Race Is a Predictor of In-Hospital Mortality After Cholecystectomy, Especially in Those With Portal Hypertension

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (Impact Factor: 7.9). 10/2008; 6(10):1146-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2008.05.024
Source: PubMed


Cholecystectomy is the most frequently performed gastrointestinal surgery in the United States. In this study, we characterized racial disparities in in-hospital mortality after cholecystectomy among patients with and without decompensated cirrhosis.
All patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1998 and 2003 were queried from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest population-based and geographically representative all-payer database of hospital discharges in the United States. Crude mortality among races was determined for those with and without cirrhosis with portal hypertension and subsequently adjusted for demographic and clinical factors.
In-hospital mortality associated with cholecystectomy was higher in the portal hypertensive group compared with those without portal hypertension (10.8% vs 1.4%; P < .0001). African Americans had greater adjusted mortality risk than whites in both the nonportal hypertensive (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.35-1.63) and portal hypertensive (odds ratio [OR], 2.37; 95% CI, 1.47-3.84) groups, although the mortality gap was more pronounced in the latter. For portal hypertensive patients, undergoing cholecystectomy at a liver transplant center was associated with dramatically lower mortality (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.25-0.69).
In-patient mortality after cholecystectomy is 7.8-fold higher in patients with portal hypertension compared with those without portal hypertension. African Americans experienced higher mortality than whites after cholecystectomy, especially in the presence of portal hypertension. Cholecystectomy at a liver transplant center may offer survival benefit for patients with portal hypertension.

3 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel design methodology for multiplexer design is presented. For the first time, finite element EM based simulators and space-mapping optimization are combined to produce an accurate design for manifold coupled output multiplexers with dielectric resonator (DR) loaded filters. Finite element EM based simulators are used as a fine model of each multiplexer channel and a coupling matrix representation is used as a coarse model. Fine details such as tuning screws are included in the fine model. Therefore channel dispersion and spurious modes are taken into account. The DR filter channel design parameters are kept bounded during optimization. Our approach has been used to design large-scale manifold coupled output multiplexers and it has significantly reduced the overall tuning time compared to traditional techniques. The technique is illustrated through design of a 10-channel output multiplexer with 5-pole DR filter based channels.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Population-based data on outcomes associated with colorectal procedures in cirrhotic patients are sparse. We sought to assess the impact of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension on mortality following colorectal surgery. We queried patients who underwent colorectal surgery in the United States in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2005). In-hospital mortality was determined for patients with no cirrhosis, compensated cirrhotic patients, and cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Patients with cirrhosis and cirrhosis with portal hypertension had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than patients with no cirrhosis (14% and 29% vs. 5%, respectively, P < 0.0001). In-hospital mortality was also significantly higher for emergent and urgent colorectal procedures compared with elective procedures (9.2% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.0001). Among elective colorectal procedures, adjusted mortality was increased in cirrhotic patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.91; 95% confidence interval, 3.12-4.90) and cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension (adjusted odds ratio, 11.3; 95% confidence interval, 8.46-15.1) compared with patients with no cirrhosis. For nonelective procedures, the adjusted odds ratio for mortality in cirrhotic patients was 2.40 (95% confidence interval, 2.07-2.79) and in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension the adjusted odds ratio was 5.88 (95% confidence interval, 4.90-7.06). Postoperative complications were more likely in cirrhotic patients (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.52) and cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-2.15) relative to patients with no cirrhosis. Patients with liver cirrhosis, in particular, those with portal hypertension, have increased in-hospital mortality and morbidity following colorectal surgery. Strategies are needed to optimize preoperative risk.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: In the past, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was regarded as a progressive, incurable disease for which palliative therapy could not, over the long term, prevent the associated amputations, blindness, renal failure, and early mortality. This is no longer true. Full and durable remission of type 2 DM, with major decreases in morbidity and mortality, is now achieved regularly with several types of surgery that reduce contact between food and the foregut.Objectives: The aims of this article are to review the impact of bariatric surgery on obesity, remission of DM, and obesity-related morbidity and mortality, and the possible mechanisms for this advance.Methods: This article is based on our 2 meta-analyses of the literature published through April 30, 2006, as well as the most significant reports in the bariatric surgical literature that have been published in English since April 30, 2006. The studies included in our second meta-analysis provided the details of the methodology for the present literature review, including the levels of evidence.Results: Results of our 2 meta-analyses were published previously. Briefly, the analyses revealed that the clinical and laboratory manifestations of type 2 DM resolved or improved in most of the patients who underwent bariatric surgery; the responses were greatest in the patients who lost the most excess body weight; and the improvements were maintained for ≥2 years. The studies reported that intestinal operations such as gastric bypass reduced contact between food and the foregut, produced full and durable remission of DM, reduced mortality, and reversed other comorbidities associated with severe obesity (eg, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, stress incontinence). Insulin levels decreased markedly after surgery, as did glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) and fasting blood glucose levels. Although these effects were initially attributed to weight loss, the rapid reversal of DM within a matter of days after surgery suggest that bariatric surgery changes the signaling mechanism of the gut with pancreatic islet cells, muscles, fat, the liver, and other organs.Conclusions: Bariatric surgery has opened new vistas, producing durable full remission of type 2 DM—a breakthrough previously considered impossible—with normalization of A1C levels over time and discontinuation of all antidiabetes medication for many patients. These advances create new opportunities for exploring the mechanisms of type 2 DM and its control through pharmaceutical approaches. DM is no longer an irreversible, incurable, or hopeless disease.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Insulin
Show more