Article

Cash transfers and domestic violence

International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St, NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA. Electronic address: .
Journal of Health Economics (Impact Factor: 2.58). 11/2012; 32(1):304-319. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2012.11.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's.

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Available from: Lia C H Fernald, May 03, 2014
    • "A per protocol analysis suggests that the combined program reduced IPV by more than half and improved partner relations; a secondary analysis shows that microfinance alone has little effect on norms or IPV (Kim et al., 2009). More recent studies of cash transfer programs in Mexico and Peru offer mixed results (Angelucci, 2008; Bobonis et al., 2013; Hidrobo and Fernald, 2013). Unconditional cash transfers in Kenya and Ecuador show significant reductions in IPV (Haushofer and Shapiro, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence is widespread and represents an obstacle to human freedom and a significant public health concern. Poverty alleviation programs and efforts to economically "empower" women have become popular policy options, but theory and empirical evidence are mixed on the relationship between women's empowerment and the experience of violence. We study the effects of a successful poverty alleviation program on women's empowerment and intimate partner relations and violence from 2009 to 2011. In the first experiment, a cluster-randomized superiority trial, 15 marginalized people (86% women) were identified in each of 120 villages (n = 1800) in Gulu and Kitgum districts in Uganda. Half of villages were randomly assigned via public lottery to immediate treatment: five days of business training, $150, and supervision and advising. We examine intent-to-treat estimates of program impact and heterogeneity in treatment effects by initial quality of partner relations. 16 months after the initial grants, the program doubled business ownership and incomes (p < 0.01); we show that the effect on monthly income, however, is moderated by initial quality of intimate partner relations. We also find small increases in marital control (p < 0.05), self-reported autonomy (p < 0.10), and quality of partner relations (p < 0.01), but essentially no change in intimate partner violence. In a second experiment, we study the impact of a low-cost attempt to include household partners (often husbands) in the process. Participants from the 60 waitlist villages (n = 904) were randomly assigned to participate in the program as individuals or with a household partner. We observe small, non-significant decreases in abuse and marital control and large increases in the quality of relationships (p < 0.05), but no effects on women's attitudes toward gender norms and a non-significant reduction in autonomy. Involving men and changing framing to promote more inclusive programming can improve relationships, but may not change gender attitudes or increase business success. Increasing women's earnings has no effect on intimate partner violence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Social Science [?] Medicine
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    • "There are a few studies using randomized control trials with various policy interventions that improve women's barganing power such as conditional or unconditional cash transfers (e.g. Hidrobo and Fernald (2013), Angelucci (2008), Bobonis and Castro (2010) and Bobonis, Gonzalez and Castro (2013) and Perova et al.), microfinance and training programs (e.g. Pronyk et al. (2006) and Bandiera et al. (2014)) where most of these policies are negatively associated with domestic violence except for the important short-run and long-run separation as in Bobonis et al. (2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we focus on the nexus between education, labor supply and domes-tic violence using household-level data from Turkey in late 2000s. The motivation behind our paper is twofold. First, domestic violence, is highly prevalent and visible even in public domain. Second, we are interested in identifying the causal relation-ship between labor supply and domestic violence exploiting the Basic Education Reform of 1998 which effectively increased compulsory education from 5 to 8 years. Under a three stage recursive LIML estimation using a conditioned mixed process approach, we find (i) women employment seems to have no impact on physical, psychological and sexual violence, (ii) women's employment however seems to be decreasing economic violence by almost 12 percentage points and (iii) education, measured in years of schooling, seems to have no impact on all four types of violence. The main policy implication is that in a muslim society like Turkey, the general notion that women's empowerment through labour force participation and education will automatically improve women's rights and status both within the household and in the society at large may not be true. However the mitigating impact of female em-ploymen on economic violence does suggest that increased women's empowerment through labour force participation significantly improves her control over household resources. To our knowledge the paper is a first detailed attempt to study the linkage between women empowerment (through employment and education) and different forms of Domestic Violence in Turkey.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    • "There are a few studies using randomized control trials with various policy interventions that improve women's barganing power such as conditional or unconditional cash transfers (e.g. Hidrobo and Fernald (2013), Angelucci (2008), Bobonis and Castro (2010) and Bobonis, Gonzalez and Castro (2013) and Perova et al.), microfinance and training programs (e.g. Pronyk et al. (2006) and Bandiera et al. (2014)) where most of these policies are negatively associated with domestic violence except for the important short-run and long-run separation as in Bobonis et al. (2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we focus on the nexus between education, labor supply and domestic violence using household-level data from Turkey in late 2000s. The motivation behind our paper is twofold. First, domestic violence, is highly prevalent and visible even in public domain. Second, we are interested in identifying the causal relationship between labor supply and domestic violence exploiting the Basic Education Reform of 1998 which effectively increased compulsory education from 5 to 8 years. Under a three stage recursive LIML estimation using a conditioned mixed process approach, we find (i) women employment seems to have no impact on physical, psychological and sexual violence, (ii) women's employment however seems to be decreasing economic violence by almost 12 percentage points and (iii) education, measured in years of schooling, seems to have no impact on all four types of violence. The main policy implication is that in a muslim society like Turkey, the general notion that women's empowerment through labour force participation and education will automatically improve women's rights and status both within the household and in the society at large may not be true. However the mitigating impact of female em-ploymen on economic violence does suggest that increased women's empowerment through labour force participation significantly improves her control over household resources. To our knowledge the paper is a first detailed attempt to study the linkage between women empowerment (through employment and education) and different forms of Domestic Violence in Turkey.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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