Cash Transfers and Domestic Violence

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Health Economics 32(1):304-319 · November 2012with257 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2012.11.002 · Source: PubMed
Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's.


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Available from: Lia C H Fernald, May 03, 2014
    • "This finding might be the result of long periods of exposure of the Iraqi population to wars and widespread violence, [23,24] and death, the majority of which were of men. [13] The prevalence of emotional abuse (38.7%), physical abuse (33.5%) and exposure of mother or a household member to violence through verbal (46.9%) or physical punishment (33.1%) was higher than what was reported in ACE study of USA population (10.6%), (28.3%) and (12.7) respectively [25] and is lower than what was reported in Albania, [26] in Peru and in Bangladesh. [27] These differences might be attributed such differences in culture as the level of education, personality types, economic status, presence or absence of facilities in addition to differences in the methodology of the researches. Community violence exposure: The most common traumatic event of exposure to community violence reported by the participants was seeing or hearing someone being beaten up in real life. "
    [Show description] [Hide description] DESCRIPTION: Effect of childhood experiences on physical health
    File · Research · Feb 2016 · Child abuse & neglect
    • "Among economic interventions , WINGS, which included cash transfers and microenterprise training in post-conflict Uganda, was associated with decreased odds of controlling behaviors compared to waitlist control [27]. BDH, which analyzed the national unconditional cash transfer program in Ecuador, was associated with decreased odds of controlling behaviors in the full sample [29]. Among social interventions, a participatory gender learning program in China was associated with decreased psychological and physical or psychological IPV perpetration among workers and students at follow-up [39] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Despite growing attention to intimate partner violence (IPV) globally, systematic evaluation of evidence for IPV prevention remains limited. This particularly is true in relation to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where researchers often organize evidence by current interventions strategies rather than comprehensive models of IPV. Applying the concept of structural interventions to IPV, we systematically reviewed the quantitative impact of such interventions for prevention of male-to-female IPV in LMIC in order to (a) highlight current opportunities for IPV research and programming and (b) demonstrate how structural interventions may provide an organizing framework through which to build an evidence base for IPV prevention. Methods We identified articles by systematically searching PubMed and Web of Science, reviewing references of selected studies, and contacting 23 experts. Inclusion criteria included original research, written in English, published between January 2000 and May 2015 in the peer-reviewed literature. Studies evaluated the quantitative impact of structural interventions for the prevention of male-to-female IPV in LMIC through (a) IPV incidence or prevalence or (b) secondary outcomes theoretically linked to IPV by study authors. After initial screening, we evaluated full text articles for inclusion and extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes, and risk of bias, using forms developed for the review. Results Twenty articles (16 studies) from nine countries met inclusion criteria, representing 13 randomized control trials and seven additional studies, all of which reported results from economic, social, or combined economic and social interventions. Standardized at p < 0.05 or 95 % confidence intervals not including unity, 13 studies demonstrated statistically significant effects for at least one primary or secondary outcome, including decreased IPV and controlling behaviors; improved economic wellbeing; enhanced relationship quality, empowerment, or social capital; reduced acceptability of IPV; new help seeking behaviors; and more equitable gender norms. Risk of bias, however, varied in meaningful ways. Conclusions Our findings support the potential effectiveness of structural interventions for IPV prevention. Structural interventions, as an organizing framework, may advance IPV prevention by consolidating available evidence; highlighting opportunities to assess a broader range of interventions, including politico-legal and physical approaches; and emphasizing opportunities to improve evaluation of such interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "There is a growing evidence base that cash transfers can reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents (Baird, Chirwa, McIntosh, & Özler, 2010; Pettifor, MacPhail, Nguyen, & Rosenberg, 2012; Rosenberg, Pettifor, Thirumurthy, Halpern, & Handa, 2014). To date, we know of no published studies that have examined their impact on sexual violence among this population specifically, 1 however the evidence among older cohorts generally suggests a protective effect against intimate partner violence (not strictly defined as sexual IPV) (Angelucci, 2008; Hidrobo & Fernald, 2013; Hidrobo, Peterman, & Heise, 2013). In addition to the economic insecurity pathway, many other alternatives exist and warrant investigation: girls who lack a father's presence may exhibit greater dependence on other male relatives (leaving them more vulnerable to abuse) or may seek out unhealthy partnerships with older men. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are compelling reasons to believe that orphans - many millions due to the AIDS epidemic - are more likely to be sexually victimized during childhood. Few studies have empirically investigated sexual violence disparities, and those that do suffer from methodological limitations and limited geographic scope. We used nationally representative data on female adolescents (15-17 years) from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We built multilevel logistic models to test for an association between the dependent variables (orphanhood and parental absence) and sexual violence, both within countries and pooled across all countries. Approximately 10% of adolescent girls reported past experiences of sexual violence; a third of those victimized were 14 years or younger at the time of their first forced encounter. Paternal orphaning (OR 1.36, p≤0.01), double orphaning (OR 1.47, p≤0.05), and paternal absence (OR 1.28; p≤0.05) were significantly associated with experiencing sexual violence in pooled analyses. Fewer findings reached significance within individual countries. Our findings suggest that the lack of a father in the home (due to death or absence) places girls at heightened risk for childhood sexual abuse; further research identifying pathways of vulnerability and resilience specific to this population is needed. Our findings also indicate that abuse often starts at an early age; thus promising programs should be adapted for younger age groups and rigorously tested.
    Article · Nov 2015
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