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Hope uniquely predicts objective academic achievement above intelligence, personality, and previous academic achievement

Authors:
  • Positive Psychology Research Centre

Abstract

a b s t r a c t A 3-year longitudinal study explored whether the two-dimensional model of trait hope predicted degree scores after considering intelligence, personality, and previous academic achievement. A sample of 129 respondents (52 males, 77 females) completed measures of trait hope, general intelligence, the five factor model of personality, divergent thinking, as well as objective measures of their academic performance before university ('A' level grades) and final degree scores. The findings suggest that hope uniquely pre-dicts objective academic achievement above intelligence, personality, and previous academic achieve-ment. The findings are discussed within the context of how it may be fruitful for researchers to explore how hope is related to everyday academic practice.
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Brief Report
Hope uniquely predicts objective academic achievement above intelligence,
personality, and previous academic achievement
Liz Day
a
, Katie Hanson
a
, John Maltby
b,*
, Carmel Proctor
b
, Alex Wood
c
a
Psychology Subject Group, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Crescent Campus, Sheffield S10 2BP, United Kingdom
b
School of Psychology, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
c
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
article info
Article history:
Available online 23 May 2010
Keywords:
Academic achievement
Hope
Pathways
Agency
General intelligence
Divergent thinking
Conscientiousness
abstract
A 3-year longitudinal study explored whether the two-dimensional model of trait hope predicted degree
scores after considering intelligence, personality, and previous academic achievement. A sample of 129
respondents (52 males, 77 females) completed measures of trait hope, general intelligence, the five factor
model of personality, divergent thinking, as well as objective measures of their academic performance
before university (‘A’ level grades) and final degree scores. The findings suggest that hope uniquely pre-
dicts objective academic achievement above intelligence, personality, and previous academic achieve-
ment. The findings are discussed within the context of how it may be fruitful for researchers to
explore how hope is related to everyday academic practice.
Ó2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Trait hope has been described as a cognitive personality trait
around motivations towards goals that comprise two particular
orientations to thinking around achieving those chosen goals;
agency, which reflects an individual’s determination that those
goals can be achieved, and pathways, which reflects an individual’s
belief that successful plans and strategies can be generated, or are
available, to reach those goals (Snyder et al., 1991). Theoretically,
hope should be positively related to academic achievement be-
cause, if academic achievement is assumed to be a goal, hope is
conceptualized as creating adaptive goal-specific expectancies
and behaviors, which leads to a positive outcome of that goal. A
number of studies have supported these theoretical predictions
(e.g., Curry, Snyder, Cook, Ruby, & Rehm, 1997;Snyder et al.,
2002), however it is not clear from these studies whether: (a) the
relationship between hope and achievement is unique or simply
due to third variables, and (b) which facet of hope is responsible
for this effect.
Snyder et al. (2002) conducted a 6-year longitudinal study into
the impact of hope on academic achievement. Participants were
subdivided into high, medium, and low hope groups using the Dis-
positional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991). Hope was correlated
with mean grade point average (GPA) scores (r= .21), and led to
a higher GPA 6 years later after controlling for baseline scores.
Curry et al. (1997) compared hope scores amongst American col-
lege athletes and found that trait hope significantly predicted
end of semester GPA scores (R
2
= .08). However, it is not clear from
this research whether it was hope leading to improved academic
performance, or whether these findings were simply a reflection
of the effects of general intelligence or other personality traits such
as conscientiousness. Finally, Ciarrochi, Heaven, and Davies (2007),
Leeson, Ciarrochi, and Heaven (2008) and Rand (2009) have found
that trait hope predicted academic achievement, both when con-
sidered as part of a ‘positive thinking’ second order personality fac-
tor (alongside either optimism or self-esteem and attributional
style) or as a distinct variable (independent of measures verbal
and numerical intelligence).
This latter study brings forward a first consideration to make
when comparing hope with academic achievement. The literature
suggests that intelligence and personality variables are related to
both hope and academic achievement, thus testing the theoretical
role of hope requires demonstrating incremental variance beyond
these third variables. General intelligence is strongly related to
academic achievement. For example, Jencks (1979) reported corre-
lations between general intelligence and academic achievement
ranging from r= .40 to r= .63 for six longitudinal studies in the
USA, and Kaufman and Lichtenberger (2005) provide a review of
key papers examining general intelligence and school attainment
and achievement and conclude that the average correlation be-
tween general intelligence and a number of school indicators is
around r= .50. In addition, there is a descriptive resemblance
between one of the hope traits, pathways (belief in the ability to
0092-6566/$ - see front matter Ó2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.05.009
*Corresponding author. Fax: +44 (0) 116 229 7196.
E-mail address: jm148@le.ac.uk (J. Maltby).
Journal of Research in Personality 44 (2010) 550–553
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Research in Personality
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jrp
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generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions), and
a specific intelligence, divergent thinking (the ability to generate
creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions). Conse-
quently, hope pathways traits may simply reflect aspects of diver-
gent thinking. Additionally, research suggests there is a significant
positive correlation between divergent thinking and academic
achievement (Feldhusen, Treffinger, Van Mondfrans, & Ferris,
1971). Given the actual and possible shared variance between
hope, academic achievement, and intelligence, be it general intelli-
gence or divergent thinking, it is not clear whether hope per se
leads to higher academic achievement, or whether more hopeful
people do better academically simply because they are more intel-
ligent. Therefore, it is important to control for both general intelli-
gence and divergent thinking when examining the relationship
between hope and academic achievement.
Regarding personality, conscientiousness has emerged as a par-
ticular predictor of academic achievement, with the other Big Five
traits implicated to a lesser degree. O’Connor and Paunonen’s
(2007) review of major studies in the area found that academic
achievement was consistently significantly correlated with consci-
entiousness (average r= .22), but inconsistently related with open-
ness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
(average rs for each trait ranged from |.05| to |.06|). Hope has also
been found to load on a conscientiousness factor (Cartwright &
Peckar, 1993). As with the intelligence variables, it is possible that
hope only appears to lead to greater academic achievement due to
more hopeful people also being more conscientious. Therefore, it is
also important to control for conscientiousness when examining
the relationship between hope and academic achievement.
A second consideration in the literature is the consideration of
which facet of hope is related to academic achievement. It seems
incongruous that, given the theoretical distinction between hope
agency and hope pathways, that previous studies look at the rela-
tionship between hope and academic achievement (Curry et al.,
1997; Snyder et al., 2002) have simply aggregated the agency
and pathways facets to a single total score. Furthermore, recent
studies have suggested that the two facets have meaningfully dif-
ferent correlates and outcomes. Day and Maltby (2005) found that
agency and pathways hope had different sized correlation with
anticipated completion of academic goals. Creamer et al. (2009)
investigated trait hope among injury survivors and found that
agency and pathways hope had different sized correlations with
a variable related to childhood trauma. Geraghty, Wood, and
Hyland (2010) showed that the hope facets can be dissociated with
both the facets predicting dropout from self-help interventions but
in opposite directions. Theoretically, agency and pathways may
have a positive impact on academic achievement, but in different
ways. First, agency may predict future higher academic achieve-
ment via a determination that academic goals can be achieved.
Second, pathways would predict future higher academic achieve-
ment via a belief that successful plans and strategies can be gener-
ated and are available to achieve academic goals.
This study aims to determine whether hope can provide incre-
mental validity in predicting future academic achievement over
general intelligence, divergent thinking, and conscientiousness, to
test theoretical predictions that trait hope uniquely predicts aca-
demic achievement. In addition, this study explores whether a dis-
tinction can be made between which of the hope facets is
responsible for this effect.
2. Method
2.1. Sample
One hundred and twenty-nine respondents (52 males, 77 fe-
males) were sampled from two university undergraduate student
cohorts in the United Kingdom. Ages ranged from 18 to 21 years
at the start of the study (M= 18.56, SD = .7). Participants were pre-
dominantly White (82.9%), with the next highest represented eth-
nicities being Asian (10.9%) and Black (3.9%). Participants
volunteered for the study after being approached for their poten-
tial participation in a first year class taught by one of the authors.
Respondents were given full disclosure about the nature of the
study and consented to being re-contacted at one subsequent time
point.
2.2. Measures
Data collection corresponded to three time points in the stu-
dents’ undergraduate degree path. The first time point was the stu-
dents’ entry points into university derived from their ‘A’ level
grades; the United Kingdom equivalent to USA college testing
scores. Students provided written permission for this to be ob-
tained from their academic records.
The second time point was during students’ first year of under-
graduate academic study. At this point the students completed the
following measures.
2.3. Hope
The Trait Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991), comprising the 4-item
Agency subscale (e.g., ‘I energetically pursue my goals’ [item 2])
and the 4-item Pathways subscale (e.g., ‘There are lots of ways
around any problem’ [item 4]). Items are scored on an 8-point Lik-
ert scale, anchors ranging from ‘1 = Definitely False’ to ‘8 = Defi-
nitely True’. Both subscales have adequate internal reliability,
with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from .70 to .84 for the Agency sub-
scale, and from .63 to .86 for the Pathways subscale (Snyder et al.,
1991).
2.4. Personality
The Five Factor Model of Personality was assessed via the 50-item
International Item Personality Pool Five Factor Personality Measure
of Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness,
and Openness to Experience (Goldberg et al., 2006). These five sub-
scales each comprise 10 items to measure the five main personality
domains. Items are scored on 5-point Likert scale, anchors ranging
from ‘1 = Very Inaccurate’ to ‘5 = Very Accurate’. Internal reliability
for the scales has been demonstrated to range from .77 to .86. Con-
vergent validity for the scales has been demonstrated through cor-
relations ranging from .85 to .92 with the NEO Personality
Inventory (Goldberg et al., 2006).
2.5. General intelligence
The Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (Raven, Raven, &
Court, 2000) was used to measure general intelligence. The ad-
vanced form of the matrices contains 48 items, presented as a set
of 12 (set I), which familiarize people with the test, and then a
set of 36 (set II) items, which can be computed to produce raw
scores to measure general intelligence. Items become increasingly
difficult as the participant progresses through set II. It is regarded
as the best psychometric measure of general intelligence (Jensen,
1998).
2.6. Divergent thinking
Divergent thinking was assessed by three 5-min tests using
Guildford’s (1967) unusual uses for three inanimate objects that
are presented as a stimulus. For this study we used three of the five
suggestions of Hudson (1967), a brick, a blanket, and a paperclip
L. Day et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 44 (2010) 550–553 551
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(with the two remaining items, a tin of boot polish and a barrel,
omitted because they were considered out of date terms). Partici-
pants were asked to list as many unusual uses for each of the ob-
jects, and divergent thinking was scored by a frequency count of
unusual uses.
The third time point was to obtain the final degree mark for
each student. Students provided written permission for this mark
to be obtained, both in their first year and after graduation. Final
degree marks were determined from students’ performance in
their second and third year of undergraduate study.
3. Results
Mean (SD) scores, internal reliability statistics for, and zero order
correlations between, the trait hope, intelligence, personality, ‘A’ le-
vel point scores, and final degree mark are documented in Table 1. All
the scales show satisfactory internal reliability statistics above the
well used criteria of
a
= .7. Among the correlations, both measures
of trait hope, ‘A’ level point scores, general intelligence, extraversion,
conscientiousness, and divergent thinking shared a significant posi-
tive correlation with final degree mark. Furthermore, both trait hope
measures shared a significant positive association with ‘A’ level
point scores, general intelligence, and divergent thinking, and a sig-
nificant negative association with neuroticism, with hope agency
additionally sharing a significant positive association with extraver-
sion. Finally it is important to note the high correlation (r= .80) be-
tween hope agency and hope pathways.
To test the hypothesis that trait hope is a unique predictor of
academic achievement a hierarchical regression analysis was con-
ducted in which final degree score served as the dependent vari-
able and each of the predictor variables were entered into the
model in the following order: (1) sex, age, ‘A’ level point scores, Ra-
ven Progressive Matrices raw scores, divergent thinking scores; (2)
the five factor personality variable scores; and (3) agency and path-
ways trait hope scores. Table 2 shows the results from the final
model with the unstandardized regression coefficient (B), stan-
dardized regression coefficients (b), t-test scores, and probability
variables for each predictor variable for the regression.
Sex, age, ‘A’ level point scores, Raven Advanced Progressive
Matrices raw scores, and divergent thinking were the first to be en-
tered into the regression equation. These variables were able to
predict final degree mark (F= 14.09, df = 5, 123, p< .001, r= .60,
r
2
= .36, adjusted r
2
= .34), with ‘A’ level point scores and Raven
Progressive Matrices raw scores demonstrating regression coeffi-
cients which reached statistical significance. Next, the five factor
personality variables were entered, and it was found to provide
an R
2
change = .10, which reached statistical significance (F
change = 4.33, df = 5, 118, p= .001, r= .67, r
2
= .46, adjusted
r
2
= .42), with conscientiousness and extraversion demonstrating
regression coefficients which reached statistical significance. Final-
ly the two hope subscales were entered, and they were found to
provide an R
2
change = .03, which reached statistical significance
(Fchange = 3.29, df = 2, 116, p= .041, r= .70, r
2
= .49, adjusted
r
2
= .44) with the pathways trait hope measure demonstrating
regression coefficients which reached statistical significance.
4. Discussion
In this study, higher scores on trait hope facets, agency and
pathways, for students in their first year of undergraduate study
both shared a significant positive relationship with final degree
mark at the end of 3 years of study. This supports the a priori pre-
diction that both hope dimensions will have a positive association
with future academic achievement. When these relationships were
controlled for general intelligence, divergent thinking, personality,
and previous academic achievement, within the regression model,
both hope measures predicted future academic achievement, with
the regression suggesting pathways hope was a distinct predictor
of academic achievement. However, there was a large degree of
overlap (r= .80) between hope agency and hope pathways, and this
correlation questions, at least for the current sample, whether
these constructs are separate. Therefore, we would suggest caution
in the interpretation of the current findings regarding the separate
hope subscales, and would suggest that the finding that both hope
measures predict future academic achievement when entered into
the regression model after controlling for the other variables in-
cluded here is the most salient finding. Therefore the findings of
the current study are unable to inform the a priori aim of exploring
whether the distinction can be made between which of the hope
Table 1
Mean (SD) scores and alpha coefficients for, and zero order correlations between, trait hope measures, Raven Progressive Matrices raw scores, divergent thinking, personality, ‘A’
level point scores, and final degree mark.
Mean (SD)
a
1234567 89 1011
1. Final degree mark 59.82 (7.6) N/A .23
**
.31
**
.52
**
.46
**
.31
**
.08 .28
**
.16 .04 .38
**
2. Hope agency 18.85 (7.7) .90 .80
**
.27
**
.21
*
.28
**
.38
**
.19
*
.07 .07 .02
3. Hope pathways 17.44 (6.9) .87 .26
**
.22
*
.22
*
.32
**
.12 .01 .07 .03
4. ‘A’ level point scores 271.16 (51.0) N/A .43
**
.20
*
.11 .19
*
.18
*
.07 .31
**
5. Raven Progressive Matrices raw scores 23.69 (7.2) .92 .49
**
.06 .07 .28
**
.05 .01
6. Divergent thinking 25.59 (12.2) .88 .06 .30
**
.19
*
.15 .02
7. Neuroticism 22.79 (7.7) .74 .05 .15 .03 .03
8. Extraversion 31.33 (7.1) .78 .09 .01 .11
9. Openness to Experience 32.63 (7.0) .72 .05 .21
*
10. Agreeableness 34.65 (7.0) .71 .16
11. Conscientiousness 32.95 (7.9) .76
*
p< .05.
**
p< .01.
Table 2
Final model for the regression analysis with final degree mark used as a dependent
variable and demographic, previous academic achievement, intelligence, personality,
and hope scales used as predictor variables.
BbtSig
Step 1 Sex 1.23 .08 1.15 .254
Age .30 .03 .39 .701
‘A’ level point scores .33 .22 2.72 .008
Raven Progressive Matrices
Raw Scores
.34 .32 3.71 .000
Divergent thinking .02 .04 .42 .675
Step 2 Neuroticism .03 .03 .37 .709
Extraversion .19 .17 2.37 .020
Openness to Experience .04 .03 .45 .652
Agreeableness .05 .05 .64 .523
Conscientiousness .28 .29 3.94 .000
Step 3 Hope – agency .16 .16 1.36 .177
Hope – pathways .30 .27 2.46 .015
552 L. Day et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 44 (2010) 550–553
Author's personal copy
facets is responsible for any effect on future academic
achievement.
The magnitude of the relationship between both aspects of
hope and future academic achievement is notable. Hunsley and
Meyer (2003) consider that an incremental validity of r= .15
should be considered ‘a reasonable contribution’ (p. 451) when
other variables are controlled. Two hope facets together explained
an R
2
of .03, which is equal to r= .17, exceeding Hunter and
Meyer’s criterion for a reasonable contribution.
Further research is now needed to detail some of the processes
that are involved in the relationship by exploring how hope is re-
lated to academic self-efficacy, academic endeavors, or academic
practice within this time period. Notwithstanding these future
considerations, the current results suggest that hope may be
important in predicting future academic achievement in tertiary
level education, when a number of alternative explanations have
been considered.
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... It is, however, less addressed among psychological factors (Ghadampour, et al., 2018;Kali Soyer & Kirikkanat, 2019). If academic achievement is assumed to be a goal, hope is an adaptive goal-specific behavior that leads to a positive outcome of those achievements (Day et al., 2010). Without hope, even talented students may fail to attain their potential levels, lower their academic expectations, and not go to college. ...
... A positive relationship was found between hope and self-efficacy, self-esteem, empowerment, and social support (Schrank et al., 2012) that may enable students to meet the increased requirements of the school environment; set appropriate goals; find the means to achieve these goals, and prepare to achieve them. In a study conducted by Day et al (2010), hope predicted objective academic achievement above intelligence, personality, and previous academic achievement. Examining the hope level among university students is more needed because, on the one hand, moving to college may trigger extended hope for better opportunities in a new academic environment (Rosenstreich et al., 2015) and on the other hand, college students, besides their commitments and responsibilities for the family while doing undergraduate education, are forced to manage several stressful situations and academic demands (e.g., class assignments, examinations, and evaluations) that may let them down and lead to burnout . ...
... A large body of research has focused on the relationship between hope and high school students' academic achievements or children and elementary school students. There exist other studies which addressed college and university students' academic hope (Day et al., 2010;Ebrahimi, Sabaghian, & Abolghasemi, 2011;Ghadampour et al., 2018;Kali Soyer & Kirikkanat, 2019;Rosenstreich, et al., 2015). Most of these studies focused just on undergraduate students and ignored to compare the hope level of these students from freshman to senior or compare their hope level with those of postgraduate students. ...
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This study aimed to measure the hope level of Iranian English-major students and also to find out if their gender, academic degree, years spent in a program, and GPA were associated with their hope level. To reach these aims, the Integrative Hope Scale developed by Sharpe, McElheran, and Whelton (2017) was modified, checked for validity, and piloted. Then, it was distributed among 206 English-major students doing their BA, MA, and PhD in different universities of Iran, chosen through random and snowball sampling. The analysis of the data through non-parametric tests showed that although undergraduate and postgraduate students enjoyed a higher level of hope, there was no significant difference in the students' hope level based on their academic degree. Furthermore, no significant relationship was found between students' levels of hope, on the one hand, and their GPA and the number of years spent in a program, on the other hand. However, there was a significant difference between male and female students, with males having a higher level of hope.
... 824). Other researchers (Day, Hanson, Maltby, Proctor, & Wood, 2010) assert that when students feel as if they are in control and making progress toward their goals, their feelings of hope and academic performance rise accordingly. Liz Day and her colleagues (2010) demonstrated that the trait of hope uniquely predicted academic performance among a sample of college students, even when controlling for levels of intelligence and previous levels of academic success. ...
... For today's college students, remaining hopeful can be a challenge. Indeed, some (Day et al., 2010) have argued that "hope" is an endangered concept in the evolving notion of the "American dream," as levels of hope have plummeted along with the decline in the economic environment. And while the economy shows signs of improvement, many young people continue to struggle. ...
... To address research question three, a hierarchical regression analysis was conducted for both the THS subscales-agency and pathways-to determine which subscale would be a stronger predictor of a college student's academic achievement. The pathways subscale was the only predictor entered in Model 1, and both the pathways and agency subscales were entered in Model 2. The decision to include pathways first in the model was theory driven, as previous research suggested that the pathways subscale had a greater predicted outcome in academic achievement than the agency subscale (Day et al., 2010). ...
... Trait hope and academic-self efficacy were significantly and positively correlated with academic achievement as measured by self-reported GPA in our study, and academic self-efficacy was a significant mediator in the relationship between agency and academic achievement. Results from our mediation analysis indicate that trait hope may not be as strongly associated with academic achievement as previous research suggested (e.g., Day et al., 2010;Feldman & Kubota, 2015;Gallagher et al., 2017;Snyder et al., 2002Snyder et al., , 2003. Contrary to previous findings , in the present study academic self-efficacy was more strongly correlated than trait hope with academic achievement. ...
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... A range of psychological mechanisms have been found to mediate the effect of life events upon self-report of happiness (Day et al., 2010) such as resilience, coping style, level of affect or capacity for adaptation (Brickman et al., 1978;Luhmann et al., 2012). Cognitive adaptation includes the sets of basic adaptive processes that intervene between stress and its psychological (including the presence of positive affect and negative affect), social and physiological outcomes (Wong and Lim, 2009;Luhmann et al., 2012;Lyubomirsky, 2013). ...
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Whilst the assessment of quality of life (QoL) and well-being has burgeoned in the past 50 years, there still remains relatively little research into its treatment in psychology, in spite of the launching of such approaches as positive psychology to widen the ambit of interventions to promote well-being. We posit that there are a number of outstanding QoL areas that could be integrated into standard therapeutic procedures, and that this would this result in an increase in well-being as a therapeutic outcome. To investigate this an exploratory search of the literature was undertaken of associations between improvements in a life domain and increased well-being or QoL. Ten domains (relationships, work, money, health, and leisure, mindfulness, self-esteem, resolution of past life events, mental style and life management skills) were identified. In view of the substantial evidence of the cumulative impact of these domains upon well-being, it is proposed that conducting a unidimensional clinical intervention that focuses only on the presenting issue is not sufficient. Implications and possible therapeutic pathways are discussed and it is recommended that practitioners include such QoL domains in their assessment, case formulation, and intervention planning.
... W wielu przypadkach stanowiły znaczący predyktor ocen szkolnych oraz podstawę selekcji na późniejszych etapach edukacji (Brody, 2000;Zeidner, Matthews, 2000). Badania wskazują bowiem, że poziom intelektualny pozwala w znaczącym stopniu przewidywać osiągnięcia w nauce na wszystkich etapach kształcenia -począwszy od szkoły podstawowej (Bachman, Sines, Watson, Laver, Clarke, 1986;Fischbach, Baudson, Preckel, Martin, Brunner, 2013;Preckel, Brüll, 2010), przez szkołę średnią (Bipp, Steinmayr, Spinath, 2012;Di Fabio, Palazzeschi, 2009;Downey, Lomas, Billings, Hansen, Stough, 2013;Duckworth, Quinn, Tsukayama, 2012;Heaven, Ciarrochi, 2012;Hintsanen i in., 2012;Kessels, Steinmayr, 2013;Moenikia, Zahed-Babelan, 2010;Mõttus, Guljajev Allik, Laidra, Pullmann, 2012;Rosander, Bäckström, 2012;Rosander, Bäckström, Stenberg, 2011;Sharma, Rao, 1983;Vecchione, Alessandri, Marsicano, 2014), aż po zależności widoczne również na etapie studiów wyższych (Chamorro--Premuzic, Day, Hanson, Maltby, Proctor, Wood, 2010;Dollinger, Matyja, Huber, 2008;Fischer, Schult, Hell, 2013;Kuncel, Hezlett, Ones, 2001;Vecchione, Alessandri, Marsicano, 2014;Willingham, 1974). Stąd też wielu badaczy wskazuje, że do tej pory to właśnie inteligencja stanowi najlepiej opisany predyktor osiągnięć szkolnych i naukowych (Elshout, Veenman, 1992;Neisser i in., 1996;Sternberg, Kaufman, 1998). ...
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