Problematic issues in the staging of endometrial, cervical and vulval carcinomas

Department of Cellular Pathology, Birmingham Women's NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK.
Histopathology (Impact Factor: 3.45). 01/2013; 62(1):176-202. DOI: 10.1111/his.12058
Source: PubMed


The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging of tumours of the uterine corpus, cervix and vulva was revised in 2009. The greatest impact of the revised staging was on carcinomas of the uterine corpus. Uterine sarcomas are now staged separately. Changes to the staging system for vulvar carcinomas largely reflect the significance of lymph node status. Only minor amendments have been introduced for cervical carcinomas, which remain the only gynaecological tumours to be staged clinically. These revisions, based on recent evidence, require careful, more detailed assessment of several histological parameters at each anatomical site. The present review deals with the evidence and rationale underpinning the revisions, and includes practical guidance on tumour staging. This covers the assessment and measurement of myoinvasion and evaluation of cervical, parametrial, serosal and vaginal involvement in carcinomas of the uterine corpus; the identification and accurate measurement of stromal invasion in cervical and vulvar carcinomas; the assessment of unusual variants of carcinoma at each of these sites; and the assessment of lymph node involvement.

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    • "Staging was assessed according to the FIGO classification [15].Clinical responses were evaluated by RECIST 1.1 criteria and computed axial tomography scan and were assigned as CR, defined as the disappearance of all signs of cancer in response to treatment, and NR, defined as patients with partial, progressive, or stable disease [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer (CC) mortality is a major public health concern since it is the second cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced CC (LACC) have an important rate of recurrence and treatment failure. Conventional treatment for LACC is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, up to 40% of patients will not respond to conventional treatment; hence, we searched for a prognostic gene signature able to discriminate patients who do not respond to the conventional treatment employed to treat LACC. Tumor biopsies were profiled with genome-wide high-density expression microarrays. Class prediction was performed in tumor tissues and the resultant gene signature was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A 27-predictive gene profile was identified through its association with pathologic response. The 27-gene profile was validated in an independent set of patients and was able to distinguish between patients diagnosed as no response versus complete response. Gene expression analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumors diagnosed as LACC. Our findings could provide a strategy to select patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy-based treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Translational oncology
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    • "The earliest form of MISCC is early stromal invasion, with the depth of invasion up to 1 mm. Early stromal invasion is encompassed in the IA1 FIGO clinical stage of cervical squamous carcinoma and was never staged as a separate category.5,11,12 Some authors think early stromal invasion should be considered as a separate category excluded from IA1 FIGO clinical stage because its management and prognosis is similar to that of CIN 3.13,14 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) comprises a significant portion of all cervical cancers in Slovenia. Criteria of carcinomatous invasion are well described in the literature, however histopathological assessment of MISCC is difficult, because morphological characteristics can overlap with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and other pathological changes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of the histopathological diagnosis of MISCC in Slovenia during the period from 2001 to 2007. Materials and methods. Data on patients with a histopathological diagnosis of cervical MISCC (FIGO stage IA) in the period of 2001 to 2007 were obtained from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Histological slides were obtained from the majority of pathology laboratories in Slovenia. We received 250 cases (69% of all MISCC) for the review; 30 control cases with CIN 3 and invasive squamous cell carcinoma FIGO stage IB were intermixed. The slides were coded and reviewed. Results Among 250 cases originally diagnosed as MISCC, there was an agreement with MISCC diagnosis in 184 (73.6%) cases (of these 179/184 (97.3%) cases were FIGO stage IA1 and 5/184 (2.7%) cases were FIGO stage IA2). Among 179 FIGO stage IA1 cases 117 (65.4%) showed only early stromal invasion. Conclusions The retrospective review of cases diagnosed as MISCC during the period 2001–2007 in Slovenia showed a considerable number of overdiagnosed cases. Amongst cases with MISCC confirmed on review, there was a significant proportion with early stromal invasion (depth of invasion less than 1 mm).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Radiology and Oncology
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    • "Cervical cancers (CC) are one of the leading causes of cancer-related death among women in developing countries [1,2], which are classified into squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas according to their cellular origins [3]. Surgery is still the first choice of CC treatments, but frequent relapse and metastasis lead to poor prognosis of CC patients, especially those at advanced stage [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancers/CCs are one of the commonest malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Resveratrol inhibits CC cell growth but its molecular target(s) remains unclear. Since the signaling pathways mediated by STAT3, Notch1 and Wnt2 play beneficial roles in CC formation and progression, the effects of resveratrol on them in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) cells were analyzed. The biological significances of the above signaling for HeLa and SiHa cells were evaluated by treating the cells with STAT3, Wnt or Notch selective inhibitors. The frequencies of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations in 68 cases of CC specimens and 38 non-cancerous cervical epithelia were examined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that HeLa and SiHa cells treated by 100μM resveratrol showed extensive apoptosis, accompanied with suppression of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations. Growth inhibition and apoptosis were found in HeLa and SiHa populations treated by AG490, a STAT3/JAK3 inhibitor but not the ones treated by Notch inhibitor L-685,458 or by Wnt inhibitor XAV-939. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the tissue microarrays showed that the frequencies of Notch1, Notch2, Hes1, Wnt2, Wnt5a and p-STAT3 detection as well as β-catenin nuclear translocation in CC samples were significantly higher than that of noncancerous group (p<0.01), while the expression rate of PIAS3 was remarkably low in cancer samples (p<0.01). Our results thus demonstrate that STAT3, Wnt and Notch signaling are frequently co-activated in human CC cells and specimens and resveratrol can concurrently inhibit those signaling activations and meanwhile lead cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells to growth arrest and apoptosis. STAT3 signaling is more critical for CC cells and is the major target of resveratrol because selective inhibition of STAT3 rather than Wnt or Notch activation commits SiHa and HeLa cells to apoptosis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Genes & cancer
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