (unripe [110.0 mg/100 g ], ripe [90 mg/100 g]). Nevertheless, the free polyphenols in flesh and seed of the peppers were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than the bound polyphenols. All the extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner, although free polyphenols from the flesh of ripe pepper caused the highest inhibition in malondialdehyde production in rat's brain. Free and bound polyphenols from the flesh of unripe pepper had the highest Fe (II)-chelating and OH radical-scavenging ability. While the free polyphenols from the flesh of ripe pepper had the highest reducing power, this may have accounted for its ability to reduce Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation. Therefore, by removing the seed from pepper, a 50% loss in the total phenol content would result, which will substantially reduce antioxidant activity.
  • Article
    The effects of low-temperature long-time blanching of diced jalapeño pepper prior to freezing on extrusion force, color and pH of the product were evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology. The blanch temperature was the most important factor, while hold time had no significant effect on product quality. Maximum extrusion force and color parameter a*(green-red) correlated with temperature. The pH and the color parameters L*(brightness) and b*(blue-yellow) showed no significant variation with the experimental variables. The recommended blanch temperature of 55°C produced a firmness value of 779N and a color value of –10.55 of parameter a* in frozen jalapeño peppers.
  • Article
    Capsaicin content in frozen, cooked and canned jalapeno peppers was quantified using GLC analysis and compared to the capsaicin content in raw peper. The frozen peppers were blanched for 3 min and stored at -18°C; canned peppers were blanched for 3 min and processed at 100°C for 50 min; cooked peppers boiled at 100°C for 10 min. Results demonstrated a significant difference (a = 0.05) between each treatment and the raw pepper. Frozen and canned peppers retained approximately one-half of the capsaicinoid compounds that were present in raw pepper.
  • Article
    The flavor of fresh jalapeno peppers was defined and quantified by means of combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cultivar J100 was utilized. Jalapeno flavor was attributed to 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. The compound is distributed unevenly throughout the pepper pod. Values ranged from 0 in the seed to 88.33 ng/g in the outer wall on a dry weight basis. Thermal processing leads to an altered or cooked flavor. Capsaicin, the compound responsible for the heat, is also unevenly distributed in the pod. Gas chromatographic analysis of fresh pepper parts revealed values ranging from 0.21 mg/100g in the outer wall to 18.37 mg/100g in the pod cross walls. All portions of the pepper are perceived as hot after thermal processing. However, capsaitin remains concentrated in the cross wall region. Microscopic examination of the pepper tissue revealed no specialized structure housing either the flavor or heat components. These are considered to be normal metabolites of the fruit and found as an integral part of the plant cells.
  • Article
    Flavonoid, ascorbic acid and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of “jalapeño” (Veracruz, Mitla, Tam Mild, Jaloro, Sweet Jalapeño), “yellow wax” [(Hungarian Yellow, Long Hot Yellow, Gold Spike (hybrid)], “Chile” (New Mexico-6, Green Chile), “ancho” (San Luis Ancho), and “serrano” (Hidalgo) peppers were investigated at green or yellow stages of maturity. Major pepper flavonoids were quercetin and luteolin which were present in conjugate forms. Total flavonoid content varied from none detectable to 800 mg/kg after hydrolysis. “Chile”, “yellow wax” and “ancho” peppers had greater flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant activities than “jalapeño” peppers. Sep-Pak C18(tm) bound phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, correlated well with antioxidant activity (r2=0.86). Luteolin had highest antioxidant activity followed by capsaicin and quercetin on equimolar basis.
  • Article
    Total capsaicinoids, colour and volatile compounds of 10 Habanero chilli pepper (Capsicum chinense Jack.) cultivars grown in Yucatan, grouped by their colours: four red, five orange and one brown, were determined. The content of capsaicinoids, responsible for the pungency of chilli peppers, varied between 41.8 and 65.9 mg g−1 dry fruit. Mean concentration of orange cultivars was 55.0 mg g−1, while red cultivars had 45.0 mg g−1 dry fruit, indicating that the first ones are more pungent. The composition of volatile compounds of the Habanero chilli peppers differs clearly for the different cultivars. Orange and brown cultivars have in general higher amounts of esters, with their fruity odour notes, than red cultivars. These differences are reflected in the amount of total volatiles, which is higher in orange and brown cultivars in comparison with red cultivars. From these results it can be concluded that orange and brown cultivars are better in terms of their flavour-relevant chemical composition than red cultivars.
  • Article
    The kinetics of degradation of both green-and total-colour of green chilli puree was studied at selected temperatures (50±90 °C). A fractional conversion concept was applied to determine the kinetic parameters. The degradation of green-and total-colour followed ®rst order reaction kinetics. In the case of green colour the data was based on changes in Hunter ±a value while á b was found to adequately represent total colour change. Dependence of the rate constant during heat treatment obeyed the Arrhenius relationship. The activation energy values for green-and total-colour degradation were 23.04 and 25.02 kJ mol ±1 , respectively. These results indicated that total colour should be used as the quality indicator during thermal processing of green chilli puree. The pungency of green chilli puree decreased during thermal processing as the capsaicin content was reduced from 559 to 441 lg g ±1 while the Scoville heat unit decreased from 8500 to 7480. The puree behaved as a shear-thinning ¯uid and the ¯ow activation energy at 100 r.p.m. equalled 19.22 kJ mol ±1 .
  • Analysis of seven capsaicinoids inpeppers and chromatography–massspectrometry
    • N Kozukue
    • J Han
    • S Lee
    • J Kim
    • K Lee
    • M Park
    Kozukue, N., Han, J., Lee, S., Kim, J., Lee, K., Park, M., et al. (2005). Analysis of seven capsaicinoids inpeppers and chromatography–massspectrometry. Chemistry, 53, 9172–9181
  • Article
    Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) has long been recognized as an excellent source of antioxidants, being rich in ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the antioxidant properties of coloured peppers. Six varieties of peppers were subjected to different cooking methods, such as microwave heating, stir-frying and boiling in water, for 5 min individually. The cooked and raw peppers were analyzed for radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and total polyphenol content (TP) using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl–high-pressure liquid chromatography (DPPH)–HPLC and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. The samples were also evaluated for ascorbic acid content (AsA) by HPLC. Total carotenoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. Results suggest that there is no significant (P > 0.05) difference in RSA, TP, AsA and total carotenoid contents between the cooked and raw peppers when processed for 5 min. However, the cooked peppers show marked differences (P < 0.05) in the RSA, TP and AsA when cooked for 5 min in boiling water with further reduction observed after boiling for 30 min. This may be due to the leaching of antioxidant compounds from the pepper into the cooking water during the prolonged exposure to water and heat. Therefore, it is vital to use less water and cooking time and also to consume the water used for boiling so as to obtain the optimum benefits of bioactive compounds present in peppers. It is concluded that microwave heating and stir-frying without using water are more suitable cooking methods for pepper, to ensure the maximum retention of antioxidant molecules.
  • Article
    Comprising the major pungent principles capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin, changes in capsaicinoid contents of chili powders after thermal treatment and during storage experiments were monitored. For this purpose, freshly harvested chili pods and chili pastes were immediately pasteurized at 80 °C, 90 °C and 100 °C for 5 and 10 min, respectively, and finally lyophilized. Heating and drying resulted in a 21.7% to 28.3% degradation of the initial capsaicinoid content, the three major capsaicinoids showing similar heat susceptibility. During storage at ambient temperature over 6 months with and without illumination, further degradation of the pungent principles by 6.8–11.9% was observed. Since residual enzyme activities were assumed to cause capsaicinoid losses, soluble peroxidase (POD) activity was investigated. It was shown that immediate thermal treatment of the plant material did not result in a complete POD inactivation even under rigorous temperature–time regimes. In contrast, a regeneration of about 30% of initial POD activity was found in those samples which were first blanched at 80 °C for 5 and 10 min and then minced. However, no correlation between POD activity and capsaicinoid losses could be established.Industrial relevanceBesides microbial contamination and color properties, the pungent principles called capsaicinoids are the major quality parameters of hot chili peppers and might be influenced by peroxidase activity. The present contribution demonstrated that heating of fresh chili pods slightly diminishes capsaicinoids, which were further reduced during storage at ambient temperature irrespective of soluble peroxidase activity. The production of high quality spices characterized by low microbial load and bright color requires thermal treatment of the raw material; however, a slight decrease in capsaicinoid concentration cannot be excluded.
  • Article
    Capsaicinoids are a group of 12 or more related alkaloids responsible of the pungent sensation in fruits of the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin [(E)-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-8-methyl-6-nonenamide] and dihydrocapsaicin are responsible for more than 90% of the pungency. This work describes the quantitative analyses by gas chromatography of the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the pericarp, placenta, and seeds of seven cultivars of chili peppers cultivated in the state of Yucatan, Mexico [chawa, dulce, sukurre, xcat’ik (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum), maax (Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare), and habanero orange and habanero white (Capsicum chinense Jacq.)]. Capsaicin content was higher, as expected, in the fruits of habanero orange and habanero white, followed by sukurre, chawa, xkat’ik, and maax. Dihydrocapsaicin content did not follow the same scheme, being higher in the fruits of sukurre, followed by chawa, habanero white, habanero orange, and maax. Xcat’ik showed minor quantities of dihydrocapsaicin, while dulce chili contained only traces of these two alkaloids.
  • Article
    A study was conducted to investigate the changes in the pungent components (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, isodihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin) of paprika as a function of drying method, gamma irradiation and storage period. Sun-dried and dehydrated paprika samples were irradiated by using a 60Co gamma irradiator at five doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy) in polyethylene bags and stored at ambient temperature for 10 months. The capsaicinoid contents of the samples were analyzed by HPLC every 2 months within the 10 months. The major pungent components, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, significantly (P<0.01) increased with increasing irradiation doses. The increases of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin contents were about 10% with the dose of 10 kGy. In contrast, a significant (P<0.01) decrease was observed in these components with storage. The levels of all capsaicinoids were significantly (P<0.01) higher in dehydrated paprika than in sun-dried paprika. Nordihydrocapsaicin was found only in fresh red pepper. Although isodihydrocapsaicin was not detected in paprika during the first five months of the storage period, it was detected from the 6th month of the storage period. Hence, isodihydrocapsaicin might be used to identify paprika which has been stored for longer than six months.
  • Article
    Studies were done to monitor loss of active principles of the spices, curcumin, piperine and capsaicin, during domestic cooking, (i.e. boiling of spice mixes with food ingredients). Over 85% loss of curcumin occurred during 15 and 30 min of cooking either in the presence of absence of the souring agent—tamarind. The loss of piperine under similar conditions was 50–60% when black pepper was used as an ingredient of curry powder. The loss of piperine was less when only black pepper was used in the food preparation. Capsaicin losses were of the order of 0–30% during cooking under similar conditions.
  • Article
    Studies were made to examine the loss of curcumin, capsaicin and piperine, the active principles of turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum), respectively, as a result of subjecting the spices to domestic cooking processes. This involved heat treatment of each of these spices by: (i) boiling for 10 min, (ii) boiling for 20 min and (iii) pressure cooking for 10 min. Quantitation of the spice principles in the organic solvent extracts of the freeze-dried cooked spice samples was made with an appropriate HPLC method. Significant loss of spice active principles was observed when the spices were subjected to heat processing. Curcumin loss from heat processing of turmeric was 27–53%, with maximum loss in pressure cooking for 10 min. Curcumin loss from turmeric was similar even in the presence of red gram. In the presence of tamarind, the loss of Curcumin from turmeric was 12–30%. Capsaicin losses from red pepper ranged from 18% to 36%, with maximum loss observed in pressure cooking. Presence of either red gram or tamarind or both did not influence the loss of capsaicin. Piperine losses from black pepper ranged from 16% to 34%, with maximum loss observed in pressure cooking. The loss was somewhat lower in the presence of red gram. The results of this investigation indicated diminished availability of spice active principles from cooked foods when the food ingredients have been subjected to either boiling or pressure cooking for few minutes.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Effects of microwave and conventional cooking methods were studied on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of pepper, squash, green beans, peas, leek, broccoli and spinach. Total phenolics content of fresh vegetables ranged from 183.2 to 1344.7 mg/100 g (as gallic acid equivalent) on dry weight basis. Total antioxidant activity ranged from 12.2% to 78.2%. With the exception of spinach, cooking affected total phenolics content significantly (p < 0.05). The effect of various cooking methods on total phenolics was significant (p < 0.05) only for pepper, peas and broccoli. After cooking, total antioxidant activity increased or remained unchanged depending on the type of vegetable but not type of cooking.
  • Article
    This study selected 13 fruits and vegetables to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their stimulatory effects on splenocyte proliferation from female BALB/c mice. The highest total phenolic content was observed in mulberry (1515.9 ± 5.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g fresh matter (FM)) among four selected fruit species. The highest total phenolic content was observed in a variety of red onions (310.8 ± 4.9 mg GAE/100 g FM) among nine selected vegetable species. The highest total flavonoid content was observed in mulberry (250.1 ± 6.3 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g FM) among the selected fruits. The highest total flavonoid content was observed in ceylon spinach (133.1 ± 26.2 mg QE/100 g FM) among the selected vegetables. The mulberry, strawberry and red onion demonstrated an immuno-modulatory potential via stimulating splenocyte proliferation. Bitter melon showed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation with splenocyte proliferation. Their immuno-modulatory components are highly correlated with phenolics, including flavonoids. The total phenolic contents in all selected fruits and vegetables significantly correlated with splenocyte proliferation in vitro.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Carotenoid, capsaicinoid and ascorbic acid composition of ripe fruits of five Capsicum annuum cultivars (730 F1, 1245 F1, Amazon F1, Serademre 8 and Kusak 295F1), grown as principle breeding material in Turkey, were quantitatively investigated by means of HPLC technique. Seven main carotenoids, five analogues of capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid were quantified in the fruits grown for 2 year replication. From the capsaicinoids and carotenoids data, Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) and retinol activity equivalent (RAE) values of the fruits were also calculated, respectively. The findings determined that the cultivars of 730 F1 and 1245 F1 had higher carotenoids (2310–2390 mg/kg in dry basis), capsaicinoids (471.3–688.1 mg/kg in dry basis), vitamin A (218.8–243.0 μg RAE/100 g in wet basis) and vitamin C (63.1–64.9 mg/100 g in wet basis) content, without any significant difference among each of them. Furthermore, the cultivars which had higher capsaicinoids contents had higher ascorbic acids content as well. With their high nutritional and functional components, the cultivar of 730 F1 and 1245 F1 can be considered to be selected breeding material for cultivar development.
  • Article
    The effect of calcium chloride brine treatment on firmness and retention of phytochemicals in pastuerized yellow banana peppers was studied. Shear force values declined during processing and storage, but CaCl(2) treatment resulted in greater firmness retention. Processing reduced ascorbic acid content by 63%, and after 124 days, <10% of ascorbic acid remained. Quercetin and luteolin contents declined 45% during processing, but levels stabilized during storage. Capsaicinoid content was stable during processing and storage. CaCl(2) treatment did not affect ascorbic acid, flavonoid, or capsaicinoid retention during pasteurization and storage. Retention of phytochemicals appeared to be related to their solubility and structural properties.
  • Article
    Spices and vegetables possess antioxidant activity that can be applied for preservation of lipids and reduce lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The potential antioxidant activities of selected spices extracts (water and alcohol 1:1) were investigated on enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Water and alcoholic extract (1:1) of commonly used spices (garlic, ginger, onion, mint, cloves, cinnamon and pepper) dose-dependently inhibited oxidation of fatty acid, linoleic acid in presence of soybean lipoxygenase. Among the spices tested, cloves exhibited highest while onion showed least antioxidant activity. The relative antioxidant activities decreased in the order of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, garlic, mint and onion. Spice mix namely ginger, onion and garlic; onion and ginger; ginger and garlic showed cumulative inhibition of lipid peroxidation thus exhibiting their synergistic antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts were retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C, indicating that the spice constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation. The antioxidant activity of these dietary spices suggest that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, they possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation.
  • Article
    The effect of fruit maturation on changes in carotenoids, flavonoids, total soluble reducing equivalents, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (AOX) in different pepper types (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum chinese) was determined. Generally, the concentration of these chemical constituents increased as the peppers reached maturity. Peppers contained high levels of L-ascorbic acid and carotenoids at maturity, contributing 124-338% of the RDA for vitamin C and 0.33-336 RE/100 g of provitamin A activity, respectively. Levels of phenolic acids, capxanthin, and zeaxanthin generally increased during maturation, whereas the level of lutein declined. Flavonoid concentrations varied greatly among the pepper types analyzed and were negatively correlated to AOX under the conditions of the beta-carotene-linoleic assay. Model systems were used to aid in understanding the relationship between flavonoids and AOX. Significant increases in AOX were observed in pepper juice models in response to increasing dilution factors and the presence of EDTA, indicating a pro-oxidant effect due to metal ions in the system. In vitro models demonstrated that increasing levels of flavonoids in combination with constant levels of caffeic and ascorbic acid gave a resultant AOX that was either additive of the two compounds or competitive in their ability to scavenge peroxyl radicals. The model systems were in good agreement with the chemical composition of the pepper cultivars and reflected the interactions affecting AOX. More research is needed to understand the complex interactions that occur among various antioxidants present in pepper extracts.
  • Article
    The capsaicinoid content of individual fruits from a single plant harvested at the same time after flowering exhibits a wide range of values with a rather uniform pattern for the ratio of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. This observation is confirmed by the analysis of fruits from a second and third plant and for several harvest times at different stages of maturity. Competition with lignin-like material, environmental influences, and subcellular distribution may play a role in the synthesis and transformation of capsaicinoids.
  • Article
    Diverse procedures have been reported for the isolation and analysis of secondary metabolites called capsaicinoids, pungent compounds in the fruit of the Capsicum (Solanaceae) plant. To further improve the usefulness of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), studies were carried out on the analysis of extracts containing up to eight of the following capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin-I, homocapsaicin-II, homodihydrocapsaicin-I, homodihydrocapsaicin-II, nonivamide, and nordihydrocapsaicin. HPLC was optimized by defining effects on retention times of (a) the composition of the mobile phase (acetonitrile/0.5% formic acid in H2O), (b) the length of the Inertsil column, and (c) the capacity values (k) of the column packing. Identification was based on retention times and mass spectra of individual peaks. Quantification was based on the UV response at 280 nm in HPLC and recoveries from spiked samples. The method (limit of detection of approximately 15-30 ng) was successfully used to quantify capsaicinoid levels of parts of the pepper fruit (pericarp, placenta, seeds, and in the top, middle, and base parts of whole peppers) in 17 species of peppers and in 23 pepper-containing foods. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the method for the analysis of capsaicinoids ranging from approximately 0.5 to 3600 microg of capsaicin equiv/g of product. The water content of 12 fresh peppers ranged from 80.8 to 92.7%. The described freeze-drying, extraction, and analysis methods should be useful for assessing the distribution of capsaicinoids in the foods and in defining the roles of these biologically active compounds in the plant, the diet, and medicine.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A simple, highly selective, sensitive, and reproducible liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry method has been developed for the direct and simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum fruit extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are the two major members of the so-called capsaicinoid family, which includes other minor analogues, and usually account for at least 90% of the pungency trait in Capsicum fruits. Chromatographic separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was achieved with a reversed-phase chromatography column, using a gradient of methanol and water. Quantification was done using as an internal standard (4,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-4-methyloctamide, a synthetic capsaicin analogue not found in nature. Analytes were base-peak resolved in less than 16 min, and limits of detection were 20 pmol for capsaicin and 4 pmol for dihydrocapsaicin. The intraday repeatability values were lower than 0.5 and 12% for retention time and peak area, respectively, whereas the interday repeatability values were lower than 0.6 and 14% for retention time and peak area, respectively. Analyte recoveries found were 86 and 93% for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. The method developed has been applied to the identification and quantification of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in fruit extracts from different Capsicum genotypes, and concentrations found ranged from 2 to 6639 mg kg(-1).
  • Article
    Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated. The total phenolics content of green, yellow, orange, and red peppers determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method were 2.4, 3.3, 3.4, and 4.2 micromol catechin equivalent/g fresh weight, respectively. The red pepper had significantly higher total phenolics content than the green pepper. Among the 4 different colored peppers, red pepper contained a higher level of beta-carotene (5.4 microg/g), capsanthin (8.0 microg/g), quercetin (34.0 microg/g), and luteolin (11.0 microg/g). The yellow pepper had the lowest beta-carotene content (0.2 microg/g), while the green one had undetectable capsanthin and the lowest content of luteolin (2.0 microg/g). The free radical scavenging abilities of peppers determined by the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were lowest for the green pepper (2.1 micromol Trolox equivalent/g) but not significantly different from the other 3 peppers. All 4 colored peppers exhibited significant abilities in preventing the oxidation of cholesterol or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) during heating. However, these 4 peppers did not show significant differences in their abilities in preventing cholesterol oxidation. The green pepper showed slightly higher capability in preventing the oxidation of DHA compared to the other 3 peppers.