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TSEP: Threshold-sensitive Stable Election Protocol for WSNs

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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are expected to find wide applicability and increasing deployment in near future. In this paper, we propose a new protocol, Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP), which is reactive protocol using three levels of heterogeneity. Reactive networks, as opposed to proactive networks, respond immediately to changes in relevant parameters of interest. We evaluate performance of our protocol for a simple temperature sensing application and compare results of protocol with some other protocols LEACH, DEEC, SEP, ESEP and TEEN. And from simulation results it is observed that protocol outperforms concerning life time of sensing nodes used.

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... These protocols are: the Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy protocol (LEACH) [9] and Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network (TEEN) [10] for clustered homogenous wireless sensor networks. The Stable Election Protocol (SEP) [11] and Threshold Sensitive stable Election Protocol (TSEP) [12] for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. One of the most important advantages for those protocols is that they have been widely used in order to reduce the power consumption for WSNs. ...
... However, there is a need to conduct a comparison between these protocols specifically, which will be important to assist the researchers in identifying the weakness and strengths of these protocols, thus paving the road toward developing new protocols that have the pros of these protocols and avoiding their cons. In this paper, the LEACH [9], SEP [11], TEEN [10] and TSEP [12] protocols are chosen as a representative for each type due to their high popularity and wide adoption. Besides, this work has been focused on the simulation aspects of the compared protocols to study their performance. ...
... 2) Reactive Network Protocols [12]: In reactive network protocols, the nodes sense the area of interest and react immediately to a sudden change in the sensed data value. However, this criterion is very valuable for critical time applications when the change of a certain value is studied, e.g. ...
... Energy conservation and maintaining the longevity of the network are the two prime objects of the wireless sensor network. In this article we analyze hierarchical cluster-based routing protocols for homogeneous and heterogeneous network such as LEACH [4], PEGASIS [5], SEP [14], DEEC [15], MGEAR [16], ZSEP [17], SPEED [18], TDEEC, TSEP [19], BSEP. Clusterbased data collection is the conventional way of saving energy or load balancing techniques as compared to the direct method of communication. ...
... In T-SEP [19], Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol has designed with two main aspects: 1) Its a Reactive routing protocol that means the transmission is carried out when specific threshold criteria reached. ...
... We also checked that Cluster Head in the current round cannot become C.H. in the same epoch, the non-cluster nodes reside to the set G, and to conserve an even number of cluster heads per round, the probability of nodes reside in G to become a cluster head raise after each round in the self-same epoch. Random number less than a threshold [19] T(S) node fit to become a cluster head in the current round [39]. However, r is the current round number. ...
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For many decades, researchers and vendors are continually developing and designing sensors and wireless network devices for countless applications. These low power wireless sensor network devices have designed to gather and propagate data for applications such as environment, industry, habitat, patient monitoring, and many more to excel humankind— however, these devices also inherent many challenges and drawbacks due to the default hardware design. Subsequently, to mitigate limitations and enhance the capability, authors and researchers have investigated and conferred that minor optimization in modeling or routing techniques gradually elevates the performance of WSN. One of the primary concerns which remain on top of the Domain for discussion is energy conservation in WSN devices. Our primary goal is to analyze and design a cluster-based routing protocol for WSN, An efficient way to elevate the network performance. Finally, the emanate results showcase that the performance of the proposed protocol is much more optimized and favorable when combined with soft-computing tactics when compared to the conventional paradigm.
... The aggregation function adopted in the work considers both spatial correlations as well as internode distance. The network lifetime has been evaluated and compared to the existing protocols such as Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) (Heinzelman et al. 2000), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Network (TEEN) (Manjeshwar and Agarwal 2001), Threshold sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP) (Kashaf et al. 2012) and Coop-LEACH (Asaduzzaman and Kong 2010). Along with network lifetime, parameters such as throughput, latency, and reliability have also been evaluated. ...
... TSEP (Kashaf et al. 2012) is the extension of the wellknown Stable Election Protocol (SEP) (Smaragdakis et al. 2004), which considers two-level heterogeneity. The performance of TSEP is enhanced by introducing a third-level heterogeneity in a reactive protocol. ...
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Sensing and reporting, a time-critical event in an energy-efficient manner, remains one of the most significant challenges of a resource-constrained wireless sensor network. Activating sensing nodes at a specific location and instance for a particular duration of time to report an event of interest can save a significant amount of energy. We have proposed an event-based energy-efficient data reporting and transmission protocol that saves energy by implementing a suitable duty cycle. The criteria for the selection of active nodes along with data aggregation eliminates the generation of redundant information from the closely placed multiple nodes. There is a significant improvement in the network lifetime of approximately 36% and 65% compared to the existing Threshold-sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP) and Cooperative low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (Coop-LEACH). Node cooperation increases reliability but at the cost of a decrease in the lifetime. Therefore, reliability- lifetime trade-off has also been analyzed along with throughput, stability period, and delay.
... In Eq. (20), the i ranges from 1 to n where n is total nodes in the network. To pursue with the process of CH selection, the probabilistic model for CH selection follows the computation of 'probability' and 'threshold' value for each type of nodes. ...
... The average distance of the nodes from the sink is also considered in CH selection. It is computed as follows in Eq. (20) and represented by D avg . E avg is the average energy of all the nodes in the network, computed by the Eq. ...
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Compressive Sensing (CS) has proved to be a promising approach for the Internet of things (IoT) due to the fact that CS can abate the magnitude of raw data which is to be transmitted to the sink. It further helps in acquiring the traffic load balancing in the whole network. Recently, a plethora of research is reported that combines the clustering with CS in three genres; a plain CS, hybrid CS and a multi-path hybrid CS. However, the number transmissions are too high by the nodes (plain CS) or by the Cluster Heads (CHs) (hybrid or multi-path hybrid). While adopting the aforementioned genres of CS-based clustering, the selection of CH has not been given significant attention. This results in inevitable reduction the network lifetime of IoT-based WSN. Therefore, to extenuate the aforementioned concerns, in this paper, two contributions are reported. Firstly, the CH selection is done by the energy, distance, node density and average energy of the network that helps in the befitting CH selection of a node. Consequently, data gathering is improved and compression is done at the CH level. Secondly, the data reconstruction is also made better as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols helping in enhancing the Signal to Noise Ratio. The proposed scheme is named as Energy efficient CS based clustering framework (ECSCF). It is evident from the simulation that the ECSCF outperforms the competitive CS-based algorithms on the platform of different metrics namely, network lifetime, stability period, energy consumption, network’s remaining energy, etc.
... The main concern in the heterogeneous protocol has been the advancements in Probability Based Threshold Formula (PBTF) for the cluster head selection. The subsequent contributions by the heterogeneous routing protocols namely, DEEC [23], EEHC [24], DDEEC [25], EDDEEC [26], BEENISH [27], TSEP [28] and P-SEP [29], TEDRP [19] are discussed in Table 1. The corresponding research gaps of the aforementioned protocols are also reported. ...
... The eq. (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22) in case of IDHR and eq. (17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28) in case of MEEC are computed for CH selection. However, the computational complexity contributed by aforementioned equations is negligible. ...
Article
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In this paper, Improved Dual Hop Routing protocol (IDHR) and Multiple data sink-based Energy Efficient Cluster-based routing protocol (MEEC) are proposed. The Cluster Head (CH) selection in IDHR and MEEC is done by incorporating node density parameter along with other parameters, namely energy and distance between the node and the sink. In MEEC, multiple data sinks are employed to pact with the burden on the relaying nodes involved in data forwarding. The node density factor proves to be adherent for energy preservation of nodes by abating the average communication distance between the nodes and respective CH. The employment of multiple data sinks in MEEC avoids any dual hop communication between CHs and sink, which in turn alleviates hot-spot problem and ameliorates network longevity. As evident from the simulation results, IDHR and MEEC individually outperform competitive protocols, namely SEECP, DRESEP and TEDRP with respect to various performance metrics. Furthermore, the performance comparison of MEEC and IDHR is investigated to limelight the essence of employing multiple data sinks for a network.
... So this paper mainly discusses the energy heterogeneity of the sensor nodes that have varying levels of energy resources in HWSN. e stable Election Protocol (TSEP) algorithm [6] is also one of typical Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. It is supposed that the network contains three different types of sensor nodes that are normal node, advance node, and supernode. ...
... e energy efficient clustering scheme for prolonging the lifetime of WSN [18] considers how to deal with the processing problem of the isolated node. e reshold-Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP) algorithm [6] is also an improved algorithm based on the SEP method. TSEP algorithm adds supernodes to the network. ...
Article
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In heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are randomly distributed in some regions. In some applications, they may be randomly distributed in different regions. Besides, nodes with the same type have almost the same probability to be selected as cluster head. The cluster head will consume much more energy to receive and transmit data than the other nodes. If nodes with little residual energy have been elected as cluster heads, it will affect the efficiency of the network due to its early death. An improved energy-efficient routing protocol is proposed for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Firstly, it supposes that the different types of nodes are distributed in different zones. Secondly, by improving the threshold, nodes with large residual energy have a greater possibility of becoming cluster heads. In the end, it designs a mixed data transmission method. The cluster heads of supper nodes and advance nodes directly transmit data to the base station. The normal nodes adopt single hops and multiple hops mixed methods to transmit data. This can minimize the energy of the communication from cluster head to base station. Simulation results show that this algorithm has achieved a longer lifetime for the wireless sensor network than stable election protocol and threshold-sensitive stable election protocol algorithm.
... TSEP [12] combines the features of ESEP and TEEN protocols. TSEP is also a reactive routing protocol and it has three different levels of energies. ...
... Advantages of TSEP:  TSEP [12] combines the best features of ESEP and TEEN protocols.  The performance of TSEP is better than LEACH, SEP, ESEP and TEEN protocols. ...
... The threshold-sensitive stable election protocol (TSEP) which is proposed in [14] that is threshold-based routing protocol uses threshold approach for the cluster-head selection. The TSEP is reactive fashion routing protocol where the transmission energy consumption is controlled by the introduction of the three-level based threshold of heterogeneity. ...
... The equation of probability (14) showing the total residual energy for the nodes. Whereas the equation (15) is calculating the average distance between the cluster members and the cluster head. ...
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The threshold based clustering schemes are a new era of clustering techniques. The threshold based clustering scheme offers a process of optimal cluster formations. The optimal utilization of the energy by using threshold-based clustering scheme network lifetime by process of making clusters. The outset of optimal threshold based clustering is new research area in heterogeneous routing protocols. This study presents the review of the threshold based clustering schemes used in various routing protocols such as soft threshold, hard threshold, hierarchical clustering, two-level threshold and three level threshold schemes. The concept threshold based energy efficient routing schemes provide a variety of routing algorithms. The characteristics and properties of widely known threshold based scheme clustering protocols are compared and scrutinized by several attributes and aspects. Furthermore, challenges and discussion on possible future research areas for threshold based clustering schemes presented in this paper. Moreover, this paper discusses and presents future research, challenges, and issues for threshold based clustering the scheme based routing algorithms for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.
... Traditional protocols developed for WSN will not provide a strong platform to M-IoT; therefore a novel approach is required to cater present need. In previous work on WSN [12], areas are monitored on the basis of queries. Queries-based applications are the most prominent part of the M-IoT. ...
... That is why WSN is known as the backbone of IoT. WSN has gained a lot of attention and has been used in many fields such as underwater monitoring, civil engineering, wildlife, health care, surveillance, etc. Various techniques are developed [12,[14][15][16] Along with various methods mentioned above, other technologies such as cloud computing are also assisting in handling the data processing. ...
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Various heterogeneous devices or objects will be integrated for transparent and seamless communication under the umbrella of Internet of things (IoT). This would facilitate the open access of data for the growth of various digital services. Building a general framework of IoT is a complex task because of the heterogeneity in devices, technologies, platforms and services operating in the same system. In this paper, we mainly focus on the framework for Big Data analytics in Smart City applications, which being a broad category specifies the different domains for each application. IoT is intended to support the vision of Smart City, where advance technologies will be used for communication to improve the quality of life of citizens. A novel approach is proposed in this paper to enhance energy conservation and reduce the delay in Big Data gathering at tiny sensor nodes used in IoT framework. To implement the Smart City scenario in terms of Big Data in IoT, an efficient (optimized in quality of service) wireless sensor network (WSN) is required where communication of nodes is energy efficient. Thus, a new protocol, QoS-IoT(quality of service enabled IoT), is proposed on the top layer of the proposed architecture (the five-layer architecture consists of technology, data source, data management, application and utility programs) which is validated over the traditional protocols.
... Above-discussed protocols worked for proactive applications, however, the protocols TSEP [40], DRESEP [41], SEECP [42] and TEDRP [43] were developed to work for reactive applications viz. forest fire detection, early detection of volcanic eruptions, etc. DRESEP, SEECP and TEDRP suffered from the Hot-Spot problem due to dual hop inter-cluster communication. ...
... The advanced nodes which have higher energy, are chosen as cluster leaders. Threshold sensitive stable election protocol (TSEP) in [16] improves on SEP by separating nodes into three energy levels and selecting the cluster head depending on a threshold. Modified LEACH (MODLEACH) in [17] provides a threshold-based cluster head replacement scheme. ...
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Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) can gather multi-media events such as road traffic accidents, object monitoring, and scalar data. Additionally, multimedia applications have the potential to generate substantial bandwidth congestion leading to greater energy usage. Researchers in WMSNs are constantly interested in designing and developing energy-efficient routing protocols. Numerous clustering routing protocols have been developed in recent years to overcome the limitation of consuming less energy and prolonging the lifetime of sensor nodes in homogeneous and heterogeneous WMSNs. Existing approaches depend on single-hop communication, in which sensor nodes consume more energy and die faster. Inter-communication nodes can play a more important role in reducing energy by transmitting sensing data in a multi-hop fashion to the base station. In this paper, an Energy-Efficient Multipath Clustering with Load balancing routing protocol for WMSNs (EEMCL) was proposed to minimize the energy consumption and prolong the network lifetime. Clustering-based routing with multi-hop would be used to implement the proposed protocol. To analyze and investigate the performance of the proposed protocol, a simulation model utilizing the MATLAB program is used. The simulation results show that the improvement rate for the proposed protocol is 75% when compared with modified-low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (MODLEACH), and 65% when compared with energy-efficient multistage routing protocol (EE-MRP) in terms of the number of alive nodes and in terms of residual energy of normal sensor nodes, the improvement rate for the proposed protocol is 86% when compared with MODLEACH, and 67% when compared with EE-MRP.
... Therefore, it is important to maximize the battery life of the sensor nodes. The first step is to fully understand the energy source in wireless sensor networks [12]. In this paper, an example is given to discuss the energy consumption of each hardware unit in the typical sensor node. ...
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This research article investigates effective energy protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). The newly proposed taxonomic classification and comparison provides the following protocol categories: latency and efficient routing based on energy and hop selection in network and its architecture, communication sensor network, networking structure, procedure functioning, sending and receiving round mode, and route setting. This research work has examined each class to discuss and compare the different parameters of its representative routing protocols (mechanisms, advantages, disadvantages) based on the energy efficient rate along with delivery delay and network time. The simulation results on the NS-simulator of various protocols show that, the routing task has to be built upon different intelligent technologies to improve the network life and ensures better sensory area coverage.
... The threshold-sensitive energy-efficient sensor network (TEEN) protocol [16], threshold-sensitive stable election protocol (TSEP) [17], a highly efficient adaptive periodic threshold-sensitive energy network (APTEEN) [18], powerefficient gathering in sensor information system (PEGASIS) [19] whereas hybrid energy-efficient distributing (HEED) clustering techniques are all used to improve the network's efficiency [20]. Additionally, a substantial amount of work has been done to modify the clustering algorithms in order to increase their efficiency while decreasing their energy consumption. ...
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The wireless sensor network's (WSNs) lifetime is mainly dependent on the RE of the sensor nodes (SeN). In recent years, energy minimization in a WSN has been a prominent research topic, and numerous solutions have been proposed. This research focuses on the energy minimization of the SeNs where firstly, K-medoid clustering algorithm is applied to create clusters. Second, a weighted cluster head selection technique is used to choose a cluster head (CH) by integrating three independent weights associated with an SeN: energy, distance from the centroid, and distance from the sink node (SN). According to the energy level and distance from the SN and cluster's centre, each node is assigned a constant weight. The simulation results are compared to existing methodologies, and the results show that the suggested network's lifetime enhances.
... TSEP is another reactive protocol. TSEP [26] also uses node heterogeneity. Three different level of energy is defined for the node. ...
Article
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The way by which we select a cluster head critically affects the overall futuristic structure in the network. Cluster head wastes more energy for long distance transmission in the network. Sometimes, due to incomplete information of neighbor nodes, a proper cluster head is not selected and deplete energy quickly. This paper, presents a clustering protocol (NSMTSEP) based on neighbor support. Support of the neighbor node is used to calculate the threshold. Neighbor nodes are labeled based on dynamically changing parameters. The total energetic value of different nodes, cluster heads degree, the summative information of distances of member nodes, etc. is dynamically changing parameters. The label of a node is used to calculate the weight of that particular node. Weight is finally used to formulate equations for threshold calculation. The fundamental target is to increase the stable time, throughput, and network lifespan by reducing the cost incurred in intra-cluster communication. Neighbor supported labeled method is suitable for increasing longevity in the network. NSMTSEP upgrades stability by 8.6%, 36.9% as compared to enhanced threshold sensitive stable election protocol (ETSSEP) and threshold sensitive stable election protocol (TSEP). NSMTSEP is three times more stable than stable election protocol (SEP) and low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy protocol (LEACH). Improvement in the lifespan of NSMTSEP is recorded by 11.98%, 3.43% and 24.9% over ETSSEP, TSEP, and LEACH respectively whereas more than twice in comparison with SEP. The throughput enhanced by 32.2% and 55.7% respectively over TSEP and LEACH, twice over SEP and ETSSEP respectively.
... T-SEP [15] is also one of proactive protocols that uses three different levels of heterogeneity where nodes are classed into normal, intermediate and advanced. Moreover, the probabilities of being CH is the same as E-SEP. ...
... T-SEP is also one of proactive protocols that uses three different levels of heterogeneity where nodes are classed into normal, intermediate and advanced (Kashaf, Javaid, Khan, & Khan, 2012). Moreover, the probabilities of being CH is the same as E-SEP. ...
Chapter
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Since the appearance of WSN, the energy efficiency has been widely considered as a critical issue due to the limited battery-powered nodes. In this regard, communication process is the most energy demanding in sensor nodes. Subsequently, using energy-aware routing protocols in order to decrease the communications costs as much as possible and increase the network lifetime is of paramount importance. In this chapter, we have mainly focused on the most recent-based clustered routing algorithms for heterogeneous WSNs, namely Selected Election Protocol (SEP), and Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol (DEEC). In addition, we have proposed an efficient clustered routing protocol based on Zonal SEP algorithm. Indeed, we have evaluated the performance of the proposed protocol according to different scenarios in order to guarantee the best distribution of heterogeneous nodes in the network. The results have shown that the proposed clustered routing approach outperforms the existed Z-SEP protocol in terms of energy efficiency and stability.
... (1) Number of alive SNs (N alive ): when the SNs have more than zero energy, then SNs are counted as alive SNs. e total number of alive SNs is counted as alive after finishing the simulation time [38]. node's expiry [39]. ...
Article
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In recent years, Internet of Things (IoT)-based constrained wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been observed with radical developments. The aligned phenomenon such as maximizing resource utilization and the delivery of efficient services is the need of the hour to suffice for the purpose of seamless connectivity. Typically, IoT devices have limited battery life and are deployed in remote areas. As a result, limited battery life limits the use of networks in some situations. To develop energy-efficient techniques for the IoT requires innovative ideas where the current techniques of using WSNs cannot directly apply to the IoT due to protocol issues, SLAs (service level agreements), scalability issues, and complexity levels. To overcome these issues, this article proposes an Enhanced Multitier Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol integrated with the Internet of Things (EMEECP-IOT) based on the heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSN) technique. The proposed approach has been compared with the current and standard protocols with respect to the parameters such as network stability, packets received, average throughput, standard deviation (SD), and residual energy. The simulation results show significantly better performance of the proposed EMEECP-IoT-based HWSN technique than the existing technique. Extensive performance factors show that the proposed EMEECP-IOT extends the network lifetime by 35% and decreases the network’s energy consumption by 21%. This proposed approach can be applied to save energy and enhance network lifetime for WSN and IoT-oriented applications.
... In literature, many protocols are proposed on the basis of hierarchy to provide a solution for scalability. Some of these protocols are ZSEP/LEACH/SEP [28] and TSEP [29]. Hierarchical and multihop communication, protocols provide a solution to the scalability but this issue in convergence to the IoT is not addressed. ...
Article
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Large number of services and heterogeneity of the objects have made Internet of Things (IoT) a complex paradigm. It is necessary to placate the requirements of quality of service metrics for IoT model of urban development. Rapid delivery and continuation of services to the customers without delay, is first and foremost requisite. Applications of IoT, require service centered IoT model which should be stable, scalable, energy efficient and re-configurable. This paper, proposes a service oriented cross layer solution for IoT–QoS architecture. In the three layer model, QoS module at the application layer exploits the optimization by exhausting the acquaintance of each component. Network layer deals with the issues of transmission of packets in energy efficient manner where stability plays a crucial role for the heterogeneous objects. Resources are allocated and reallocated to the requested services in optimal way at sensing layer. The proposed IoT–QoS model for urban development applications is capable of optimizing the traditional methods and encases the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption.
... Therefore, three levels of energy heterogeneity can control energy dissipation more smoothly than two levels of energy heterogeneity. Threshold Sensitive SEP (TSEP) [21] is a reactive protocol that uses three levels of heterogeneity (i.e., normal node, advanced node and super node), where the super nodes contain much higher initial energy than the advanced nodes. However, TSEP cannot save energy efficiently to guarantee the balanced distribution of load. ...
Article
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Sensing technology has undergone a revolution as a result of technological advancements, where the wireless sensor network (WSN) is considered as a major research area in recent times. WSN is made up of battery-powered multiple sensor nodes with limited energy, which eventually encourage the researchers in designing an energy efficient routing protocol to prolong the network lifetime. Hierarchical routing protocols can play an important role to improve the network’s energy efficiency utilizing the threshold-based cluster head (CH) selection techniques. In this article, a cluster based proactive routing protocol named as Distance and Energy Aware Stable Election Routing Protocol (DE-SEP) is proposed to ensure optimum energy conservation. Here, both the energy and distance criteria are incorporated in CH selection to give priority for comparatively higher energy nodes and nearby nodes from base station (BS) to be selected as CH. Moreover, the proposed protocol imposes a limit on the number of CHs so that an optimum number of CHs can be utilized to avoid unnecessary cluster formation and reduce energy consumption. Simulation results show that DE-SEP outperforms the existing baseline protocols like P-SEP, M-SEP and SEP in terms of various performance matrices such as network lifetime, stability period, half lifetime, throughput, and normalized residual energy. In particular, the performance of DE-SEP protocol in terms of normalized residual energy is increased by a maximum of 5%, 41% and 41% in comparison to P-SEP, M-SEP and SEP respectively.
... Considering d 0 as a threshold distance, if the data is to be transmitted to a distance d < d 0 , the free space model of propagation is adopted, whereas if d > d 0 , the multipath fading model of propagation is adopted [33]. Accordingly, (1) can be modified using (3) and (4). ...
Article
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Wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises of numerous sensors deployed either directly or randomly in the region of interest. Due to the limited power of the sensors, these networks are energy-constrained and thus need efficient power utilisation. Efficient clustering and cluster head (CH) selection ensures balanced energy distribution to the sensors within the WSN and hence prolong the network lifetime. This study proposes the method for evaluating the threshold for the CH selection after each round, which increases the network lifetime and throughput significantly. The threshold for CH selection is modified considering the normalised first-order and second-order statistical parameters, such as mean average low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (AvgLEACH) and variance (VarLEACH) of the overall network energy. These methods have been formulated after studying the effect of the number of working nodes in each round on the threshold value selection. Apart from including energy parameter to the threshold equation, the methods of VarLEACH and AvgLEACH are augmented with a residual energy parameter that is local to the nodes and named as VarRLEACH and AvgRLEACH. The simulation results comparing all the methods suggest that the proposed method AvgRLEACH outperforms LEACH by a factor of 1.5 in delivering data to the base station and outlives the network driven by LEACH protocol by 30–40%.
Chapter
Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a cost-effective networking solution for information updating in the coverage radius or in the sensing region. To record a real time event, large number of sensor nodes (SNs) need to be arranged systematically, such that information collection is possible for longer span of time. But, the hurdle faced by WSN is the limited resources of SNs. Hence, there is high demand to design and implement an energy efficient scheme to prolong the operational lifetime of WSN. Clustering based routing is the most suitable approach to support for load balancing, fault tolerance, and reliable communication to prolong performance parameters of WSN. These performance parameters are achieved at the cost of reduced lifetime of cluster head (CH). Inappropriate CH election may lead to more energy dissipation, overburden the CHs and thus degrades the network lifetime. So, there should be an appropriate selection of CHs using efficient routing algorithms to prolong the lifespan of network. To overcome this problem, many researchers make use of optimization algorithms for decision making of CH selection in WSN. This paper illustrates a survey of clustering hierarchical routing protocols along with clustering protocols based on optimization algorithms with possible future directions.
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a virtual layer in the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). It inter-relates information associated with the physical domain to the IoT drove computational systems. WSN provides ubiquitous access to location, the status of different entities of the environment, and data acquisition for long-term IoT monitoring. Since energy is a major constraint in the design process of a WSN, recent advances have led to project various energy-efficient protocols. Routing of data involves energy expenditure in considerable amount. In recent times, various heuristic clustering protocols have been discussed to solve the purpose. This article is an improvement of the existing Stable Election Protocol (SEP) that implements a threshold-based cluster head selection for a heterogeneous network. The threshold maintains uniform energy distribution between member and cluster head nodes. The sensor nodes are also categorized into three different types called normal, intermediate and advanced depending on the initial energy supply to distribute the network load evenly. The simulation result shows that the proposed scheme outperforms SEP and DEEC protocols with an improvement of 300% in network lifetime and 56% in throughput.
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One of the main constraints in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the energy consumption. To mitigate this limitation and to prolong network life-time, stability period and throughput, this paper proposes new cluster-heads selection protocols, they based on Stable Election Protocol (SEP) and Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC). We first propose Enhanced Zonal-SEP (EZSEP) and Zonal Threshold-DEEC (ZTDEEC) protocols, the proposed protocols are based on dividing the network field into certain zones, this will improve the connectivity of the far normal nodes with the base station (BS). Several evaluation metrics are used to compare between the proposed protocols and the conventional ZSEP and TDEEC protocols such as: network stability, instability period, life-time and throughput. Considering the same total initial energy, the obtained results show that the proposed EZSEP slightly outperforms the conventional ZSEP in terms of network stability, instability period and life-time, it achieves enormous improvements in terms of throughput as more nodes can transmit direct to BS. On the other hand, the proposed ZTDEEC provides huge improvements in terms of all the evaluation metrics mentioned above. To further improve the network life-time and network throughput, we propose Threshold-based EZSEP (TE-ZSEP) and Enhanced-ZTDEEC (EZ-TDEEC) protocols, in these two new protocols we redefine the threshold formula used in EZSEP and ZTDEEC to consider both weighted energy and weighted distance parameters. By combining the idea of dividing the network field into certain zones and the new threshold formula, the proposed TE-ZSEP and EZ-TDEEC protocols can effectively improve the energy consumption in heterogeneous WSN and prolong its life-time as proved by the obtained results.
Chapter
LEACH is a clustering routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. This protocol frequently forms clusters of nodes and selects one of the cluster members as the cluster head. The two-tier structure of LEACH divides the network into two layers: (1) cluster members, which collect raw data from the environment and (2) cluster heads, which receive the collected data from cluster-members, fuse the received data and transmit that to the base station. LEACH reduces the energy consumption of nodes since the most energy-consuming task, which is the long-distance transmission to the base station takes place only in cluster heads. LEACH selects the cluster heads uniformly using a probabilistic calculation. However, there are other parameters that affect the energy consumption of nodes. As a result, the selected nodes may not be that strong to handle the high workload of a cluster head; their energy will be depleted very soon; the network lifetime and throughput decline. To overcome this tradeoff, in this paper, we propose EA-LEACH (Energy Aware LEACH), a new clustering routing protocol, which selects cluster heads using their residual energies. This method provides an appropriate selection of cluster heads that are strong enough to handle the expected workload of cluster heads to reach high throughput. We validated the effectiveness and efficiency of our protocol through simulations. The analysis of our results shows that the cluster heads selected by our proposed protocol prolong the network lifetime by 60% in comparison to those selected by LEACH. As a result, the nodes transmit significantly more amount of data during their lifetime.
Chapter
Communication has its roots right from the beginning of the human race. As humans evolved the need for communication increased tremendously and as well the technology of communication progressed. The era of communication from analog to digital has further advanced to wireless with Sensor networks occupying the most of area in communication nowadays. Communication community is highly depending upon wireless sensor networks and they are the key technology in communications. Even though these networks are widely used they are is still need for research such that its full features and the advantages can be fully utilized in the field of communication. The basic concern of these networks is energy and security as the energy is limited and the networks are wireless. Hence more algorithms have been developed for the energy efficiency. The popular among these networks is the Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) algorithm. In this paper, a modification of MODLEACH with cluster based routing is developed as Modified LEACH(MODLEACH) in which the energy efficiency is increased considerably. The method of alternate cluster head is introduced by allotting threshold power levels. The results of this paper are studied along with LEACH and found to be appreciably good. The network metrics of cluster head formation, energy efficiency throughput and network life. An analysis is done with hard and soft threshold levels of the cluster head are studied.
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Stable Election Protocol based on LEACH focused on prolonging the stable region - the period before the death of the first node - of the network by taking into consideration a certain level of heterogeneity. We propose an energy aware, dual cluster head approach which improves on SEP in prolonging the stable region. The approach considers the current energy levels of nodes in the election of cluster heads and each cluster has two cluster heads instead of one each doing a different job. We also study the effect of introducing dual sink nodes into the network. Comparing the performance of the proposed approach with that of traditional protocols like LEACH, SEP, I-LEACH, etc., we found that our approach improves on SEP and other approaches by prolonging the stable region of the network.
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Recent developments in low-power communication and signal processing technologies have led to the extensive implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In a WSN environment, cluster formation and cluster head (CH) selection consume significant energy. Typically, the CH is chosen probabilistically, without considering the real-time factors such as the remaining energy, number of clusters, distance, location, and number of functional nodes to boost network lifetime. Based on the real-time issues, different strategies must be incorporated to design a generic protocol suited for applications such as environment and health monitoring, animal tracking, and home automation. Elementary protocols such as LEACH and centralized-LEACH are well proven, but gradually limitations evolved due to increasing desire and need for proper modification over time. Since the selection of CHs has always been an important criterion for clustered networks, this paper overviews the modifications in the threshold value of CH selection in the network. With the evolution of bio-inspired algorithms, the CH selection has also been enhanced considering the behavior of the network. This paper includes a brief description of LEACH-based and bio-inspired protocols, their pros and cons, assumptions, and the criteria of CH selection. Finally, the performance factors such as longevity, scalability, and packet delivery ratio of various protocols are compared and discussed.
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Over the last few epochs, researchers have shown an emergent interest in the domain of sensor networking due to an increasing number of machine-driven industries and battlefield-associated applications. Wireless Sensor Networks comprises thousands or even more number of unsystematically placed energy-deficient sensor units. These sensors are basically deployed for varied purposes mainly aimed to transfer the data from the sensor fields to the distant sink or base station (BS). This operation demands excessive amount of energy. Spreading WSN lifetime and minimizing energy costs are preeminent colossal tasks in the field of sensor networking. Developing a desired energy equivalent routing mechanism is the core consideration while dealing with WSNs. In applied scenarios, almost all types of WSNs are heterogeneous in nature or are intended to become heterogeneous after a slight life span. Essentially, efficiency of any protocol changes with varied heterogeneity environments. This is the reason why there is an absolute need for testing of various routing protocols underling variable heterogeneous constraints to cope with the hands-on problems. The following paper reviewed the impact of different clustering patterns based on standard Heterogeneous WSNs. The analysis shows the adaptable behavior of various protocols with altering environment. The main aim here is to present a basic consideration in designing clustering algorithms.
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In the past two decades, network clustering has been proven as efficient approach for data collection and routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It provides several advantages over other methods in terms of energy efficiency, scalability, even energy distribution, etc. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes energy resources, processing power, and communication range, cluster-based protocols accommodate the network’s operation with these constraints. Several survey papers present and compare many clustering algorithms from various perspectives. However, most of these surveys either are outdated or have limited scope. This paper provides a comprehensive review of clustering algorithms where the new ideas and concepts proposed in each phase of the clustering process are extensively studied. Three topics are discussed in this review. First, we present the objectives, characteristics and challenges of clustering algorithms. Second, the cluster-head selection methods for different types of WSNs are extensively studied. Third, this review presents a detailed description of newly proposed methods to handle energy heterogeneity, energy harvesting, fault-tolerance, scalability, mobility and data correlation in WSNs. Furthermore, the protocols taxonomy in each phase is discussed to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Finally, a set of criteria is presented to simplify the comparison and identify each protocol’s pros and cons. This review presents a comprehensive introduction and can be a useful guidance for new researchers in this field. Also, it will help system designers to identify alternative solutions for selecting an appropriate method in each phase of the clustering process.
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With the explosion of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the advent of the edge computing paradigm, and the rise of intelligent applications for smart infrastructure surveillance, in-network data management is gaining a lot of research attention these days. The challenge lies in accommodating multiple application microservices with varying Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to share the sensing infrastructure for better resource utilization. In this work, we propose a novel data collection framework, CaDGen (Context-aware Data Generation) for such a shared IoT infrastructure that enables integrated data filtration and forwarding towards minimizing the resource consumption footprint for the IoT infrastructure. The proposed filtration mechanism utilizes the contextual information associated with the running application for determining the relevance of the data. Whereas the proposed forwarding policy aims to satisfy the diverse QoS requirements for the running applications by selecting the suitable next-hop forwarder based on the microservices distribution across different edge devices. A thorough performance evaluation of CaDGen through a testbed implementation as well as a simulation study for diverse setups reveals promising results concerning network resource utilization, scalability, energy conservation, and distribution of computation for optimal service provisioning. It is observed that the CaDGen can achieve nearly 35% reduction in the generated data for a moderately dynamic scenario without compromising on the data quality.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are generally deployed with low-cost devices that have low power consumption and small-size sensor nodes. They can be used in several monitoring and control applications such as: health, agriculture, and environment. With the advent of Industry 4.0 and Artificial Intelligence (AI), WSNs attracted many industrial applications and specific implementation scenarios. In general, the sensor nodes compromising of WSNs consume vast energy during tracking and monitoring. This poses a challenge especially that most of WSNs are battery-operated and have very limited energy sources. Therefore, it is important to optimize power consumption and prolong the lifetime of WSNs. Many protocols have been proposed with emphasis on data forwarding and routing. These protocols, however, have not been designed to address interference and transmissions issues, such as communication link instability and packet drops. In addition, a quiet substantial amount of energy would be consumed during transmission, which leads to a degradation in network performance. In this paper, an effective solution is proposed based on Spiral Clustering Based on Selective Activation Protocol (SCSAP). The objective is to enhance energy consumption and improve network performance, which makes it a good candidate to several Industrial tailored WSNs. In this solution, the network nodes are classified into two types; super and normal. Super nodes have a significant power source and are utilized to construct clusters and act as Cluster Heads (CHs). They have pre-defined locations with an optimized number of nodes selected for the best coverage that is determined in the Stable Election Protocol (SEP). As a result, the power consumption is reduced in the dynamic formatting of clusters. Normal nodes, on the other hand, are static. They have limited power and are connected to the super nodes. Normal nodes operate in two modes: active and sleep. In the active mode, they send data to the CHs and the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is used to guarantee that the transmitted data are correctly received by the other nodes and that the power consumption of re-transmission is largely reduced. The simulation results of SCSAP have shown 40% enhancement of network lifetime over the Threshold-sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP). They have also shown that SCASP’s remaining power has descended slower than the Low-energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) protocol.
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The most crucial design constraint on the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is energy dissipation. The inefficient data collection by the resource constraint sensors becomes a major roadblock in energy preservation to achieve network longevity. The energy of nodes has to be utilized in an efficient manner which helps in increasing the longevity of WSNs. Clustering is a technique that can utilize the energy of the sensors efficiently by maintaining load balancing among the sensors for increasing the lifetime and scalability of the networks. In this paper, the energy consumption of the network is improved by considering the Genetic Algorithm evolutionary computing technique. The proposed OptiGACHS protocol describes the improved cluster head (CH) selection procedure by incorporating criteria of distance, density, energy, and heterogeneous node’s capability for developing fitness function. The OptiGACHS protocol operates with single, multiple static, and multiple movable sinks to have an impartial comparative examination. Multiple movable sinks are proposed to shorten transmission distance between the sink and CH and also pact with the hot-spot problem. A deployment strategy for nodes is also discussed for energy and distance optimization during network operation. It is observed from simulations that the proposed OptiGACHS protocol outperforms existing protocols.
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Energy optimization is one of the open issues in wireless sensor networks. Most of the work focuses on clustering techniques to reduce the energy consumption and enhancement of stability period. In this paper we have proposed a novel region based routing protocol for the rise in stability duration and lifetime improvement. The whole sensing area is divided among nine regions and dedicated to different variety of nodes. Dynamically changing cluster head election probability has been exploited for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. In this paper, cluster head selection is based on residual energy of nodes, region in which the node is residing and minimum number of clusters per round. The proposed protocol is simulated using MATLAB and the results establish that it performs better than the ETSSEP in terms of stability period, throughput and lifetime. Proposed routing protocol frames more stable routing environment than the ETSSEP. It is also evident from the results that stability is increased by 35.03% in comparison to ETSSEP. Lifetime and throughput have also been improved by 23.16% (for 50% live node) and 25.58% respectively.
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In this article, we demonstrate the ability to recognize hand gestures in a noncontact wireless fashion using only incoherent light signals reflected from a human subject. Fundamentally distinguished from radar, lidar, and camera-based sensing systems, this sensing modality uses only a low-cost light source (e.g., LED) and a sensor (e.g., photodetector). The lightwave-based gesture recognition system identifies different gestures from the variations in light intensity reflected from the subject’s hand within a short (20–35 cm) range. As users perform different gestures, scattered light forms unique, statistically repeatable, time-domain signatures. These signatures can be learned by repeated sampling to obtain the training model against which unknown gesture signals are tested and categorized. These time-domain variations of the lightwave signals reflected from hand are denoised, standardized, and then classified by using machine learning classification tools such as $K$ -nearest neighbors and support vector machine. Performance evaluations have been conducted with eight gestures, five subjects, different distances and lighting conditions, and visible and infrared light sources. The results demonstrate the best hand gesture recognition performance of infrared sensing at 20 cm with an average of 96% accuracy. The developed gesture recognition system is low-cost, effective, and noncontact technology for numerous human–computer interaction applications.
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The prominent criteria for the Wireless Sensor Network are a lifetime of the network, stability, and the energy parameter. To enhance these crucial parameters, the paper introduces Routing Algorithms for hybrid nodes in sensor networks ‘RA-HNW’ protocol having four forms of sensor nodes varying in energy and capacities to improve the stability and lifespan of the sensor networks. The simulations for the proposed RA-HNW is simulated in MATLAB 2018b. It is observed that using the functionalities and capabilities of the different types of nodes taken in the work, the stability of the proposed schema increases by 49.12% as compared to the DCHRP4, twice and thrice as compared to ETSSEP, TSEP, and SEP. The lifetime criteria also upgrade by 10.49% over DCHRP4 with level four heterogeneity, 15.85% over DCHRP, 19.65% over ETSSEP, and about 64.87% over TSEP. The proposed RA-HNW methodology is well suited for working in the fixed sink environment.
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Full-text available
The prominent criteria for the Wireless Sensor Network are a lifetime of the network, stability, and the energy parameter. To enhance these crucial parameters, the paper introduces Routing Algorithms for hybrid nodes in sensor networks ‘RA-HNW’ protocol having four forms of sensor nodes varying in energy and capacities to improve the stability and lifespan of the sensor networks. The simulations for the proposed RA-HNW is simulated in MATLAB 2018b. It is observed that using the functionalities and capabilities of the different types of nodes taken in the work, the stability of the proposed schema increases by 49.12% as compared to the DCHRP4, twice and thrice as compared to ETSSEP, TSEP, and SEP. The lifetime criteria also upgrade by 10.49% over DCHRP4 with level four heterogeneity, 15.85% over DCHRP, 19.65% over ETSSEP, and about 64.87% over TSEP. The proposed RA-HNW methodology is well suited for working in the fixed sink environment.
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While wireless sensor networks are increasingly equipped to handle more complex functions, in-network processing may require these battery powered sensors to judiciously use their constrained energy to prolong the effective network life time especially in a heterogeneous settings. Clustered techniques have since been employed to optimise energy consumption in this energy constrained wireless sensor networks. We propose an Enhanced-SEP clustering algorithm in a three-tier node scenario to prolong the effective network life-time. Simulation results shows that the Enhanced-SEP achieves better performance in this respect, compared to other existing clustering algorithms in both heterogeneous and homogenous environments.
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We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some of the nodes become cluster heads, aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the sink. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with additional energy resources—this is a source of heterogeneity which may result from the initial setting or as the operation of the network evolves. We also assume that the sensors are randomly (uniformly) distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. We show that the behavior of such sensor networks becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. Classical clustering protocols assume that all the nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they can not take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. We propose SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to the remaining energy in each node. We show by simulation that SEP always prolongs the stability period compared to (and that the average throughput is greater than) the one obtained using current clustering protocols. We conclude by studying the sensitivity of our SEP protocol to heterogeneity parameters capturing energy imbalance in the network. We found that SEP yields longer stability region for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.
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A multi-hop network of wireless sensors can be used to gather spatio-temporal samples of a physical phenomenon and transmit these samples to a processing center. This paper addresses the important issue of minimizing the number of transmissions required to gather one sample from each sensor. The technique used to minimize communication costs combines analytical results from stochastic geometry with a distributed, randomized algorithm for generating clusters of sensors. The minimum communication energy achieved by this approach is significantly lower than the energy costs incurred in non-clustered networks and in clustered networks produced by such algorithms as the Max–Min d-cluster algorithm.
Conference Paper
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A wireless network consisting of a large number of small sensors with low-power transceivers can be an effective tool for gathering data in a variety of environments. The data collected by each sensor is communicated through the network to a single processing center that uses all reported data to determine characteristics of the environment or detect an event. The communication or message passing process must be designed to conserve the limited energy resources of the sensors. Clustering sensors into groups, so that sensors communicate information only to clusterheads and then the clusterheads communicate the aggregated information to the processing center, may save energy. In this paper, we propose a distributed, randomized clustering algorithm to organize the sensors in a wireless sensor network into clusters. We then extend this algorithm to generate a hierarchy of clusterheads and observe that the energy savings increase with the number of levels in the hierarchy. Results in stochastic geometry are used to derive solutions for the values of parameters of our algorithm that minimize the total energy spent in the network when all sensors report data through the clusterheads to the processing center.
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Networking together hundreds or thousands of cheap microsensor nodes allows users to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. These networks require robust wireless communication protocols that are energy efficient and provide low latency. We develop and analyze low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality. LEACH includes a new, distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large numbers of nodes, algorithms for adapting clusters and rotating cluster head positions to evenly distribute the energy load among all the nodes, and techniques to enable distributed signal processing to save communication resources. Our results show that LEACH can improve system lifetime by an order of magnitude compared with general-purpose multihop approaches.
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In order to prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficient protocols should be designed to adapt the characteristic of wireless sensor networks. Clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper studies the performance of clustering algorithm in saving energy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed and evaluated. In the new clustering scheme, cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of node and the average energy of network. The high initial and residual energy nodes will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the low energy nodes. Simulational results show that the clustering scheme provides longer lifetime and higher throughput than the current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Conference Paper
Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
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The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Conference Paper
This paper develops a technique for quantifying and minimizing the energy required to gather data from all sensors in a multi-hop wireless sensor network The technique combines analytical results from stochastic geometry with a distributed, randomized algorithm for generating clusters. The minimum communication energy achieved by this approach is significantly lower than the energy costs incurred in non-clustered networks and in clustered networks produced by such algorithms as the max-min d-cluster algorithm.
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Prior work in the field of packet radio networks has often assumed a simple success-if-exclusive model of successful reception. This simple model is insufficient to model interference in large dense packet radio networks accurately. In this paper we present a model that more closely approximates communication theory and the underlying physics of radio communication. Using this model we present a decentralized channel access scheme for scalable packet radio networks that is free of packet loss due to collisions and that at each hop requires no per-packet transmissions other than the single transmission used to convey the packet to the next-hop station. We also show that with a modest fraction of the radio spectrum, pessimistic assumptions about propagation resulting in maximum-possible self-interference, and an optimistic view of future signal processing capabilities that a self-organizing packet radio network may scale to millions of stations within a metro area with raw per-station rates...
Energy efficientcommunication protocol for wireless microsensor networks
  • W R Heinzelman
  • A P Chandrakasan
  • H Balakrishnan
W. R. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy efficientcommunication protocol for wireless microsensor networks," in Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-33), January 2000.
An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks
  • W R Heinzelman
  • A P Chandrakasan
  • H Balakrishnan
W. R. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan "An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 660670, October 2002
Prentice Hall Communication Engineering and Emerging Technologies Series
  • C Siva Ram Murthy
  • B Manoj
C. Siva Ram Murthy and B.S Manoj, "Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architectures and Protocols." Prentice Hall Communication Engineering and Emerging Technologies Series, 2004.