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Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.
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DOI: 10.1126/science.1226727
, 1481 (2012);338 Science
et al.Yves Basset
Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest
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Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest
Yves Basset,
Lukas Cizek,
Philippe Cuénoud,
Raphael K. Didham,
François Guilhaumon,
Olivier Missa,
Vojtech Novotny,
Frode Ødegaard,
Tomas Roslin,
rgen Schmidl,
Alexey K. Tishechkin,
Neville N. Winchester,
David W. Roubik,
Henri-Pierre Aberlenc,
Johannes Bail,
ctor Barrios,
Jon R. Bridle,
Gabriela Castaño-Meneses,
Bruno Corbara,
Gianfranco Curletti,
Wesley Duarte da Rocha,
Domir De Bakker,
Alain Dejean,
Laura L. Fagan,
Andreas Floren,
Roger L. Kitching,
Enrique Medianero,
Scott E. Miller,
Evandro Gama de Oliveira,
me Orivel,
Marc Pollet,
Mathieu Rapp,
rvio P. Ribeiro,
Yves Roisin,
Jesper B. Schmidt,
Line Sørens en,
Maurice Leponce
Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is
still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in
a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the
phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest,
Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species
richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve
most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of
the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the
accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This
lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.
ost eukaryote species are terrestrial
arthropods (1), and most terrestrial
arthropods occur in tropical rainforests
(2). However, considerably greater sampling
effort is required in tropical arthropod surveys
to yield realistic estimates of global species
richness (37). A basic hindrance to estimat-
ing global biodiversity lies in a lack of empir-
ical data that establish local biodiversity, which
can be scaled up to achieve a global estimate.
Although many studies reported species richness
for selected groups of well-studied insect taxa,
no satisfactory estimate of total arthropod species
richness exists for a single tropical rainforest lo-
cation to date.
The unstructured collection and small-scale
survey of tropical arthropods cannot yield con-
vincing estimates of total species richness at a
specific forest (79). Most studies either target
few arthropod orders or trophic guilds, or use a
limited array of sampling methods, or ignore the
diverse upper canopy regions of tropical forests
(1015 ). Moreover , sampling protocols have
rarely been structured in such a way that, with
increased sampling, incomplete data on local
diversity (7) can be extrapolated to estimate total
species richness across multiple spatial scales
(16). Where such structured estimates are made,
it is invariably for insect herbivores on their host
plants (5). However, species accumulation rates
may differ markedly for nonherbivore guilds,
which include more than half of all described
arthropod species (1, 17). As the degree of host
specificity (effective specialization) of other guilds
can be much lower than that of insect herbivores,
or may be driven by different factors (18, 19),
global estimates based on herbivores alone are
questionable. Consequently , extensive cross-taxon
surveys with structured protocols at reference
sites may be the only effective approach toward
estimating total arthropod species richness in
tropical forests (3).
To provide a comprehensive estimate of total
arthropod species richness in a tropical rainforest,
we established a collaboration involving 102 re-
searchers with expertise encompassing the full
breadth of phylogenies and feeding modes present
among arthropods (20). This consortium invested
a total of 24,354 trap- (or person-) days sam-
pling the San Lorenzo forest (SLPA) in Panama
using structured protocols (fig. S1). We identified
129,494 arthropods representing 6144 focal spe-
cies (Fig. 1 and table S1) from 0.48 ha of inten-
sively sampled mature forest. This allowed us to
extrapolate focal arthropod species richness to
a larger forest area with unprecedented power,
through a series of best-informed species richness
estimates derived from six competing models for
each of 18 focal data sets. Using taxon ratios to
estimate the species richness of nonfocal taxa
[see Extrapolating results to nonfocal taxa in
materials and methods (20)], we then predicted
the total species richness of the study area. We
also evaluated differences in relative species ac-
cumulation rates among arthropod guilds, across
spatial scales.
Although individual estimators adjusting for
different aspects of sampling design offered slight-
ly different estimates (Fig. 1B), the total spe-
cies richness for the entire San Lorenzo forest
(~6000 ha) was consistently quantified at be-
tween 18,000 and 44,000 species (including focal
and nonfocal species). In particular, the most like-
ly lower bound of species richness was estimated
to be at least 21,833 species [95% confidence
level (CL) = 18,665, 29,420; model a1 in Fig.
1B], and the biologically and statistically best-
supported estimate of richness (criteria outlined
in table S2) was 25,246 species (95% CL =
19,721, 33,181, model B+S in Fig. 1B). Accord-
ing to our estimates, a single hectare of rain-
forest will be inhabited by an average of 18,439
species (95% CL = 17,234, 18,575; Fig. 2B).
A relatively large proportion of the expected
species richness of the forest was recovered for
most of our focal taxonomic groups (Fig. 2). For
example, high proportions of all ant species and
of the parasitoid species targeted in our study
were collected from our 12 sites, whereas fungal
feeders would require more intensive sampling
to achieve adequate coverage (Fig. 2). Beta di-
versity of all arthropods (in the broad sense of
species turnover among sites) increased roughly
linearly with cumulative area surveyed (F
2422.5, P < 0.001). With increasing sampling
effort, sample coverage [an unbiased measure of
sample completeness, see (20)] was high and ac-
cumulated at significantly different rates across
different arthropod orders and guilds, and across
the various guilds comprised by beetles (Fig. 3).
However , despite the high sample coverage val-
ues, we cannot discount the possibility that there
were some vanishingly rare species that may not
have been discovered with the sampling proto-
cols used in this study.
Despite idiosyncrasies in the rate of increase
in sample completeness across insects groups,
the high proportion of overall species richness
detected at small spatial scales (Figs. 2 and 3)
has a remarkable consequence. Based on a gen-
eral relationship between species numbers and
of all species in SLPA occur in a single hectare
of rainforest (Fig. 2). Our plant models predicted
total arthropod richness in the San Lorenzo forest
to a precision of 1% (correlation between rich-
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Re-
public of Panama.
University of South Bohemia, 370 05
Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
Universidad de Panamá,
Panama City, Republic of Panama.
Czech Academy of Sciences,
370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
Muséum dhistoire
naturelle de la Ville de Genève, 1208 Genève, Switzerland.
The University of Western Australia and CSIRO Ecosystem Sci-
ences, 6009 Perth, Australia.
Catedra Rui Nabeiro, Universidade
de Évora, 7004-516 Évora, Portugal.
University of York,York
YO10 5DD, UK.
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, 7485
Trondheim, Norway.
University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki,
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen,
German y.
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa
Barbara, CA 93105, USA.
University of Victoria, Victoria, BC
V8W 2Y2, Canada.
Cirad, 34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.
University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UD, UK.
Nacional Autónoma de xico, xico 0510 DF, xico.
versité Blaise Pascal, 63000 Cl ermont-Ferrand, Fran ce.
Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, 10022 Carmagnola, Italy.
Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau, 45600-000, Itabuna, and
Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, 45662-900 Ilhéus-Bahia,
Institut Royal des SciencesNaturelles de Belgique, 1000
Brussels, Belgium.
University of Toulouse III, 31062 Toulouse,
Universität rzburg, 97070 rzburg, Germany.
Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111, Australia.
Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20008, USA.
Centro Universitário UNA, 30350-540 Belo Horizonte-MG,
CNRS, 97379 Kourou, France.
Research Institute for
Nature and Forest, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.
Muséum dhi stoire
naturelle, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Universidade Fed-
eral de Ouro Preto, 35400-000 Ouro Preto-MG, Brazil and
Universidade dos ores, 9700-851 Terceira, Portuga l.
versité Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
History Museum of Denmark, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: SCIENCE VOL 338 14 DECEMBER 2012 1481
on December 13, 2012www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
ness estimates provided by the plant model and
best estimates: r = 0.992, P < 0.0001, N = 18;
Fig. 1C). Notably, small discrepancies between
observed arthropod species richness and esti-
mates derived from floristic diversity appeared
not to be scale-dependent (Fig. 1D). Hence, even
for arthropod guilds other than herbivores, plant
diversity seems a powerful predictor of species
richness across areas varying in size (at least
within the limits of our study design and given
the limited heterogeneity of the study area com-
pared to larger geographical scales).
Because this study targeted the full spectrum
of arthropods, it offers a comprehensive test of
previous estimates of species richness based only
on selected guilds or taxa. Reassuringly , our well-
resolved estimates of tropical arthropod species
richness are of the same order of magnitude as
prior estimates (table S3), adding credence to
recent estimates of tropical arthropod diversity
(5, 21). Although the scope for direct compar-
ison is limited because of regional differences in
sampling effort, lowland tropical forest in Panama
seems to support 2.1 to 8.4 times as many ar-
thropod species as observed in temperate forests
(table S3). While this supports the obvious truism
that tropical arthropods are indeed more diverse
than their temperate counterparts (22), the mag-
nitude of that difference is far lower than many
previous estimates would suggest (2).
Fig. 1. Number of arthropod species estimated at SLPA (20). (A)Numberof
species (closed bars, log scale) and individuals (open bars, log scale) collected
in 0.48 ha for each data set (three-letter guild code as in table S1) and number
of species estimated in SLPA (best estimate, shaded boxes). Numbers above
bars identify the best model used for calculation (a1 to a6, fig. S2) and the
percentage of singletons. (B) Number of arthropod species estimated for SLPA
(dots: all focal taxa; shaded boxes: focal and nonfocal taxa; table S4), as
estimated by different methods: B+S: best estimates, including both biological
and statistical arguments (table S2); B+Sloc: same as B+S but estimates
calculated with local instead of global ratios (fig. S3); S: best estimates, in-
cluding only statistical arguments; and models a1 to a5. ?: optimization al-
gorithms did not converge to allow calculations of CL. Our estimates are robust
to even moderate to large shifts in taxon ratios (table S5). (C)Plotofthe
number of species estimated in SLPA with the plant model against that es-
timated with the best model, for each data set. Line denotes unity. (D)Plotof
the percentage error between all arthropod species observed and estimated by
the plant model against cumulative number of sites. Shaded boxes indicate
means and 95% CL.
on December 13, 2012www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
The implications of the results observed on
a local scale are clear. For every species in the
well-known vascular flora (1294 species), avifauna
(306 species), and mammalian fauna (81 species)
of SLPA, we estimate that there will be a mini-
mum of 17, 71, and 270 arthropod species, re-
spectively (based on lower bound of species
richness) and most likely as high as 20, 83, and
312 arthropod species, respectively (table S3).
Based on the dominance of arthropod species
in the tropical fauna (table S3), we may then ar-
gue that conservation planning for biodiversity
should be largely determined by the spatial scaling
of arthropod diversity . In this context, the asso-
ciation between the species richness of plants and
arthropods detected across spatial scales suggests
that conservation efforts targeted at floristically
diverse sites may also serve to conserve arthro-
pod diversity across both taxonomic lineages
and trophic guilds. As arthropods are notoriously
labor-intensive to survey, such an umbrella ap-
proach may be an efficient way forward.
Nonetheless, our findings also suggest that
large-scale, region-wide understanding of trop-
ical arthropod richness may actually be more
achievable than previously assumed. Our data
indicate that a thorough sampling of 1 ha of rain-
forest may reveal nearly two-thirds of all ar-
thropod species present in a much larger area
(6000 ha in our case; Fig. 2B), consistent with
Fig. 2. Accumulation of species richness with area at SLPA (20). For all
groups, a high proportion of overall species richness was detected at small
spatial scales. (A) Partitioning of species richness within arthropod guilds
at different spatial scales (a: single site of 0.04 ha; b3: three sites spaced
apart totaling 0.12 ha; b6: six sites totaling 0.24 ha; b12: 12 sites totaling
0.48 ha; bha: 1.0 ha; bSLPA: 6000 ha; means T SEM are shown for a, b3,
and b6). (B) Species-area models for the main arthropod groups and large
data sets (for all arthropods, including nonfocal species, values are indi-
cated but the curve not plotted for the sake of clarity). Each curve is
characterized by its function (Ex, Exponential; Lo, Lomolino; Po, Power; We,
cumulative Weibull), its value for 1 ha (intersection with vertical line,
shaded boxes with mean and 95% CL), and the percentage of the number
of species present in 1 ha relative to the number of species estimated to
occur in SLPA. SCIENCE VOL 338 14 DECEMBER 2012
on December 13, 2012www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
reports of relatively low beta diversity of insect
herbivores in tropical rainforests (23). Hence,
to determine the species diversity of a tropical
rainforest, the total area sampled need not be
overly largeprovided that the sampling design
adequately covers both microhabitats and plant
species. However, this does not imply that most
arthropod species have self-supporting popula-
tions in small forest areas or fragments.
On a global scale, our results have implica-
tions for current estimates of total species rich-
ness, which have been weakened by the lack of
knowledge regarding the strength of association
between vascular plant species and nonherbivore
guilds (5). Based on the close association ob-
served here between floristic diversity and both
herbivore and nonherbivore species richness, we
tentatively conclude that the most recent estimate
of global tropical arthropod species [6.1 million
arthropod species (24)] does not require drastic
correction to account for differential scaling rela-
tionships of nonherbivore taxa. The robust es-
timates of local arthropod diversity derived in our
study thus support previous estimates of global
species richness. They also show how stratified
sampling designs and broad scientific cooper-
ation may be developed to formulate efficient
estimates of tropical arthropod diversity. Similar
initiatives have recently been implemented in
other tropical locations around the world, using
the current template as a foundation (25).
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Acknowledgments: IBISCA-Panama is an initiative of
Pro-Natura International, Océan Vert, the universities Blaise
Pascal and of Panama, and the Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute (STRI), with core funding from SolVin-Solvay SA, STRI,
the United Nations Environment Programme, the Smithsonian
Institution (Walcott Fund), the European Science Foundation,
and the Global Canopy Programme. J. Herrera, E. Andrade,
M. Samaniego, S. J. Wright, N. Baiben, S. Bechet, J. Belleguic,
T. Aubert, K. Jordan, G. Ebersolt, D. Cleyet-Marrel, L. Pyot,
O. Pascal, P. Basset, and E. Bauhaus helped with logistics
in the field. A. Barba, R. Cabrera, A. Cornejo, I. Díaz,
A. F. R. do Carmo, I. C. do Nascimento, E. A. dos Santos,
M. González, A. Hernandez, M. Manumbor, M. Mogia,
S. Pinzón, B. rez, L. S. Ramos-Lacau, and O. Valdez helped
with initial sorting of the arthropod and plant material. Data
(as of 10 May 2012) have been deposited in the Dryad
repository: 3p75.
Supplementary Materials
Materials and Methods
Supplementary Text
Figs. S1 to S3
Tables S1 to S5
References (26151)
29 June 2012; accepted 1 November 2012
Fig. 3. Average sample coverage [TSEM; error bars, see methods (20)] plotted against the cumulative number of sites surveyed, for the main (A)arthropod
guilds and orders and (B) beetle guilds. For the sake of clarity, SEMs are omitted in (A).
on December 13, 2012www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
... The most abundant and diverse clade of animals are those of the phylum Arthropoda and each carries a vast microbiome with it (Ødegaard, 2000;Basset et al., 2012). The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes usually predominate in the arthropod alimentary canal regardless of the different feeding strategies being utilized; however, at the lower taxa levels (i.e., class, order), the bacterial community composition varies widely and are key facilitators of the varied lifestyles of their arthropod hosts (Colman et al., 2012;Yun et al., 2014). ...
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... The specific relationships between plant and insect assemblages are not completely clear. While many studies have demonstrated a correlation between the two variables, it is not entirely understood if that correlation is due to direct interactions between plants and insects, or because of covariance related to temperature, precipitation, altitude, or other factors affecting both assemblages (Koricheva et al. 2000, Axmacher et al. 2009, Santi et al. 2010, Basset et al. 2012, Castagneyrol and Jactel 2012, Zhang et al. 2016, Kemp and Ellis 2017. Insect assemblages may also be determined indirectly by trophic cascades, specifically when predator and parasite richness depends on the richness or density of specialist phytophagous insects and their respective host plants (Siemann et al. 1998, Knops et al. night-flying specimens from throughout a habitat but, due to its long attraction range, can attract insects that may not actually live in the sampled habitat (Venter et al. 2012, Shrestha et al. 2019. ...
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The effects of plants on insects are not completely clear due to potential covariation of weather or location affecting both assemblages. To address this question, plant and insect assemblages were described during summer 2019 and 2020 in two different forest habitats of northern Lower Michigan. The first habitat was a hardwood forest typical of secondary succession in the region. The second was a hydric forest located ~20 m from the hardwood forest which developed after lake sediment was deposited into a 10-ha area in the early 2000s. Reflecting this sediment deposition, soil of the hydric forest had higher water content and organic matter, and was dominated by the plant genera Solidago (Asterales: Asteraceae), Rubus (Rosales: Rosaceae), and Salix (Malpighiales: Salicaceae). In contrast, the hardwood forest had greater inorganic sediment and was dominated by Pteridium (Polypodiales: Dennstaedtiaceae), Carex (Poales: Cyperaceae), and Acer. Nearly 140,000 insect specimens were sampled using pitfall trapping, sweep netting, flight intercept trapping, ultraviolet light trapping, and yellow and blue pan trapping. The first three methods each sampled a unique insect assemblage, whereas the last three overlapped in taxa sampled. Insect assemblages of the two forests were distinct from each other using any of the six methods, with abundance of Pteridium and Salix (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) generally associating with changes in insect composition. A total of 41 insect taxa indicated the hydric forest and 14 indicated the hardwood forest. Insect richness increased with that of plants. These results demonstrate that differences in soil composition and plant assemblages associate with differences in forest insect assemblages, even of forests in very close proximity.
... Life cycles of arthropods are short-term as opposed to those of vertebrates, so they respond rapidly to environmental alterations. This means that their populations are sensitive to short-term variations in climate, vegetation, and land-use management (Dingle 1986;Danks 2006;Missa et al. 2009;Basset et al. 2012). Some authors argue that most of the arthropods are terrestrial insects, and therefore soil dwellers for at least part of their life cycle, accounting for the highest diversity (Giller 1996), although it is believed that the canopy holds the key to the enormous arthropod diversity (Erwin 1988;Stork et al. 1997;Basset 2001). ...
Insect life cycles are short-term and therefore sensitive to immediate changes triggered by climate, vegetation structure, or land use management; hence, the insect populations shape the communities and functional relationships in tropical forests. In this study, we hypothesized that seasonal variations of the dipteran families respond in different ways to changes of weather conditions, thereby affecting their population dynamics. In a one-hectare plot, we surveyed the fly community inhabiting the understory of a Neotropical rainforest. Over a yearly cycle, we used three Malaise traps operated continuously for 365 days and recorded a total of 68,465 fly specimens belonging to 48 families of Diptera, 15 of which were most abundant, accounting for 99.2% of all sampled individuals. The results of the trapping frequency indices (TFIs) exhibited significant population fluctuations in 12 of the 15 most abundant families, which were particularly correlated with temperature or precipitation. Based on such variations, we identified four seasonal patterns as follows: (i) Spring-Autumn bimodal pattern (Cecidomyiidae, Sciaridae, Phoridae, Stratiomyidae); (ii) Spring pattern (Mycetophilidae, Dolichopodidae, Ceratopogonidae); (iii) Autumn pattern (Chironomidae, Psychodidae); (iv) Winter pattern (Empididae, Tipulidae, Ditomyiidae). From a functional perspective, we found the prevalence of families with saprophagous larvae, in addition to phytophagous, fungivores, and predacious. Our results suggest a key role played by the Diptera community on structuring the functional clusters, both in terms of taxonomic composition and on seasonal shifts of abundance, thus influencing the dynamic processes of nutrient cycling in the understory.
... Insects are the largest group of animals, are widely distributed in the world and have a long evolutionary history [1]. The insect gut is the place where various nutrients were determined by moss black phenol colorimetry and anthrone colorimetry, respectively. ...
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Grasshoppers (Insecta, Orthoptera, Acridoidea) are a large group of agricultural and animal husbandry pests. They have a large food intake with high utilization of plants fibers. However, the composition of the grasshopper gut microbial community, especially the relationship between gut microbial community and cellulose digestibility, remains unclear. In this research, 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to determine the intestinal microbial diversity of Acrida cinerea, Trilophidia annulata, Atractomorpha sinensis and Sphingonotus mongolicus, and Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the intestinal microbes of grasshoppers and the digestibility of cellulose and hemicellulose. The results showed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum and Klebsiella was the dominant genus in the guts of the four species of grasshoppers; there was no significant difference in the species composition of the gut microbes of the four species of grasshoppers. Spearman correlation analysis showed that Brevibacterium and Stenotrophomonas were significantly correlated with cellulose digestibility. Brevibacterium, Clavibacter, Microbacterium and Stenotrophomonas were significantly associated with hemicellulose digestibility. Our results confirmed that the gut microbes of grasshoppers were correlated with the digestibility of cellulose and hemicellulose, and indicated that grasshoppers may have the potential to develop into bioreactors, which can be applied to improve straw utilization efficiency in the future.
... producers) can support and promote the taxonomic diversity of higher (consumer) trophic levels (e.g. Basset et al. 2012) and their functional diversity (Ebeling et al., 2018), with consequences for ecosystem functioning (Schuldt et al., 2018). We found that the diversity of producers (lichens) increased abundance at the next trophic levels (micro-arthropods) but the functional diversity of the Collembola communities was generally not affected. ...
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Foundation species provide habitat and modify the availability of resources to other species. In nature, multiple foundation species may occur in mixture, but little is known on how their interactions shape the community assembly of associated species. Lichens provide both structural habitat and resources to a variety of associated organisms and thereby serve as foundation species. In this study, we use mat-forming lichens and their associated micro-arthropods as a miniature ecosystem to study potential synergies between foundation species diversity and the abundance and functional diversity of higher trophic levels. We created lichen patches with monocultures and mixtures of up to four species, and extracted Collembola (identified to species level), Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Pseudoscorpiones, and Araneae with Tullgren apparatuses after 106 days of incubation within a natural lichen mat. We found that different lichen species supported different arthropod abundances. For 19 out of in total 55 lichen mixtures and arthropod groups, we found non-additive, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance, although the specific lichen mixture causing synergistic effects differed per arthropod group. In addition, synergistic effects on arthropod abundance were more common for arthropod groups at lower trophic levels. The functional diversity of lichen mixtures explained patterns in Collembola abundance, but in the opposite direction than hypothesized because synergistic responses were more frequent in functionally similar lichen mixtures. Finally, we found few effects of lichen mixture identity or diversity on the functional diversity of Collembola communities. When applied to large scale ecosystems, our results suggest that understanding interactions between coexisting foundation species and identifying those species that drive synergistic effects of foundation species on consumer biota, is likely to be of importance to biodiversity conservation and restoration efforts.
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Background Fungi associated with insects represent one potentially rich source for the discovery of novel metabolites. However, a comprehensive understanding of the fungal communities of Apis mellifera ligustica remains elusive. Results Here, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity and community composition of honeybee-associated fungi using combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. A total of forty-five fungi were isolated and purified from the Apis mellifera ligustica , royal jelly, and honeycomb, which belonged to four classes and eleven different genera. Furthermore, 28 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained by PCR from the fungal metagenome. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed that the fungal communities were more diverse, a total of 62 fungal genera were detected in the honeybee gut by culture-independent method, whereas only 4 genera were isolated by culture-dependent method. Similarly, 247 fungal genera were detected in the honeycomb, whereas only 4 genera were isolated. In addition, we assessed the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of fungal isolates. Most fungal crude extracts obtained from the cultivation supernatant exhibited antioxidant activities. Only two fungal crude extracts displayed moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . Chemical analysis of Chaetomium subaffine MFFC22 led to the discovery of three known compounds, including cochliodinol ( 1 ), emodin ( 2 ), chrysophanol ( 3 ). Among them, cochliodinol ( 1 ) showed intense DPPH radical scavenging activity with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 3.06 μg/mL, which was comparable to that of the positive ascorbic acid (IC 50 = 2.25 μg/mL). Compound 2 displayed weak inhibitory activities against Micrococcus tetragenus and S. aureus . Conclusions This research provided a fundamental clue for the complex interactions among honeybees, fungi, bacterial symbionts, and the effects on the honeybee. Furthermore, the diversity of honeybee-associated fungi had great potential in finding the resource of new species and antioxidants.
Quarantine insects are economically important pests that frequently invade new habitats. A rapid and accurate monitoring method to trace the geographical source of invaders is needed for prevention, detection, and eradication. Current methods, based on genetics, are usually too slow. We developed a novel tracing method based on insect gut microbiota. The source location of insects gut microbiota can be used to rapidly determine their geographic origin. We analyzed 179 gut microbiota samples belonging to 591 individuals of 22 quarantine insect species collected from 36 regions in China and abroad. The gut microbiotas of these insects mainly included Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. The diversity of the insect gut microbiota was closely related to geographic and environmental factors. Different insect species could be distinguished at the phylum level of microbiota. Populations of individual insect species from different regions could be distinguished at the genus level of microbiota. A method for determining the geographical origin of invasive insect species was established, but its practical applicability requires further study prior to implementation.
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1. The extent to which forest canopies contribute to global biodiversity and the degree of strato-orientation shown by forest insects remain open questions. The vertical distribution of nocturnal flying beetles in tropical rainforest in Sulawesi was examined, and the extent to which stratum preferences occurred, in order to establish the relative importance of the forest canopy in shaping rainforest communities. 2. Samples were collected using actinic light traps set from the high canopy (30 m) to ground level. 11,692 specimens collected over one lunar month were sorted to 701 species within 65 families. The greatest abundance, species richness and diversity were recorded in the canopy, with a decrease in all measures towards the ground. The sample was analysed at family and species level, with correlation analysis showing the greatest number of canopy specialist families and species found in the canopy compared to the ground. 56% of more abundant species showed no stratum preference, and of those species that did, 39% were specific to the canopy and 5% to the ground layer. 3. The structure of samples from each level of the forest showed remarkable uniformity in terms of numbers of singletons and doubletons as a proportion of the total sample. This suggested conformity of species assemblage structure, and underlying processes shaping these assemblages, at different heights. 4. The study was examined in relation to other literature on the vertical distribution of insects in tropical forests. As with other studies, many of the more common species were distributed throughout the forest, although in the present study a significant portion showed stratum preferences, and the majority of these showed strato-orientation to the forest canopy. This work reiterates the need to sample through multiple dimensions in order to accurately measure species richness and diversity in tropical forests and estimate global biodiversity, and the importance of maintaining the dimensional integrity of the forest when conserving rainforest ecosystems. 60
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Sampling of the Arthropoda in a tropical deciduous forest was carried out at Chamela, Mexico. The Collembola community was emphasized because it was the most abundant arthropod group in the samples. Salina banksi (Paronellidae) was the most abundant and constant Collembola species Seasonal variation of the abundance was positively correlated with precipitation and temperature. Canopy and shrub layer from Chamela shared only 12 Collembola species with the leaf litter and soil from the same study area. From reports in the literature, it was determined than Chamelan Collembola are more abundant than elsewhere.